The 22nd amendment

The 22nd Amendment On February 27th, 1951, the 22nd amendment was ratified which made permanent a tradition that has profound influence on the philosophy of government in the United States of America. This amendment may not be the most well known amendment but its place in the fabric of American history cannot be overstated. That is because the 22nd Amendment mandated that… No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. The limitation of service as President of the United States to two terms was one that up until the 22nd amendment was more a matter of custom than law. It began when George Washington refused to run for a third term. But by making the limitation of power in the presidency in the 22nd amendment, the American people made a bold statement about how their government would be run. One of the most unique aspects to how the United States of America organized its government was the concept of citizen rulers. This concept was born in the very halls and pubs where the founding fathers gathered to discuss this new country that was just getting started. By reducing the idea of a “career politician”, especially at the presidential level, the 22nd amendment dealt a deadly blow to the concept that America would ever be ruled by a king or a “president for life.” This was clearly a reaction by America to the abuses that had witnessed by the pilgrims and immigrants that make up this great country in their homelands. They reacted strongly and negatively to the deification of kings and the virtually unlimited powers that too many times systems of royalty tended to give to their leadership. This was one of the central themes that caused so many to flee Europe, Central Asia and other parts of the world to seek a land where it was the people who were the center of the governments will, not the arbitrary ideas of a king who was cut off from the real needs of the people he served. The way America set up its presidency was in every way an attempt to “fix” the flaws and abuses of the European models and refocus the center of power in government on the electorate rather than on the elected. Another aspect of the American federal system that was put in place deliberately to limit the ability of those in power to abuse that power is the system of checks and balances. This system assures that none of the branches of government, The Congress, the Presidency or the Supreme Court could dominate the other or take complete power and rule without challenge. By insuring that all in power had to answer to the opposing party and be prepared to answer to the American people for what they did and even said, this completely eliminated that chances that one part of the government would stage a “coup” over the other. Accountability is a word that is not very exciting but it is the concept that has kept the American system of government healthy and in service to its people rather than putting them in service for over 200 years. In addition to these several highly innovative methods the founding fathers gave to this young country to eliminate the abuses of past governmental systems, they also put a system in place that assured the orderly transition of power. The system of elections every two years stopped two evils, the occurrence of a politician who served for life without accountability and a system wherein the only way to loose your job in government was by violent overthrow. As a result the American system, albeit contentious and argumentative, has been and continues to be one of the most peaceful and orderly systems of federal administration in the world and indeed in the history of the world. PPPPP 688



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The painter s brush

The brush of a painter is an important tool through which the artist wields his power and expresses his emotions. The canvass, the oil, and all the other painting media are important too, but these leave the artist when the work is done. Only the paint brushes stay, faithful and willing to participate in the making of the next masterpiece. Painters need two kinds of brushes. One is stiff and the other is soft. A painter usually has a range of sizes for both types of brushes.

The stiff brushes are used for the majority of painting tasks and it comes in three shapes: the round, the flat and the filbert. For all ye art beginners, filbert is a shape that is rounded at the base and tapers to a point at the tip. Stiff brushes are made of hog bristles but there are also synthetic bristles available that can make acceptable results. Naturally, many painters prefer the genuine article. The soft brushes are used for putting in fine details. Painters agree that the best soft brushes are the ones made of sable.

Since sable brushes are expensive, there are substitutes available. But the brush strokes made using these replacements are not as good as the ones made by the sable-made soft brush. There is also a kind of brush made of either sable or hog hair. It is called a fan-head brush and it is needed to seamlessly blend paint on the canvas. We have heard of painters not taking a bath during a painting marathon, and there are painters known for having chaotic studios. But many painters like to be organized and the most cared for of their tools are the brushes. Besides, many painters believe, though no scientific data supports this, that used but well cared-for brushes perform better than new ones. The first rule in caring for paint brushes is to never use them to mix paint.

There are painting knives to do this task. Another important thing to remember is to never stand the brushes, especially the soft ones, with the point down in the jar. Those expensive hair or bristles are sensitive and may be bent permanently. When a painter mentors you to place just the right amount of paint on the brush, he wasn’t thinking about saving the paint. He was trying to save the brush. Too much paint on it will clog the ferrules, the part that holds the hair or bristles together. If clogged, you have to clean it and cannot avoid parting the hairs.

If done too often, the brush ultimately become useless. Lastly, brushes should be cleaned as soon as you are done using them. You may use turpentine with soap and water. For soft brushes, these can be dipped in milk and allowed to dry for a couple of days. Remember to keep the tips up.



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Saturn sky sneak peek

Somebody at General Motors must love Saturn. One hundred year old Oldsmobile was killed off in favor of bringing the Saturn brand in-house. Up until the early part of this decade, Saturn was a separate automaker, wholly owned by GM. Now, as a bonafide GM division, the Saturn line is finally getting some much needed new models including the Sky roadster, the focus of this preview. In the early 1990s, dent resistant polymer cars with the “S” designation began to roll of a factory line of a new plant located in Spring Hill, Tennessee. Several things were unusual about the project. The first was the company: Saturn. As a wholly owned but separately managed GM company, the Saturn initially escaped GM’s often overbearing culture and began to produce cars on its own far removed from Detroit. The second unusual point about the company was the cars itself: compact, import-fighting models designed to withstand the onslaught from Japan of low priced, high quality cars. Available in coupe, sedan, and wagon the cars quickly caught on in part for their engineering as well as for their “no hassle, no haggle” pricing. The sticker price on the car was the price customers paid, making a visit to the Saturn show room a pleasure and not a chore.

As time has passed, the S series grew old and was replaced by the compact ION series. In addition, a midsized sedan and wagon, the L series, briefly served as the “larger” car in Saturn’s extremely limited line up beginning in the late 1990s. The L series, based on an Opel platform, was retired in 2004 and replaced by a 7 passenger crossover vehicle, the RELAY. In addition, Saturn had introduced an SUV, the VUE, which is still in production today. All of this translates into a limited line up, too limited in fact to compete successfully with other car lines. Enter the Saturn Sky. The Saturn Sky, much like the already introduced Pontiac Solstice is a two seat roadster. Based on GM’s new Delta series platform, the Sky, which will officially make its debut next spring as a 2007 model does something that no other Saturn has ever done: generate excitement. Similar in size and looks to Honda’s S2000 Roadster, the Sky will come equipped with 18 inch alloy wheels, a manually operated soft top, a reverse opening clamshell hood, leather bucket seats, and four wheel anti-locking brakes. Standard engine will be a 2.4 170hp I4 paired with either a 5 speed manual or 5 speed automatic transmission. Prices for the new Sky should come in at several thousand dollars higher than the Pontiac Solstice as the Sky is targeted and equipped slightly upmarket. MSRP starting around 25 thousand dollars is likely; only 10-12,000 models will be produced annually. Other models are being planned for Saturn, but the Sky represents a fresh departure from what has long been perceived by many as a staid moniker. Judging by many published reports, the Sky is a step in the right direction and we can only hope that the other new models planned for Saturn generate at least half the hype of the Sky.



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Mazda rx 7 legendary mythical

A legend of a sports car. The Mazda RX 7 had its humble beginnings going back to the year 1978. This vehicle may be that popular for most people around the world. This is certainly because the Mazda RX 7 has been known for various names around the world. In fact, the very same vehicle is also known as the Mazda Savanna and also as the Efini RX 7. The name Mazda Savanna was actually used in Japan. Certainly, the Mazda RX 7 has become a legend and a myth in itself because of the power, performance, and delivery that it is capable of. Proof of that is its being included in the Car and Driver magazine’s Ten Best list for a total of five times in its lifetime.

Behind the design, styling, and specified features and details, the Mazda RX 7 actually was first thought and designed as an affordable vehicle that would be able to compete with the biggest names in the affordable sports car segment. It has been destined to compete with the Datsun / Nissan 280Z. Inspiration for styling and design of the Mazda RX 7 came from the Lotus Elan 2 + 2. Upon production, the Mazda RX 7 came featuring and holding a unique twin rotor Wankel rotary engine. It also was a proud owner of a sporty front midship and rear wheel drive layout. This has made this sports car well balanced and very much appropriate for doing great speeds and competing in races. One could say that the Mazda RX 7 was a direct replacement for the Mazda RX 3. Although this was so, both of these vehicles were known as the Mazda Savanna in Japan.

Later on, the Mazda RX 7 then took over and replaced all the other rotary cars from the automobile company with the exception though of the Mazda Cosmo. Many followers of this vehicle point out that this vehicle has certainly been a vehicle that held a true sports coupe design compared to other sports cars like the Triumph TR 6 or other sedans that try to look like sports cars but just fail to do so. This vehicle, the Mazda RX 7, has come a long way since its introduction in the United States and the rest of North America. For all of your Mazda RX 7 parts and all other Mazda parts needs, you can actually browse through one of the largest Mazda parts suppliers in the United States – Mazda Parts and Mazda Auto Parts. Here you can find quite a collection of Mazda a/c condensers, alternators, front bumpers, rear bumpers, carpets, catalytic converters, radiators, spoilers, starters, and wheels among many others. http:// centerautoparts. com also has a friendly and accommodating customer service staff who are ready to lend you a hand regarding your most demanding Mazda parts inquiries and questions.



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5 ways auto navigation systems and gps technology improve lives

5 Ways Auto Navigation Systems and GPS Technology Improve Lives Global positioning technology is used in most of today's GPS and auto navigation systems. The truth of the matter is that this technology while once reserved for the wealthy is now trickling into mainstream America. We are seeing this technology in cell phones in order to assist with 911 calls. We are seeing this technology in automobiles in order to track and possibly retrieve them if they are stolen. We are also seeing this technology used to help lost animals find their way back to the homes of their families. The truth of the matter is that there are many ways in which GPS technology is currently making our lives easier. Below you will find a great number of uses for GPS and auto navigation system technology that currently exist. Even more amazing is the fact that new discoveries for these technologies are being made every day and over time there will be an even greater variety of methods to utilize this technology for the benefit of society. 1) Keep track of teens and children by using services such as uLocate Communications. This technology allows you to track members of your family by their cell phones. With the click of a button on your cell phone or simply tracking from home via the Internet you can find all members of your family that are carrying their cell phones. The benefits of this feature to your peace of mind alone are well worth the monthly subscription fee, which can be as low of $4 a month depending on which service you choose. 2) Keeping track of the elderly. This is especially useful if you have a loved one that suffers from Alzheimer's or some other form of dementia. Technologies are improving continuously and will hopefully reach a point very soon where ID bracelets much like the medic alert bracelets will allow GPS tracking that is even more reliable for the elderly. The relief of knowing that you can find your loved one even if he or she has wondered off and forgotten how to get home is something that you really can't put a price tag on. 3) Lost pets. I mentioned this earlier but it is worth repeating. The technology exists to have your pets implanted with chips or even to have chips placed in collars that allow you to readily locate your precious pet without spending endless hours of searching and whistling. The real beauty of this is that you won't have to spend hours comforting sad children; you can take them to the computer and let them help you track Fido. 4) Finding shortcuts along your route to work, job interviews, important meetings, conventions, and personal appointments. This is great if you are running into a time crunch or worse need an alternate route as the result of a traffic jam or road closure. 5) GPS technology allows security and safety in many cars that utilize On Star technology as well. This technology cannot only track the location of your car but also be used to call for help in emergency situations. This device is activated by the push of a button and can even be used by small children in emergency situations. There are many great ways that GPS and auto navigation systems and technology are being used each and every day to improve our lives and provide peace of mind. The methods mentioned above are simply icing on the cake. 584



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The distributive justice of the market

"(1) Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive total system of equal basic liberties compatible with a similar system of liberty for all. (2) Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both: (a) to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged, consistent with the just savings principle, and (b) attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity. " John Rawls, "A Theory of Justice", 1971, p.302 Resources are scarce. This is the basic, dismal truth of the dismal science. The second truth is that people consume resources. A basic existential anxiety makes them want more resources than they can consume (the "just in case" principle). This raises the question of fairness, a. k.a. "distributive justice". How should resources be allocated in a manner which will conform to one or more just principles? This apparently simple question raises a host of more complex ones: what constitutes a resource? what is meant by allocation? Who should allocate these resources or should this better be left to some Adam Smithean "invisible hand"? Such an invisible hand (working through the price mechanism) - should its mode of operation be guided by differences in power, in intelligence, in knowledge, in heritage? In other words: what should be the entitlement principle, how can it be determined who is entitled to what? Everything constitutes a resource: income, opportunities, knowledge, brute power, wealth. Everything, therefore, is subject to distribution to individuals (natural persons), groups of people, certain classes. There are many bases for distribution, but the issue is HOW JUST these bases are and how can we ensure that we are distributing resources using a just distribution base. We all face opportunities to acquire resources. In a just society, everyone is granted the same access to these opportunities. Access does not translate into ability to make use of it. Idiosyncrasies and differences between accessees will determine the latter, i. e. the outcome of such access. The ability to use is the bridge between the access and the accumulated resources. Given access and the capacity to utilize it - resources (material goods, knowledge, etc.) will accrue to the user. There is a hidden assumption in all this: that all men are born equal and deserve equal respect and, therefore equal treatment. This is not self evident. It would have been probably hotly disputed by the 16th century aristocracy. As late as 1930, Jose Ortega Y Gasset thought that people should be given access to resources in accordance with their lineage, up bringing and social responsibilities. The mere fact of biological and mental existence does not endow anyone with rights. Should we equally respect the ignorant and the scholar, the criminal and the virtuous, the atheist and the pious, the male and the female, the old and the young - different societies will have different answers. Should the material wealth of these people reflect the different respect that they receive from society, is it the best, most efficacious measure of this respect? Moreover: what index will be used to measure the "equality" between people if an egalitarian view is adopted (everyone should have the same)? Communism (a strict egalitarian idea) foundered exactly on these issues: equal respect and agreed index. It also failed in establishing realistic timeframes. The wish to implement strict egalitarianism here and now transformed communism into the hideous Stalinism that it became. One solution is to specify a "bundle" or "package" of goods, services and intangibles (like information or skills or knowledge). Everyone should have the same bundle and justice will be thus guaranteed. But will justice bring happiness and satisfaction in its wake? Not necessarily. During our life, we construct our own "bundle". It reflects our own preferences, priorities and predilections. None of us will be too happy with a standardized bundle, not selected by us. This is precisely where trade and the market come in. It allows for the exchange of goods and services between holders of identical bundles. If I like books, but detest oranges - I will give my oranges to someone else in return for his books. That way both of us will be better off than under the strict egalitarian version. Two problems become immediately evident: First, there is no guarantee that I will find my match: a person who is interested in swapping his books for my oranges. Granted, the bigger the market, the more likely I am to find my trading partner. Still, illiquid markets or small ones inhibit the scope of these exchanges. The second problem is that both participants still have to agree on an index: how many books will be given in exchange for how many oranges? This is the price of the oranges in terms of books. The problem is not solved - merely simplified - by the introduction of money. Money makes matters more convenient - but it does not eliminate the necessity to negotiate. Market failures abound. In other words: money is NOT an index. It is merely a medium of exchange. The index - AS EXPRESSED IN MONEY - is the underlying agreement regarding the relative values of resources in terms of other resources. Thus, indirectly, trading and the market are instruments of increasing happiness and welfare. The invisible hand is also a just and benevolent one. Money is a medium of exchange which increases happiness because it facilitates exchanges, makes life easier, increases our welfare by allowing us to get exactly what we want. We trade what we do not want, nor need - for what we both want and need. But money is imperfect. As Rawles has demonstrated (1971), it is incomplete when we attempt to measure intangibles and needs to be combined with other measures. For instance, how can we use it to measure opportunities? Some say that all people should have the same resources at some initial point (the "starting gate"). What they do with these resources and how they plunder or increase their wealth is their business. The initial distribution should be equal - the end distribution should depend on the use made of the resources and, ultimately, on the users themselves. More egalitarian thinkers proposed that income should be equal in each time frame. But this raises yet another problem: even if the income is identical, what determines the accumulation of wealth is the USE made of the income. An example: a person who would use up all his income (not to mention borrow against his future income) - will, inevitably, end up poorer than a person who saved some of the money for rainy days. Finally, relative disparities of wealth will emerge. What then? Should the excess wealth be confiscated in order to equalize their positions? Perhaps, a society-wide law should specify how much can be saved and how much must be expended? This would limit freedom, show no respect to people, involve coercion and worse, conflict with what people desire and deserve to have (conflict with free will and free choice or with the freedom of expression as well as with basic rights, like the right to be content). It is better to effect an egalitarian distribution of wealth through taxation and welfare payments. These are redistributive mechanisms which reset the "wealth clock" within every time frame (at the end of every month or fiscal year). Still, is there any moral difference between confiscating and expropriating savings outright - and doing it through elaborate state apparatuses like the tax system? Not really. The anti-tax movements do seem to hold some moral grounds. That part of the tax revenues that is distributed to the less well off could easily be portrayed as punitive: it punishes enterprise, success, entrepreneurship, courage, foresight and many other virtues. Welfare, on the other hand, partly seems to reward dependence and parasitism. We opened this article with Rawles' Difference Principle. For him, all the principles of justice are reducible to principles of distributive or retributive justice. This is far fetched. Many human activities are not income or money dependent. There are inherent inequalities between people which do not allow us to respect them equally. Moreover: what drives humans (and, maximizes the benefits to the least advantaged) is based on conflict and inequality. It is the same as in the physical world. Equality might motivate people in the short term. But than it atrophies and leads to social corruption and death. A useful lesson can be learned from the field of thermodynamics: an inequality of energy is required in order to generate motion and life. As energy dissipates and is equalized (a state of entropy) - all grinds to a halt and death prevails. A moral question does arise regarding natural inequalities. The mentally retarded, the mentally insane, the hemiplegic and quadriplegic, the chronically ill - did not choose to be so. Dworkin (1981) proposed a compensation scheme. First, he postulated a model of fair distribution. In this model, all of us are given the same purchasing power and use it to bid, in a fair auction, for resources that best fit our life plan, goals and preferences. We are then permitted to use these resources as we see fit and although we may end up with disparate economic results, we cannot complain: we were given the same purchasing power and we could have bid for any other resource that we might have needed. Dworkin assumes that prior to the hypothetical auction, people are unaware of their own natural endowments but wish (and are able) to insure against being naturally disadvantaged. Their payments will create an insurance pool to compensate the less fortunate for their misfortune. This scheme is, at best dubious. We are usually very much aware of our natural endowments and of the natural endowments and liabilities of others. Therefore, the demand for insurance is not unanimous and equal amongst us all. Some of us badly need and want it - others not at all. If such insurance were available and were traded between willing buyers and sellers (who willingly forego resources to pay for it) - no moral problem would have arisen. But if such insurance is imposed upon those who do not need it or wish it and covers those who, ab initio, gave up no resources and did not invest work or effort in obtaining it - it is immoral. Such insurance is bought and paid for with a restriction of our freedoms and liberties. This, in effect, is the essence of most of the modern welfare programs. This is not to mention the practical problem of how to measure differences in natural endowments, how to distinguish them from acquired ones and who will determine what should be included in the list of natural disadvantages. This is the philosophical basis of capitalism: that the market is wiser than any of its operators and participants. That humans do not need to bother themselves with constructing patterns of "just" distribution. That the market will reward justly those who deserve it (no matter which criterion for desert is used). Capitalism works, on the whole. Its truth value is substantiated by its continued existence and success. The Libertarians adopted this view of human inability to dispense with justice by establishing a just pattern of distribution. Instead of imposing a pattern on society, they limited themselves to ascertaining that the market players engage in just acquisitions and in just exchanges. The market is just if the exchanges permitted in it are just and just actions always result in just outcomes. Justice is not dependent on a particular distribution pattern, whether as a a starting point, or as an outcome. Robert Nozick proposed his "Entitlement Theory" in 1974 which was based on this approach. Still, one issue remained unresolved: the accumulation of wealth, ownership, why first owners should exclude others from owning the very same thing? What moral right to exclude others is gained from being the first? Nozick advanced the Lockean Proviso: an exclusive acquisition of the outside world is just only if, following it, there is "enough and as good left in common for others". If the position of others is not worsened by the acquisition - then it is morally permissible. But that their situation is not worsened - does not mean that it could not have been better in an alternative situation (distribution). There is no morally plausible and defensible justification of the Lockean Proviso. Exclusive ownership is the result of real-life irreversibility. The first has the advantage of excess information, has invested work, time, effort. All these are irreversible facts leading to an irreversible situation: ownership. The act of owning involves investments and the latter relate to the future. Thus, we encounter another information asymmetry: we know nothing about the future and everything about the past. This asymmetry is known as "investment risk". By taking on investment risk - the first owner attains ownership. Ownership is the compensation for investment risk, setting the asymmetry straight. The situation of the others is ALWAYS worse off by the amount of profits that the owner makes. Profits reflect inherent inefficiency, an intrinsic compensation. There is a law of conservation of benefits, the situation is always win-lose. A product or service could always have been sold to the "others" for a profitless, lower, price, thereby increasing their well-being. If we say, on the other hand, that ownership is the result of adding value to the world, of improving reality - it is only reasonable to expect it to equal all the value added which can be derived presently and in the future. Equipped with this understanding of both our shortcomings (we are unable to construct a just distribution pattern which will also be practicable) and of our abilities (to barter investment risk for exclusive ownership) - we embarked on the long road to mature, full bodied, capitalism. We are still not there: visionaries keep popping up with new just distribution patterns, governments keep intervening, incomes keep being redistributed, ownership keeps being contested. But these are phenomena of the past. As capitalism demonstrates its inexhaustible ability to increase well-being and the inexorability of this trend of increase becomes evident - the more inevitable the outcome.



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Cash flow management

Cash. Most people want more. When running a small business it's particularly important to monitor how cash is coming in and how much cash is going out. This month, I'd like to take a few minutes to share some ideas on cash flow management as in how you can keep more cash in your business for a longer time. 1) Periodically re-evaluate your expenses. If you are anything like me your business changes and shifts every 4-6 months and this prompts a necessary re-evaluation of the products and services you are using to run your business. Where can you save money? Where can you invest more money so you can save time? For some people, this may mean canceling out on certain business expenses that they never fully utilize, or, it may mean hiring out and getting help with some tasks on which you normally spend your own time. Both examples are aspects of improved cash flow management even though one (hiring out) involves spending more money. If you can hire out work at less than your hourly or salary rate you're improving your cash flow because you're creating more space to make more money. 2) Hold off on electronics and other purchases for as long as reasonably possible. I'm not suggesting you suffer or get by with significantly less than you need but the prices on electronics and other goods decline over the months. If you need to invest in a new computer or printer or copier you can save money without sacrificing quality if you can wait a few months to purchase. 3) Use credit responsibly. If you have access to lines of credit you can use these to finance business purchases rather than paying cash outright. This, in many cases, can give you 20-30 extra days on your money enabling you to save or invest it for maximum return. 4) Watch out for hidden fees. Yes, there are some "costs" of doing business. However, at least once every 6 months, review what you're paying for services like office cleaning, credit card transactions, long distance calls, liability insurance, etc. Make sure these costs are not rising faster than they should. It's a good idea to keep track of any long-term contracts or commitments to make sure that you're not being charged too much for standing services. Also, watch out for those policies which automatically renew. 5) Get paid more. Another way to manage your cash flow is to charge more for what you do. Institute planned increases in your payment rates over a year or two. Raising your fees as a cash flow strategy only works, though, if your spending remains less than your earnings. 6) Buy in bulk. This applies to physical products/supplies as well as non-physical ones (such as services). You can often realize a significant cost savings on items bought in bulk especially if you were going to buy them anyway. 7) Keep track of your discounts and other rewards. We are inundated with special offers, promotions and discounts. Use these wherever you can. Just recently, I was able to save a few hundred dollars on items I purchased due to in-store specials and mail in rebates. In a sense, my savings was found money! 8) Give special consideration to your customers who pay early and in full. Customers who routinely pay their bills ahead of time, and who are rewarded for doing so, are more likely to continue this behavior which results in more cash inflow for you. You might, also, offer your customers a discount if they buy in bulk from you. This is a marvelous way to save on the costs of accounts receivable as you generate some fast cash. 9) Invoice before, or soon after, performing a service. Don't wait to send out bills just once every 30 days. This can delay cash inflow for months. If you provide a regular, predictable service, plan to get paid ahead of time. If you must get paid after providing the service plan to send out invoices at least twice per month so you can better manage the inflows and outflows. 10) Invest in the growth of yourself and your business. Spend money to market your business, invest in your own learning and get help as soon as possible. The more you put into your business, in a thoughtful and measured way, the more you will get out of it. © 2004 Dr. Rachna D. Jain. All Rights in All Media Reserved.



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Conference call etiquette you need to know

I have worked for large company for several years and have been on more conference calls, tele-seminars, and tele-training calls than I can remember. Those experiences have led me to develop a list of “Conference Call Tips and Etiquette” that can help make conference calls more pleasant, run smoother, and help avoid embarrassment. I’m sure the list I’ve put together isn’t all inclusive but it does cover the major things I have experienced or learned about during the course of all those calls I’ve been on. -- Find a quiet place. Background noise will be heard on the call and it can be very distracting to other participants. If you are at home and have small children playing nearby or have a noisy dog, try to find the quietest part of your house. The other participants on the call will appreciate it. If it is not possible to be away from the noise, mute your phone whenever you are not talking. Pressing *6 will mute most phones. -- Avoid Using A Cell Phone. Try to avoid calling into a conference call from a cell phone whenever possible. Cell phones add tremendous background noise to a conference call. If a cell phone is your only choice, muting the cell phone is a necessity whenever you are not speaking. Also, make sure you are not driving when you are on you the call. -- Be on time for the call. Don’t get on the call late and expect someone to catch you up with what is going on while everyone else waits. It is rude and disrespectful to the other participants to not be on time. It gives them the impression that your time is more important than theirs. -- Don’t Use The Hold Button. Do not put the conference call on hold if your phone has hold music or those annoying beeps that sound every few seconds. To say it is a huge interruption and distraction for everyone else on the call is an understatement. I was once on a conference call for training on a new software product our company was introducing. Someone else put the call on hold for nearly 20 minutes and we ended up listening to her hold music for the entire time. If you have to leave a conference call for any period of time, hang up the phone and call back in when you are ready to rejoin. -- Be Cautious With Cordless Phones. If you are joining a conference call from a cordless phone make sure the phone does not have a lot of static background noise. Usually static background noise starts when you start to get out of range of the phone base or is you get near another device that interferes with phone such as some small electric appliances and answering machines. -- Avoid Shuffling Papers. One very annoying thing that some people do on a conference call is shuffle papers. It sounds very loud on the phone. Other small potentially noisy habits to avoid are : continually clearing your throat, tapping your pencil, drumming your fingers on the desk, etc. -- Be Aware Of Whether Or Not Your Phone Is On Mute. If you do put your phone on mute while on a conference call, and it is always a good idea to do so whenever you are not talking, remember to take it back off mute when you talk. Likewise remember to put it back on mute when you are finished. Nearly everyone who has been on conference calls regularly can recount at least one memory of someone forgetting to put their phone back on mute and then saying something that was definitely not intended for the ears of the other conference call participants, such as a negative remark about something relating to the call or another person on the call. -- Be Polite. Do not try to talk over another person on the call even if you feel you have a very important point to cover. It is in bad taste to do so and will result in everyone else on the call not being able to understand what you or the other person is saying. Be patient; wait until the other person has finished; and then talk. Following the above tips can help make conference calls more successful, and more importantly, take up the least amount of time possible so you can get to 1,000 other tasks you have to accomplish like taking a time management course! But that’s another story.



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There are tons of small business grants for womwn but where

When starting a small business it can be costly, and finding a grant if you’re a women isn’t always the easiest thing to do. Little do most people know, there are millions of dollars just waiting to be claimed for grants from the government and other little-known organizations. It can be very difficult to find the right grant for you, and the place of where to get it, but with a few clicks you too can easily get access to small business grants for women. It is not a secret that women are beginning to own more and more businesses everyday. Not only this, but these businesses are becoming just as successful if not more then men’s businesses are. If you are looking for a grant, don’t be hesitant to look because of what the business is going to be. There are literally hundreds to thousands of grants out there for women wanting to start craft businesses, consulting, brokerage, record labels and more. When looking for a grant, there is the option of spending hundreds of dollars to pay somebody to get you a grant. However, there are other ways that are completely free, but may be more time consuming then you would hope. One site that is worth checking out is The Ladies Club 2000.com. It is required that you sign up and become a member, free of charge, but then you will have access to grant information on how you can become qualified for a grant and where you can find grants to begin your business or increase your business. http:// theladiesclub2000.com/grantsforwomen. htm There are all kinds of companies out there, and the type of grant that you will receive varies for place to place. On womens-finance. com, there are two different kinds of grants offered. There is the New Business grant that is between $100 and $5,000, and there is the existing business grand that ranges from $1,000-$5,000. You do have to apply at this site and be accepted, but it is worth checking this site out below: http:// womensbusinessgrants. com/ It may not seem like it, but our government does want you to succeed, and that is why there is millions of dollars out there for you. Most places have ridiculous requirements in order to get a grant such as being over 65, being a minority, or even having bad credit sometimes help the process. There are sites out there that are specifically looking for women only to give grants to. These sites are attempting to help the women population succeed in entrepreneurialism and begin the road to succession. The site listed just below here has a list of about ten different sites that are specifically looking for women to give grants to. http:// womanowned. com/Growing/Funding/Opportunities. aspx There is no reason to get frustrated after not having any luck finding loans. The government wants you to succeed in opening your small business, or help develop it that much more. There are a few sites listed above that are very much worth checking out to help you find small business grants for women. Don’t get discouraged as this can be time consuming, but once you find the financial help needed, you will be on your way to developing your business.



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Bad credit qualify yourself for a zero down mortgage loan

I decided to write this article today after closing a home purchase loan for a couple that had some major credit issues. They got into the house with ZERO down payment, and only had to bring $600 for the closing costs. Their situation was pretty bad, I’m talking about a bankruptcy 2 years ago, thousands of dollars in outstanding collections, charge-offs and debt to income ratio of 49%. By the way, we left all of their outstanding charge-offs and collections open which means they didn’t have to pay any of them off! So many think they won't be able to qualify for a mortgage loan. Many will keep thinking they can't qualify until they read this article. My name is Nick Graziano and I have been employed as a Loan Officer for 5 years. I have experience originating conventional mortgage loans as well as sub-prime (non-conventional) residential mortgage loans. Many of the clients that I deal with have great credit (and know it) and have no problem getting a loan but then there are those with credit problems (and they know it too). The ones with great credit are the ones that are easy to close, get the best rates and all with minimal time involved on the part of myself. But, this article is for those with credit problems, low income and those who cannot afford a down payment.

I am going to show you how to qualify for a loan with ZERO down payment, and the only out of pocket expense will be less than $1,000 ( if any at all) to cover some of the closing costs. This is just an example of one particular loan program that I use but there are numerous others out there. I picked this loan program because it allows 100% financing down to a 575 credit score I see it on a daily basis. Everyone wants to own a home and those with credit problems are calling every mortgage company in the phone book and applying on every mortgage website out there. (And there are many out there). Only to find out later that every time a mortgage company pulls their credit, their credit score dropped a few points, or that the particular lender doesn’t originate the type of loan that you need. That is frustrating. Step by Step Here is where I show you how to qualify yourself for a zero down loan. 1.The first thing you need is your tri-merge credit score. I would be more that happy to suggest a few places on the internet that you could go to get your credit score but I don’t want this article to seem like an advertisement. So, the best thing to do is to do a search on yahoo. com for terms like “free credit reports”, or “tri-merge credit report”. Just make sure that you end up pulling a “tri-merge” credit report on yourself. A tri-merged credit report pulls your credit profiles from the 3 major credit reporting companies and merges it into 1 report. The nice thing about pulling your credit yourself is that it will NOT affect your credit score. Bookmark this page while you go get a copy of your credit report and then come back to see the additional steps. 2.What is your credit score? Most mortgage lenders will use the middle of the three scores. Example: Your credit scores are 576, 525, 599. In this case you would use the 576 credit score since it is not the lowest score and it is not the highest. 3.Is your middle credit score at least 575? If so, congratulations and move on to the next step. If your middle score is less than 575 you have some homework to do. You can either sign up with a credit repair company (“search yahoo. com for credit repair”) to try and remove some derogatory items on your credit which will raise your credit score OR you can try to acquire some credit to help re-establish your credit worthiness. The easiest way to re-establish your credit is by either getting a car loan or credit card designed to help re-establish your credit. Again search yahoo. com for “credit cards to re-establish credit” 4.Do you have a bankruptcy or foreclosure in your past? Has it been 2 years since it was discharged? If yes, move on to the next step! If not, unfortunately in most cases your bankruptcy or foreclosure will need to be discharged at least 2 years or you will need to have at least 5% down payment. 5.You will need to document 24 months of recent mortgage or rental history. If you rent from a property management company we will need a Verification Of Rent completed. The form will be supplied by your mortgage lender or broker. If you rent from a private landlord, you will need 24 months cancelled checks/ or money order receipts with no payments over 30 days late. Sorry, you cannot prove your rental history if you pay your landlord cash every month, unless they are a property management company. If you are unable to document your rental history there is a way around it. Get your credit report and look for the following: Do you have an active credit line on your credit report that has been open for at least 24 months? Has this credit line had any activity in the last 6 months? If so, move to the next step. 6.Look at your credit report. Do you have a credit line that has a 12 month history reporting? If so and as long as you have no more that 2x30 day late payments then move on to the next step. 7.Look at your credit report again. Do any of your credit lines have a high limit of at least $3,000. If so, move to the next step. 8.Now take one more look at your credit report. You will need 1 more additional open credit line reporting on your credit report. (It does not matter how long it has been open or how much the credit line is for). Well, congrats! You made it this far which means that your credit might qualify for a Zero Down Payment Loan. The loan program you qualified for is subject to change and is subject to additional conditions. This article should not be construed as an advertisement to lend. These are the steps that I go through when trying to pre-qualify a client that has credit problems. There are many more factors to determine so please discuss this with a qualified mortgage professional. You are probably asking yourself what you are supposed to do with the information that was given to you in this article. The first thing is to contact a few mortgage companies. Ask them if they have any zero down loan programs that will go down to a 575 credit score, or whatever your credit score is. Remember, you will need at least a 575 credit score to qualify for this particular loan program. Also, in order to minimize your out of pocket expense, ask your mortgage professional if the property seller is allowed to pay 6% of the purchase price towards closing costs. If so, you will need to remember to negotiate that into your purchase contract when you make an offer on a house.



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Virtual dating a safe way of checking out potential romance

The personals ads in the local newspaper are getting old, and online dating services have applications that are long and ask a lot of questions. Do you often wonder how many phone connections you'll have to go through before you meet the person of your dreams? Well, seeing the right person is just a webcam away with virtual dating. This revolutionary technique involves going online at a singles website, logging in, and using a special password to get in your wannabe special friends webcam. There the two of you can talk, share laughter, and best of all-see each other before you decide to take it to the next level and go out on a date. The Internet wins again in the cutting edge dating arena with this online dating service, and you only have to sign up and log on to find Mr. or Ms. Right. The benefits are simple-you choose when you want to meet someone new, when you want to see them, and can do it all from the privacy of your own home! (Some sights are free online dating log in for women, some are free for men.) Ever been on a blind date and you're not sure you want them to know where you live? Well virtual online dating takes all the pain of making excuses away while you try to escape. Don't want to spend a lot of money on a first date but don't want to seem stingy? The free online dating sites also allow you to set up a more intimate date at your leisure. Online personals and internet dating leave you wanting to see what the other person looks like, but how to do it without committing to a date? Virtual dating lets you talk and see each other as much as the two of you would like before actually going out. While other sites feature black dating online, gay dating online, teen dating online, etc. you can't be sure that the person you're in the online chat room with really is black, or gay, or a teenager. With virtual dating what you see is what you get. It's about time.



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The asbestos trust fund bill

A bill continues to languish in Congress which was designed to resolve many thousands of asbestos related lawsuits, leaving many waiting for a just resolution as they continue to endure their painfull illness without compensation. According to a study released in September 2004 by the American Thoracic Society (ATS), asbestos continues to be a hazard for more than a million American workers in the construction industry and those involved in buildings and equipment maintenance. The study also warns of new products that may contain asbestos, These products may include: brake pads, roofing materials, and imported cement pipe and cement sheeting that could expose workers to an increased risk of asbestos related cancer. Although government researchers are reporting a new rush of asbestos related claims, which is expected to continue over the next 20 years, it was believed when the legislation was first introduced in 2000 that the vast majority of asbestos related cancer claims were over, and the legislation was designed to take care of the thousands of remaining cases which were clogging up the courts. But for many of the asbestos related cancer victims, the fact that the legislation continues to be held up has meant many patients have been unable to collect damages owed they are certainly entitled to before death takes its toll. The proposed legislation makes available, to the victims of asbestos related disease, a "trust fund" to take care of the needs of those suffering from mesothelioma and other asbestos related diseases. This legislation would eliminate companies from being sued and unclog courts of tens of thousands of new asbestos claims. Though a compromise is on the table between the Republican and Democratic Senate leaders on the size of the asbestos fund of $140 billion, there is a lot of dispute and argument that a large number of people with asbestos cancer and other serious asbestos illnesses will be left out. $140 billon dollars, they say, is insufficient to cover the rush of Americans expected to develop asbestos related disease over the next several decades.



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Teach your first grader how to spell

Our education begins from the day we're born. While we don't immediately plunge into school, we're constantly exposed to new things that help develop our minds. Academics are only part of our long journey to knowledge. By the time we enter kindergarten, we are ready to begin the reading and writing aspects, but at a slow and steady pace. Too much too soon can overwhelm and confuse us. When we hit 1st grade, we are more prepared to tackle the nitty gritty. I recall my 1st grade spelling, reading and mathematics, and how they introduced me to a whole new world. When my daughter was born, I certainly wasn't thinking about school yet. The formula and diapers kept me pretty preoccupied. Now that she's seven years old, and in the first grade, academics are a major concern.

One thing I noticed right away is that 1st grade spelling and mathematics are slightly different than they used to be. Now this is a good thing. Schools are constantly pushing our children to learn more at a younger age. The first time my daughter brought home her reading and writing homework, I was amazed at how much she would surely learn the very first year. The little books are a great start to reading well. In comparison to when I was in 1st grade, 1st grade spelling has hit a new level.

I don't recall dealing with so many words. My daughter is already at a level where she can read the majority of things we see when we go out in public. This is great! Kids now days can even get help with their 1st grade spelling on the Internet. This is a wonderful tool for kids to grow up with these days.

They can certainly take advantage of the various websites that have spelling games and lessons. There are a number of different kinds of software out there for this as well. One thing I love to do is read and write with my daughter on a daily basis in order to help her with her 1st grade spelling, writing and reading. This is always a great idea for any parent.

When we work with our children, we really increase their learning abilities and initiative. If you have a child, you can take advantage of online resources in order to better their academic skills. It is never too early to start teaching our children. Hop online today and see what's available, and only a mouse click away.



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How to detect autism in child

Every parent wants the best for his or her kid, wishing only the best, good health, bright future and prosperous life to the child. But one morning it just hit you, your child is turning 3 years old next month but still remains unresponsive to you. Your child is not as interactive as other kids would usually be. 'Could my child be autistic?' Any parent would be alarmed. Autism may sound familiar to you. It is however important to first establish that this is not an infection or a contagious disease. This is actually a condition where the brain of the child has developed differently, resulting to certain ramifications that affected the system of the child and manifesting in the lack of interpersonal skills of the child. This condition occurs to 1 child in every 700 in the population. It was found also that this is most likely to occur among the boys. The signs manifest at an early stage in a child's life. It is necessary that you be cautious of your child's behavior and responses. How does one detect autism? The signs of autism may be observed as early as 18 months to 3 years age of the kid. If your child is experiencing difficulty in the following aspects, it would be helpful to consult a doctor or an expert: * Looking at others - Can he or she not look at you straight to the eye when you try to communicate? * Playing with other kids - Does he or she avoid other kids or automatically shies away? * Imagining - Can he or she not handle make-believe games? * Communicating - Are there words that he or she cannot say or will have to be said over and over before he or she can grasp it? * Repetition - Are there mannerisms or motor movements that he or she keeps repeating for no apparent reason or purpose? * Changes - Is he or she inflexible to changes? Does he or she get alarmed when you change a certain routine, like waking up while it is still dark? Some babies can actually manifest signs of autism * Babies that do not look in the eye can be displaying signs of autism, especially if they would rather stare at moving mechanical objects or parts of it. * Too calm babies should also be observed. Are they able to lie for hours without crying? * When babies do not play or do not interact with other babies. How does one address this condition of autism? The cause of autism is still unknown. That is why parents should not blame themselves if they feel that they had been negligent in taking care of their kids during infancy, or if a mother thinks she might not have properly taken care of herself during pregnancy. Just as the definite cause is still unknown, there is no definite treatment to get rid of autism. Even if the parent may not be able to free his or her child from the condition, the best option to the parents of an autistic child is to address the problem. It is best to consult an expert on this field. Know the various peculiarities of the kid. The family may have to stick to a definite lifestyle to adjust to the needs of the child. This would require extra patience also. Send the child to a special education school. If the autism of the child is relatively mild, be sure that you inform ahead the teacher or the principal of the condition. You have a special child. The kid is special, because his or her abilities are different from the ordinary kid her age. Provide special treatment and care needed. Give your attention. Stay by his or her side. More than anything else; simply make the child feel your loving care.



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Chocolate and heart health fact or fallacy

Wouldn’t it be wonderful if chocolate and heart health went hand in hand. However, there is so much information lately about the health benefits of chocolate that it is only natural that people get confused. It is true, that if people only ate pure cocoa, then there might be heart health benefits. The problem is that most people eat processed chocolate bars containing sugar, corn syrup, hydrogenated oils, dairy cream not to mention other “baddies” contained in some of those tasty fillings. Some of these added ingredients can clog up arteries and create havoc to your waistline. That said, you might be surprised to find out that chocolate isn’t as bad as it was once thought.

The fat content in chocolate, derived from cocoa butter contained in premium grade dark chocolate, is comprised of equal amounts of oleic acid (a heart-healthy monounsaturated fat also found in olive oil), stearic and palmitic acids. Stearic and palmitic acids are forms of saturated fat – not so good. Saturated fats are linked to increases in LDL-cholesterol and risk of developing heart disease. Research indicates that stearic acid appears to have a neutral effect on cholesterol; neither raising nor lowering LDL-cholesterol levels.

Palmitic acid on the other hand, does affect cholesterol levels but only comprises one-third of the fat calories in chocolate. Therefore, if we base our chocolate eating habits on latest research, the fat issue isn’t so worrying. Beware milk chocolate may not be so heart healthy When we eat milk chocolate or lower grade chocolate, part of the total fat content comes from milk fat or various other types of fat contained in the processed chocolate, and not from the pure cocoa, which do adversely affect cholesterol levels. Despite all the good news on cocoa not raising LDL cholesterol, even dark chocolate is a very calorie-dense food, so while the fat content may not invite heart disease or clogging of the arteries, its regular consumption will add a lot of extra calories to someone's daily total. In fact, many chocolate bars list sugar as the number one ingredient. And as we all know lots of white refined sugar is not going to help you keep your waistline nice and slim. Remember obesity is a serious risk factor for developing heart disease. Concerning cholesterol, new and yet-to-be-published studies are showing that some antioxidants contained in chocolate, in particular dark chocolate and cocoa powder, may actually increase "good" (HDL) cholesterol levels by as much as 10 percent. In the studies, the selected people ate 22 grams of cocoa powder and 16 grams of dark chocolate every day The result: Their "bad" (LDL) cholesterol was less susceptible to oxidation, a process that normally leads to artery-clogging plaques. While many people take vitamins and other antioxidants to help prevent plaque development, the study shows that cocoa could help. In summary, whether chocolate and heart health do walk hand in hand is still an open topic, however, in moderation it won’t do your heart any harm, however, watch those calories. Most of all, enjoy it cause it tastes so good! For more information about heart health and living your life to the full come across and visit allabout-heart-disease. com



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Overcoming stress and anxiety in the workplace

We live in a stressful world. No matter how hard we try to circumvent stress and anxiety, our rendezvous with them is as sure as death and taxes. Encountering distress is an undeniable reality. Understanding that stress and anxiety are always present in one's life should be accepted...but that does not necessarily make it easier.

For example, have you ever been picked on by a boss? Who can ever forget that ill-fated day that you became the “official office target” of the boss? Have you ever been accused with a blunder that you never committed. Not contented with what he did, the boss startled you with words that you have never even heard of before. To top it all, he did it in front of the whole work unit. Left with no choice but to keep your mouth shut, you just allowed your boss to unreasonably splatter his saliva all over your face. Still, you manage to fake a “cherry grin.” These kinds of situations is just a normal office scenario but tends induce stress and anxiety. Stress first was attributed to external pressures like workloads, competition and other stimuli that could induce a distress one's body. Recently, however, stress was described not only as external stimuli but it may very well be the reaction of a person to another individual's negative perception, capacities and understanding. Meanwhile anxiety is described as an overwhelming fear, worry, or apprehension. These intensified feelings are always accompanied by bodily manifestations like chronic sweating, uneasiness, heart palpitations, nausea, shortness of breathing, and headaches. Work-related stress and anxiety, and chronic cares of same sorts can affect one's work performance. Anxiety induced by a past negative encounter with an officemate, worrying on multitudes of paper works labeled “urgent,” and apprehensions to confront a boss can affect indeed office performance. The apparent effect of it to a professional is not only depressing but could also be a one - way ticket to unemployment. No one wants to be fired right away right? And companies don't give into excuses like, “Sorry sir, I'm just stressed.” So wise up see the practical anxiety treatments. Start with a proper diet. Others might raise their eyebrows with this practical self-help tip but actually it has scientific explanation. Anxiety conditions are the avenues for the usual response of “fight or flight.” This is a condition where people who are confronted with anxiety challenge or flee from anxiety. With a healthier diet, the body becomes more stable, and eventually, event the anxiety reactions are lessened. Have a proper attitude. Don't put unnecessary stresses to your life by going through unnecessary notions. Yes, your boss may have shouted a couple of times but harboring resentment would do no good either. Focus your strength and energy where you really need it most – on the work. Anxiety would be gradually obliterated by taming one's mind. Instead of using your energy to backstab a tyrant boss or get even with a co-worker with hideous attitude, learn to channel those energies to a more worthy cause. Proper attitude is an excellent anxiety treatment. Life's full of stress and we can't afford to add insult to the injury. Greater stress would entail greater risk for anxiety.



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Good healthy habits

Good health is of prime importance to all of us. We need to be healthy, filled with abundant energy, sound sleep, and fit and disease free body, which will give us a sense of overall well being. In order to be fit and healthy we need to practice healthy living styles with proper food habits and exercise. We cannot be healthy if we are lazy and lethargic. We need to work hard both physically and mentally to be fit and healthy. Besides exercise, we also need to eat healthy foodstuffs avoiding junk foods, which make us lethargic and dull. If you are over weight and obese you will suffer from health problems. So you need to maintain an optimum body weight to be healthy. You need to follow healthy and positive habits.

Positive thinking is very essential in order to be healthy. You need to clear out your mind and fill it with positive thoughts. You will have to remove all the depressing and negative emotions and thoughts from your mind and replace it with healthy and positive thoughts. These positive thoughts can be extremely energizing and always lead to good things in life.

You can get involved in practices such as meditation and yoga to get rid of the negativity and force yourself with positive thoughts. You need to eat healthy foods in order to be fit and healthy. Simple food stuffs like vegetables, fruits, nuts, tubers, lean meat, pulses, ect can keep you healthy and strong. Try to avoid refined foodstuffs. The main reason for ill health and diseases is improper food habits. Because of this many people suffer from diseases like diabetes, cancer, obesity ect. Simple changes in your diet and causes a great difference within a short period and can improve your health drastically. Try to avoid smoking and alcoholic drinks. For good health, you need to exercise daily. Exercising in the morning can leave you with a refreshed feeling throughout the day. Exercising can put you in a good mood and it will be easier for you to think positively and eat healthy foods.

You can also get involved in activities such as swimming, biking, walking or playing your favorite sport in order to keep you healthy. Do not go for an activity which you do not enjoy. Try to do your work outs in the open air. In this way you will feel more refreshed. You should not make drastic changes in your life style. You should start with simple changes and make sure that you enjoy it. You try to make these simple changes in to a regular habit in order to achieve long term success. It is very important to improve your health in order to be happy and enjoy life.

Besides exercise you need to have good sleep and rest in order to be healthy. Sound sleep can refresh your mind and make you feel healthy. All these simple changes in your life style can improve your health and make you feel strong and fit. You will feel a sense of well being, both emotionally and physically.



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Home based travel business how to make it work for you

Running a home based travel business is the wave of the future. Though it may seem simple to run a home based travel business, you need to know what kind of home based travel business you want to run and what types of situations you will deal with in running a home based travel business. Basically, there are two types of home based travel agents – referral agents and booking and selling agents. Referral agents do not book nor do they sell any travel products, they just run a home based travel business that points consumers in the direction of the travel agency, where the agency closes the sale and books the actual travel. If you have little travel industry experience, running a home based travel business that focuses on referrals may be a good option for you. However, if you are interested in starting a home based travel business that gets into the details, then you may be more interested in becoming a booking and selling agent. You can run a home based travel business that plans a number of types of trips or you can develop a more specific niche like cruises, Europe, or other forms of travel. Running this type of home based travel business will require more contact with clients to figure out what types of things their clients like to create a trip that fits the client. All this hard work does pay off, because this type of home based travel business results in you earning more commissions. What are the benefits of having a home based travel business? There is, of course, the flexible schedule and the bonus of being your own boss. Yet, a home based travel business can also reap you other rewards like earning a couple fun vacations each year. If you are going to start a home based travel business you will need to connect with a host agency. It is important to make sure that you separate the host agency from your home based travel business. You need to remember that you may your home based travel business may work with the host agency, but you are not a customer nor are you an employee of that agency. Keep it as a business relationship. Starting a home based travel business can be a fun and rewarding experience. Decide on what type of home based travel business you want, based upon how involved you want to be with your clientele. Get in touch with a host business, and then enjoy the flexibility and rewards you can earn in your home based travel business.



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A guide to woodworking plans

Woodworking plans are an essential component of any project. Wood working patterns and scroll saw patterns are needed to plan a project and create accents in your piece. Good plans give step by step instructions, diagrams and illustrations to guide you through from start to finish. You can buy plans, find them for free on the internet or make your own plan. Finding Woodworking Plans Free woodworking patterns can be found on the internet. Many are free, but others need to be purchased. You can search for general plans or for specific projects. Patterns are available for everything from a simple box or bird feeder to elaborate furniture projects. Several websites offer plans for making children’s toys and decorative items. Enter the project you are looking for in your favourite search engine or just enter free woodworking plans. There are books available that are devoted to wood working patterns. You can find these at book stores, on the internet or in your local library. Often, woodworking magazines will contain plans for a wide variety of projects. Purchase a few of these at your local news stand. After you have found one you like best, you may decide to subscribe and receive new plans month after month. If you are new to woodworking, it’s best to start of with a simple pattern. This will help you learn to read and follow the plans. As your skills increase, you can move on to more difficult projects. Start off with a simple toy or bird feeder before attempting to make a dining room set. Look for detailed and thorough plans to help you create your project. Good plans include detailed instructions. The instructions should take you step by step through the entire project. Look for plans that have detailed diagrams as well as illustrations of the project at each stage. Print out your plans and keep them in a binder. This will help keep you organized and prevent pages from getting lost or damaged. You can follow the plan step by step or you may decide to make a few changes to the plan. Changing a few details is a great way to make a generic plan more personal and original. For example, you can change certain designs or accent pieces and give the project a whole new look. Another option is to paint the finished product, rather than staining. Creating Woodworking Plans Once you become more experienced, you may decide to try to create your own plan. Start by sketching how you want the finished product to look. The first sketch doesn’t need to be too technical or detailed. You will add the details and dimensions later. Once you have made your original sketch, determine the dimensions of the total finished product. Determine what type of wood you will use in your project and how much wood you will need. It’s important to use accurate measurements when ordering the wood to avoid running out before the project is finished. Determine what other materials you will need to complete the project. This will help you estimate the total cost. Create a detailed list of all materials needed and the quantity of each material. Include items such as paint, stain or polyurethane. Consider the tools that will be needed to complete the project. Do you have all that you need? With this information, you can then determine the overall cost. Take this list with you when you go out to purchase supplies. You will then draw a more detailed sketch of your design. Create diagrams like those found in woodworking plans on the internet. Draw each stage of the process in detail. Write out detailed instructions that will take you step by step through the project. This will help you stay organized and ensure that you don’t skip any essential steps along the way.



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Mindblow and mind below

MindBlow and Mind Below Human mind is numberless wonder of whole universe. This is the most fertile field of world. More you sow much you reap out of it. The usage of this part of human body needs accurate and precise approach. The tool to sharpen the upper part of human body is only through education. The education can change the life of human being. This had been proven by scientific development of our world. Thus in most advanced and developed society, every possible care is taken in education sector applications. Are we in India caring for this vital aspect of human being? This story is a little effort to discuss the national education with special reference to one of the leading and progressive state named Haryana. According to 2001 census the population of largest democracy of the world was 1027015247. The managing of this huge population is a specialized job. To do this it required extra accuracy and farsightedness approach. Education is among first thrust, which need to be carefully managed, because it is directly linked to development of nation. In 2002 India had 199144199 students starting from class 1 to higher education level. It means 19.3% of population was of student community. Government and NGO's are working hard to expand the area of education in the country, but their efforts are not yielding up to mark satisfaction. In India in 2002 there were 113883060 students in primary school level. In middle school level numbers of students were 44828235. That means 69% of primary school students' left their studies before or after fifth class. The facts and figures are similar in every year. In same year (2002) there were 44828235 it mans 55% of student in middle school level whereas the number of high school students 20053986 who gave up their school bags after eight class. Continue to this process 48% of students left their studies from high school level to secondary level. But here in last I am very surprised to see that after 10+2 level study gives up cases has drastically come down to 5%. This statistics clearly indicate that if student reaches primary level his or her probability of leaving school is 61%. If students cross first barrier (primary level) and reach to middle school then his percentage of leaving come down to 55%. Further after 10th standard to secondary levels this percentage further come down to 48%. Finally if he / she get passed 10+2 exam, the percentage to achieve higher education / professional education is 95%, which is very high as comparative to primary and middle level. These facts and figures clearly indicate that primary to middle classes are studies leaving prone classes. Are these studies leaving the prone classes targeted by our education planners? . Answer is clearly no. This is very evident from following statistics. In primary school level student / teacher ratio in India is 59:1, for middle class it was 31:1, whereas in 10+2 level it was 17:1 in 2002.In comparison to above after 10+2 level education there are 272 universities, 8737 colleges (general), 838 technology/ engineering college, 725 medical college, 846 teacher training colleges, 5462 polytechnic and it is and 1175 teacher training schools. This type planning will show its effects on society because knowledge level of population will be of high contrast. This will lead to fragmentation of that society which is already fragmented in the name of religion, caste and creeds. In this situation, the Education will work reversibly. This can be averted by making middle level focused education policy. So emphasis of our education policy should be on study leaving prone classes. i.e.5th to 8th classes. The environment and education should be planned in such manner that student of these classes does not leave their studies in want of school are money. If the quantum of the students increases in 10+2 level then there will be more and more talents available for higher studies. This will not only enhance the level of knowledge among all sections of society in equilibrium but also give up maximum opportunities to maximum. This will show results in quality of higher study level. In which 50% of education budgets are invested. Take the case of Haryana in education. This small state has done commendable work as compare to other states of India. But due to non-practical approach of education planning, as in national education policy results are not up to the mark. Student teacher ratio in primary level was 39:1 as compare to national student teacher ratio 59:1 in 2002. For middle classes this ratio in state was 33:1 in contrast to national average 31:1. Here one point is to mention this state was created on 1st nov.1966. The above student teacher ratio for the corresponding year was 43:1 and 30:1 for primary and middle classes respectively. Education budget at the creation of state in 1966 was merely 277.2 Lac rupees. Which reached 138429.51 Lac was invested which was 55.7% of total money allocated to education. Thus after this statistics of one of the pioneer states of India one can guess situations in UP, Bihar, Orrisa and rest of other states of country. To make mind blowing and not blowing quantum of the student is directly linked to excellence in education. Money and personals are here only precise planning is required. Will our education planners ever do this and when? Answer to these questions lies in dark room. Who will open the doors of this dark room is to be seen yet. Dinesh Singh Rawat E-mail:drawat@abcnewsnetwork. com



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