Varnishing an oil painting

Varnish is more than simply a layer to protect your oil painting from ultraviolet light, pollution in the atmosphere and abrasion. It will also bring out the brilliance in colors, making them sparkle. Varnish is made from Damar resin dissolved in a mixture of turpentine and other organic solvents. Keep in mind that oil paint dries from the outside in; when it dries, it forms a surface skin first. During the drying process small pores form in this surface skin. The surface of the paint may feel dry, but under the skin, the paint is still wet, no matter how thin the coating is. It takes at least 6 months drying time for the dried oil paint film to become dry enough that it won't be re-dissolved by mild solvents such as turpentine. When a varnish is applied to a reproduction art oil-on-canvas painting before the 6 month drying time, the varnish fills the pores of the oil paint film, The solvent content of the varnish can easily re-dissolve the incompletely dried oil paint at the bottom of the canvas and cause all kinds of problems - such as wrinkling of the oil paint film, cracking, and yellowing of the color. • Clean the painting so it's free from dust and dirt. Lay the oil painting flat, then dampen the surface a bit of cotton wool with clean water.

• Dry the oil painting with another bit of cotton wool. With your fingers, gently remove any cotton fibers that have been caught in the oil paint. • Leave your painting to dry for several hours. • Choose from high gloss, satin or matte finishes. Varnishes may be brushed or sprayed on. Use a flat bristle brush to apply the varnish. If you don't want your oil-on-canvas painting to be too shiny, use a matt varnish rather than a gloss one. • With the painting flat, work from the top to the bottom, applying the varnish in parallel strokes from one edge of the oil painting to the other. Always work in the same direction. Try to have the same amount of varnish on the brush for each stroke so you put equal amounts of varnish on all parts of the oil painting. Always varnish the whole of the oil-on-canvas painting in one go. • When the first coat of varnish is dry, apply a second coat at right angles to the first. This will give you a good, even finish. • Leave the painting flat for at least 10 minutes after you've finished varnishing to stop the varnish running down the oil painting. Then prop it up against a wall to dry, face inwards. • To test whether the varnish is dry or not, touch the edge of the oil painting to see if it's still tacky. It should dry within a day or two, depending on the weather.



Online Varnishing an oil painting

Should i buy an extended vehicle warranty

Whether you are purchasing a new or used car, breakdowns can occur. It’s always a worry that you could have major problems such as engine trouble or a transmission that stops shifting, and you suddenly are digging deep into your pockets for the cash to repair it. So the question that arises often is “Should I Buy An Extended Vehicle Warranty?” There are always pros and cons. An extended vehicle warranty adds to your total cost, but over the long run it can also be very beneficial especially if a big breakdown occurs. A vehicle extended warranty is a contract between a vehicle warranty company and you. It isn’t an insurance policy even though most people think of it as one. It is actually the most profitable service a car dealer sells, but it can also be very beneficial to the consumer. When you buy a new car you get the manufacturers warranty. Then, for a specific fee, you can extend that warranty. If you tend to keep your vehicles longer than the period of the original warranty purchasing the extended warranty can make good sense. If however you tend to trade your vehicles in every few years, the purchase of the extended warranty would probably not be beneficial. When it comes to used vehicles, some dealers will offer a 30 day warranty and then offer to sell you an extended warranty. There are many companies that are now offering extended warranty coverage on used vehicles. Purchasing an extended warranty is a great way to give you peace of mind. You can protect your investment and your pocket book from unexpected costs. Extended warranties usually offer the same benefits as your new car warranty. This means that no matter where you travel within North America your warranty will cover you. Some extended warranties cover just the powertrain, while others cover bumper to bumper. Be sure to check with your dealer or read your policy. As an added bonus, almost all extended warranties offer 24 hour roadside assistance. Roadside assistance includes gas drops, flat tire changes, locksmith, and towing benefits. You may also get benefits such as vehicle replacement in the event of a breakdown along with accommodation expenses. Filing claims is a simple process. Many dealers simply require you to provide proof of coverage. Normally you are issued a coverage card. If you are dealing with your local dealership, chances are you are in their computer system. On used vehicles you usually are required to pay the costs and then submit the bill for reimbursement. Different plans have different deductibles. Don’t buy your extended warranty coverage by price alone. More doesn’t mean better; but then again cheap can mean that many repairs are exempt so read the fine print and read the entire policy carefully before signing on the dotted line. With so many companies offering extended warranty coverage online and through dealers, it’s important you are sure that the company is reputable. If your extended warranty comes from Ford or GM it’s pretty straightforward; but otherwise you’ll want to make sure you are dealing with a well funded company. Whether you should buy extended vehicle warranty coverage is really a personal choice, but good coverage can be beneficial. If there’s one thing for certain, vehicles will break down. It’s just a matter of when.



Online Should i buy an extended vehicle warranty

Cellulite treatments vital facts and information

Cellulite is a common term used to describe overfilled fat pockets right under your skin. These are fat cells that have become enlarged causing these cells to take up more space between the skin's connective tissues than normal. The fat then expands these spaces resulting in the overlying skin dimpling, often called the orange peel effect. It appears in ninety percent of post-adolescent women and is rarely seen in men. Common areas where cellulite is found, are the thighs, buttocks, and the abdomen. Contrary to popular belief, cellulite is not related to obesity, since it occurs in overweight, normal, and thin women. Cellulite causes many image problems and many women avoid wearing short skirts or shorts because of it. Some of the contributing factors for developing cellulite are: Heredity. However, you can still do a lot to fight cellulite. Not drinking enough water. Water helps flush toxins and waste from your body. Drink seven to eight glasses of water a day. Diet. Poor eating habits (alcohol, caffeine, spicy or fatty foods) contribute to the formation of cellulite because the toxins they produce get trapped in the fatty tissue. Saturated fats block the arteries and get trapped in the tissue as well, preventing sufficient waste and toxin elimination. Smoking is not only bad for the skin and lungs, but it weakens the skin by causing constriction of capillaries. It also damages the connective tissue and can increase the dimpling effect of cellulite. Tension and stress can cause a muscle to seize up in pain; they can also cause the connective tissue that covers that muscle to seize up. Tension can also block the tissue, preventing proper waste elimination and purification. Medication can disturb the body's natural processes, disturbing the purification system that is naturally in place. Diet pills, sleeping pills and diuretics can all lead to cellulite; oral contraceptives, which increase the body's oestrogen, cause fat cells to enlarge, leading to water retention. Retaining water inhibits the body from flushing the system of toxins, leading to the formation of cellulite. Lack of exercise contributes to the formation of cellulite. Exercise decreases many health risks and also helps fight cellulite. It improves muscle tone, circulation and overall well-being, helping to break blocked tissue and purify the body. Cellulite Treatments There are three main treatments for cellulite; namely, endermologie, cosmetic surgery, and topical creams or lotions. Endermologie The Endermologie machine, developed in France over a decade ago, has been found to have an effect in fighting cellulite. It uses rollers and gentle suctioning to deeply massage the affected areas, increasing circulation. Toxins and abnormal water buildup are expelled as connective fibres are stretched. Endermologie also exfoliates the skin, leaving it soft and silky. The increased circulation may give you a natural energy boost. Many sessions are normally needed. This can add up to several hundred dollars. Cosmetic Surgery Treatments like liposuction (surgery to remove fat) and mesotherapy (injection of drugs into cellulite) are either expensive or may produce only temporary improvement. Many doctors advise against liposuction to reduce cellulite because it is designed to remove deep fat instead of cellulite, which is close to the skin. This is performed by a plastic surgeon and can be expensive compared to other methods. Consult with your doctor if you want to explore this further. Cellulite Creams or Lotions This is the safest and most popular way to reduce the problem. Because cellulite is actually little pockets of fat under your skin, your blood circulation does not easily reach these areas. Specially formulated creams can help. Some of the ingredients used in these products include : Algae extract - which can help break down fat and increase your metabolism. Green tea extracts - will back up the algae extract and increase the rate at which your fat is broken down to form smooth tissue. Retinol A - a compound that is a derivative of Vitamin A and targets your skin and connective tissues directly to condition and strengthen. Retinol A has a rejuvenating effect on your skin, and will decrease your cellulite while preventing it from becoming worse over time. It can improve your skin's texture, so your skin will become smoother and firmer and this helps your cellulite vanish even faster. Creams or lotions are the most economical of the three treatments, however like the others, it may take a couple of months to see measurable results.



Online Cellulite treatments vital facts and information

Why board certification is important when picking a plastic surgeon

Once you make the decision to pursue plastic surgery, you will start evaluating different surgeons. Board certification should be one of the topics you focus during your evaluation. Why Board Certification is Important When Picking a Plastic Surgeon The term Board Certified gets thrown around here and there which makes it easy to overlook when evaluating a plastic surgeon. So, what exactly is it? Board certification means a physician has taken and passed an examination in a particular medical specialty. Often, you will see information indicating a physician is board eligible, which means the person has completed training and is eligible to take the exam. It is important that you understand that it does not mean the person is board certified, to wit, do not mix the two classifications up when evaluating a surgeon. There are numerous specialties in the medical field, so being board certified may not always mean what it seems to when it comes to plastic surgery. Plastic surgery is a specialized form of medicine in which certification can be obtained. Other surgeons, however, can perform plastic surgery. For instance, a physician specializing in throat surgery can be board certified for that specialty, but perform plastic surgery for chins and so on. Although they are board certified in that area, they are not for plastic surgery. When evaluating a plastic surgeon, you want to find out if they are board certified. Assuming they are, you then want to find out what medical specialty they are certified for! You may be surprised to learn it is not plastic surgery, which may also impact your decision on whether you should use the surgeon. You might be wondering why medical professionals other than plastic surgeons would want to get into the field. In a majority of cases, a plastic surgery patient must pay for the surgery, not an insurance company. Insurance companies are notorious for slashing the billings of surgeons, so getting their full fee from a plastic surgery is a very attractive option. Board certified plastic surgeons have the best training and most experience. When evaluating surgeons, just make sure they are actually certified in plastic surgery!



Online Why board certification is important when picking a plastic surgeon

Background checks and resume verifications protect employers

If you are a business owner, manager, or work in the human resources department of a company, you've probably hired employees who have been less than truthful on their resumes. In fact, recent studies indicate that 75 percent of all resumes contain some form of falsification and fully 89 percent are misleading. Even though the numbers alone make the case for background checks and resume verification, employers often forgo pre-employment screening of applicants. When they do, the employers' lack of foresight can come back to haunt them. In some cases, companies have been found liable for negligent hiring and retention. In other cases, employers have faced public relations nightmares. Not too long ago, a prestigious university made the news when it was discovered that their admissions officer had allegedly lied about her educational background, and had not received the degrees she had claimed. In the most tragic cases, workplace violence has claimed innocent lives. Pre-employment screening and background checks prove due diligence, and so can prevent lawsuits claiming negligent hiring. And, by screening out unqualified applicants, employers can save time and money otherwise wasted by recruiting, hiring, and training the wrong applicants.

Resume verification and education verification can even help head off wrongful termination lawsuits. Companies that provide employment screening offer a number of services. The type of screening that best serves you often depends upon the industry in which you work. For example, in the healthcare industry, background checks typically include a state criminal report, a social security number report, education verification, employment verification, a professional license check, a medical abuse check, and a sex offender check. Those companies that hire delivery drivers or that employ long-haul truckers most often benefit from a national criminal report, a social security number report, a motor vehicle report and a license verification. Educational institutions and childcare centers usually request a national criminal report, a social security number report, a sex offender check, education verification, and employment verification. Those who work in the accounting or finance departments of companies should undergo a national criminal report, a social security number check, a credit check, education verification, employment verification, and an OFAC terrorist check. Once you make the sensible decision to do pre-employment screening, how do you go about selecting the right company to do background checks? First, look for a well-established company that has a proven track record in both quality and accuracy.

Next, make sure that they guarantee confidentiality. Third, check to see that they employ licensed investigators and provide you with the opportunity to speak to a live researcher. Finally, select a company that does both domestic and international searchers, and that does hands-on court research in the United States. In today's litigious society, and with the prevalence of dissembling on resumes and employment applications, you can't afford to forego background checks and pre-employment screening of your employees and applicants. It's a small price to pay for the peace of mind you'll have knowing that the people you hire are who they claim to be.



Online Background checks and resume verifications protect employers

Clinical research organizations shifting focus to north india

: Going further and analyzing Indian market, so far Hyderabad is considered as a key location for the drug manufacturing and Clinical/Contract Research with a majority of units located in and around this city in the south central part of the country. But as of now companies are shifting there focus to other regions also and wants to exploit better opportunities available in other parts of the country as well. Northern India being an emerging market, companies face a number of unique hurdles and often gets perplexed before entering this lucrative region. As North India is most sought after market theses days, this articles explores scope and feasibility of pharmaceutical, CRO(Clinical/Contract Research Organization) and biotechnology market, and answers the following key questions: Who are the key players in the Northern India CRO market? Regulations environment in northern India ? The scenario of super specialty hospitals and pool of trained investigators ? Opportunities available in Northern India for conducting clinical trials ? How can companies engage with India for collaboration ? Literally speaking Contract or Clinical Research Organization (CRO) refers to a person or an organization who is contracted to conduct clinical trials and duties with sponsor. India holds a market of $300 to $500 million in the field of Clinical Research Organization(CRO). Where Northern India constitutes ten percent of it and generates revenue of $40 million out of it. Genetically diverse population and people who have not been exposed to many medications but have a range of diseases from tropical to severe diseases provides a reason strong enough to consider North India the front runner in the race of clinical research. Adding to the diverse patients, Northern India has highly qualified and skilled doctors, Super specialty hospital, Medical Research Centers for clinical studies and experienced CRO's. Also, Northern India provides the most cost effective clinical trials, that too with the competitive infrastructure available for conducting clinical trials.



Online Clinical research organizations shifting focus to north india

Why dahle paper shredders are world class

Businesses of all sizes are very concerned about identity theft and business espionage. Security is at the top of the list and shredding is now the law. When quality and precision shredders are a priority Dahle shredders come to mind. When considering the top quality shredders Dahle is a world class quality shredder. Dahle makes shredders for the desktop, home offices, and larger offices as well. Dahle also makes, industrial, work group, and high security shredders which have the approval of the Dept of Defense. Since Dahle makes a full range of shredders they probably make a shredder that would fit your needs. Let's take a closer look at Dahle shredders and see why they are so popular. Dahle has a worldwide reputation for it's innovations in developing shredders with cutting cylinders with hardened steel. They use the highest quality materials in their products, and a rigorous testing program insures the only the best products leave their factory in Germany. The series of small office shredders are tough and efficient.

The design shred capacity is up to 400 sheets a day. This series of shredders are designed with a wooden cabinet and a swing open door. Behind the door is a box removeable box that is lined with a disposable bag. A visual alert indicator tells you when to change the bag. The series of office shredders are designed to service a busy office with multiple users. The design shred capacity is up to 2,000 sheets a day. As an example this series of shredders are perfect for medical offices responsible for destroying confidential health records. Features such as automatic shutoff, auto reverse, bag full, and automatic on and off make these machines convenient and easy to use. Moving up to the next class of shredders Dahl offers high capacity shredders that are designed to service a large volume of sensitve confidential documents. The design shred capacity is up to 28,000 sheets a day. These shredders have a 16" throat and can shred up to 60 sheets at a time. Since the power and capcity increases from the smallest to larger models you have your option to choose the perfect model to fit your needs. As an example these units would work well in a large office mail room where quantity and speed shredding would be a requirment. Since protection from identity theft and business espionage is a high priority for businesses and governments more rigid requirements are in place for security shredding. Dahle has the high securtiy class of shredders that meet that need. These shredders meet the requirements set by the Department of Defense for top secret documents. The departmental shredders that Dahle makes are designed for high capacity, where multiple offices are sharing the shredding tasks. These machines are designed for shredding up to 60,000 sheets a day. Dahle paper shredders are world class in quality and security. Their series of shredders from home to industial use are engineered to get the job done thoroughly.



Online Why dahle paper shredders are world class

How to leave your dead end job

This is for everyone who is sticking with a job that no longer fits. Maybe it was right for awhile, for a certain time and place in your life. But not anymore. When was the last time you jumped out of bed with excitement about what the day would bring? "But I love the people I work with." "It's so convenient." "The money's pretty decent, considering…" I've heard all the excuses. Hell, I've made them. You know that job is sucking your soul and it's time to leave. The only thing left to decide is how. Above all, you want it to be your decision. Don't let boredom and apathy lead to an attitude that gets you fired or passed over. Who wants to work with a burnout no matter how skilled they are? The number one reason people stay in bad jobs is fear of the unknown. Are you hanging on to something that doesn't fit just because it's familiar? What if the unknown wasn't scary? What if it was filled with joy and delightful possibilities? Sure, there's that transition period where you leave what you can do in your sleep and head into new territory. I assure you that the downhill slide of staying too long is far greater than the steepness of a little learning curve. How might you make unknown territory more comfortable? 1. Make It Known Learn about it. Do research. Talk to people. Do informational interviews. Volunteer, be a trainee. Find ways to educate yourself. Go to school. Hire a trainer. Shine some light on the stuff the scary ignorance and it's no big deal. If you're drawn to it you probably have a knack. 2. Make It Up There are a lot of successful people in the world who just decide that they know what they're doing. I'll never forget my friend Susan, a beautiful and confident woman who discovered her gift for public speaking in Toastmaster's and went on to become a highly paid consultant just because she decided she was worth listening to. I had just finished grad school and was trying to get my nerve up to go pitch companies. She read a book or two, made a presentation, and was suddenly crossing the country getting big fees. There's a lot to be said for chutzpah. 3. Try It On A Small Scale Part-time or pilot projects work well particularly if you're thinking of venturing out on your own. The hours are long when you don't give up your day job but if you're pursuing your passion you generally can find the energy. Cater a friend's party for the cost of the supplies. Print some business cards on your computer. Do some pro bono work for a civic group for the testimonials. Before long you'll feel ready to go for it. 4. Dive In This is my favorite. I get enormous energy from leaping off metaphorical cliffs. Instead of screaming "NO", try saying "Wheee!" or "Geronimo." I've crossed the country on three occasions with no job and no place to live. I keep having soft, successful landings so I keep leaping. Sometimes it takes a geographic change to get yourself out of a rut. Try something out there and see if you can fly. 5. Be Prepared So maybe you're not a leaper. You can plan for contingencies, save that nest egg. Find an answer for all the what-ifs. But be careful not to over prepare. Just how likely are those eventualities that you're covering? There comes a point when it's time to take steps. "Until one is committed, there is hesitancy, the chance to draw back, always ineffectiveness. Concerning all acts of initiative (and creation), there is one elementary truth the ignorance of which kills countless ideas and splendid plans: that the moment one definitely commits oneself, then providence moves too. All sorts of things occur to help one that would never otherwise have occurred. A whole stream of events issues from the decision, raising in one's favour all manner of unforeseen incidents and meetings and material assistance, which no man could have dreamed would have come his way. Whatever you can do or dream you can, begin it. Boldness has genius, power and magic in it. Begin it now". —J. W. von Goethe Remember, if you only do what you already know how to do your world would get pretty stale. Growth is an essential part of life. There comes a time to move on. You can feel when change is due. When that time comes the universe makes it easy for you. The money for graduate school appears, child care arrangements work out, an article about a new company catches your eye. Pay attention to the signals. Then trust your judgment. If something tells you this new opportunity is right, it probably is.



Online How to leave your dead end job

Cisco ccna exam tutorial why do we need private address ranges

When you're studying to pass the CCNA, you're introduced to "private addresses", the address ranges formally referred to as RFC 1918 Private Addresses. (RFC stands for Request For Comment; to see a typical RFC, just put that term in your favorite search engine.) There are three ranges of 1918 Private Addresses, one in each major network class. Class A: 10.0.0.0 /8 Class B: 172.16.0.0 /12 Class C: 192.168.0.0 /16 Be careful - these masks are not the classful network masks you're familiar with! The need for private address ranges arose when we started running out of IP addresses. (A lot of us never thought that would happen, but a lot of us used to think we’d never need storage units bigger than floppy disks, too.) You can imagine that as networks began to be installed in offices and schools worldwide, the finite number of IP addresses became a restrictive factor. Many devices that were using these precious IP addresses did not need to communicate with any device outside its own local area network (LAN). Therefore, these devices could be assigned an IP address that could be used on another device in another LAN - but these devices would not be able to communicate across the Internet. It was decided to create network address ranges that would be used exclusively for such devices. That's why when you go from one local area network to another, you'll usually see hosts with IP addresses from the above three ranges. Of course, as time went on, more and more of these devices did need to reach hosts across the Internet. That's where NAT - Network Address Translation - comes into play. But that is a subject for another tutorial!



Online Cisco ccna exam tutorial why do we need private address ranges

What is deforestation be proactive knowledge is power

What Is Deforestation? Be Proactive: Knowledge Is Power Mankind is feeling the wrath of nature. It seems that more and more natural disasters are taking place; and this has led to consciousness about the earth’s resources. Forests are the most affected ecosystem in the planet. This is probably due to the fact that basic necessities need trees as a raw material. What is even more appalling is man’s desire for wider land areas, so they cut off more trees in order to convert the area into a housing community or subdivision; and an agricultural land or worse, a dump site – this perhaps can be the answer to what is deforestation. By Definition By definition, deforestation means the cutting or removal of trees from woodlands or forests in order to convert the land into commercial or logging reasons or for whatever purpose it may serve them. Generally, deforestation denotes the extraction of trees without sufficient reforestation or effort to replant a tree elsewhere to replace the one that has been cut. Since time immemorial, man has been making the environment adapt to the civilizations' growing needs. First it was cutting trees down to use for kindling, next it was for shelter, and then for paper and other products. Thousands of forests have been cleared all over the world to pave way for man’s innovations and spatial requirements. It seems that forests are present to cater to man’s needs and whims. Raising Consciousness It is human nature to be moved into action when our sense of well being becomes endangered. This is undoubtedly the reason why most people are becoming concerned over deforestation. The easiest way to make people care is to emphasize the benefits of forests and woodland, and to show how its depletion will radically change our lives for the worst. First off, deforestation revolves around a number of issues but none as totally important as the two key subjects that we must be aware of: the primary concern is global warming or green house effect, the secondary matter is the question of whether the trees are utilized properly and if reforestation efforts are being made. Trees absorb carbon dioxide, helping reduce the amount of carbon released into our atmosphere. Deforestation kills the trees that help prevent greenhouse effect. Green house effect accounts for the Earth's over all temperature rises, thus causing bizarre weather patterns. That is why the frequency of droughts, floods, tidal waves, and other natural disasters have risen. The second concern is that the trees being cleared to pave way for metropolis are simply slashed and burned. Aside from the excessive emission of carbon dioxide brought about by burning wood, there is the apprehension that the trees would have been put to better use providing shelter for the homeless, building materials or other useful undertakings. The subsequent effects are truly devastating. Who knew that deforestation can cause so much head ache? Yes, who knew? If only people have taken the time to inform themselves then they would have been able to make informed decisions and fight for what is right. What Can You Do To Help? Since you are now knowledgeable of what is deforestation, it would be of much help to lead in the initial steps to change. Are you thinking what a lowly individual can do to help? Well, small steps make a huge difference especially when everyone is working at the same goal. Armed with the knowledge of the disasters that deforestation can bring about will definitely make a person regulate his or her actions. Start by conserving the most basic of household materials like paper towels, napkins and tissue papers. Recycling and knowing how to recycle materials will greatly help find a solution to green house emissions. Next is to be pro active and help educate other people by joining campaign groups who fight against deforestation. Generally you don’t have to be like a crazy person shouting at the streets and joining rallies, begin by changing your attitude and outlook and then you will see that little things do make a difference.



Online What is deforestation be proactive knowledge is power

Common bulimia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa, is an eating disorder, which is often times confused with Anorexia Nervosa. Although the two "Nervos's", are similar Bulimia involves binge eating before intentionally starving the body by excessive excercise, laxatives, and more commonly vomiting. Due to the fact that Bing eating, and excessive excercise for example can be on a broad spectrum, there is a set of criteria that has been set out as a guideline for a patient to be diagnosed with bulimia. The criteria is listed below: - The patient is of normal weight or overweight. - The patient does not meet the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa. - The patient feels incapable of controlling the urge to binge, even during the binge itself, and consumes a larger amount of food than a person would normally consume at one sitting. - The patient purges him or herself of the recent intake, resorting to vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, exercising, etc. - The patient engages in such behavior at least twice per week for three months. - The patient is focused upon body image and the desperate desire to appear thin. Although the end result in Bulimia involves food habits, the initial cause is due to a psychological issues and lack of self control. "Binge" and "purge" sessions are often times severe, and in often cases are only stopped when the individual is interupted by another person. The frequency of Bulimia varies by the individual, and can range from daily to weekly, etc. If you or someone you love is affected with Bulimia it is recommended that you take immediate steps to start getting control back, and eliminating the disorder.



Online Common bulimia nervosa

Five inexpensive ways to help your children invest in holiday memories

Christmas memories are never dependent on the amount of money spent or the popularity of the toy. Memories are made up of amount of heart invested and given. This year, let your children invest their time and hearts in making Christmas memories for your family. 1. Buy white or red place mats and let your children create their own artwork with fabric crayons. A placemat can be made for each guest at Thanksgiving or Christmas dinner. Your children will feel an important part of the festivities. 2. Make paper angels and have your children write short messages to each family member stating the things about that person for which they are thankful. Your children will have an opportunity to think beyond the commercialism of the day to appreciate the blessings they already have. 3. Start a cookie exchange among the neighborhood children. Your children can make a dozen cookies for each family in the neighborhood and deliver them wrapped in a colored tin. They can then sit back and weight to see the kind of cookie surprises come to their door! 4. Allow your children to make this year’s Christmas cards. Simply buy blank cards at your favorite office supply store and let your children loose with magic markers. They can even compose a poem and message for each recipient. 5. Have your children come up with small tasks they can easily do - like taking out the trash. They can then write those tasks on plain paper angels they make themselves. Have them deliver the angels to elderly neighbors as a gift of sharing for the holiday season. Learning to give the gift of themselves can be the most valuable memory of the season! Let your children become a vital part of the planning of the holiday season and not simply receivers of gifts. It will help them understand that giving can be as much fun (and more rewarding!) as receiving. And their memories of this holiday season may set a lifelong pattern – which may be the best holiday present of all!



Online Five inexpensive ways to help your children invest in holiday memories

Dubai vend 2006 exhibition

Dubai, 12th July 2006 - One year after its successful inauguration in May 2005, the 2nd “Dubai International Vending Machines Exhibition” is again set to take place this year from 14-17 November in Dubai, the capital of the United Arab Emirates and certainly the Middle East’s most vibrant and rapidly expanding business hub. Organised and managed by its founders, the Dubai-based prestigious event management company “In Time Events LLC”, this exhibition is expected to attract more than 6,000 visitors during the course of this 4-day event, displaying a comprehensive portfolio of the latest in vending machines and its related products by more than 170 exhibiting importers, distributors and traders from around the world. As an event unique of its kind in the Gulf region and the UAE in particular, this 2nd edition of the “Dubai International Vending Machines Exhibition” caters to the specific needs of the fast growing retail industry for Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG), as well as to the open public and governmental institutions, among who also is the Dubai Municipality. The exhibition will be complemented by a choice of high profile industry leaders who will be sharing their thoughts on the industry with the audience by giving some in-depth background information on the businesses and competitive environment which they are affiliated with. The 2nd “Dubai International Vending Machines Exhibition” is the ideal platform for decision-makers and other business professionals, such as financial institutions, franchisers, industry consultants, associations and private sector representatives to meet, exchange ideas and create future relationships of sustainable mutual benefit. On the same occasion, the “Dubai International Vending Machines Exhibition” will be accompanied by the “Dubai International Soft Drinks Exhibition”, which also is to take place during the period 14-17 November 2006 – Dubai Creek Park having such sophisticated and mutually enhancing exhibitions in place ensures a high degree of value added to each of these events. For more information please do get directly in touch with In Time Events LLC Tel.: +971 (04) 2953379 Fax: +971 (04) 2953374 Dubai – United Arab Emirates Or visit intime-events. com and dubai-vend. com



Online Dubai vend 2006 exhibition

History of the pawpaw tree

Pawpaw trees were discovered in 1541 by the Spanish explorer, Hernando Desoto, on an excursion into the Mississippi Valley, and he sent samples of this plant back to Europe. William Bartram in 1776 stated in his botanical book, Travels, that he found pawpaw trees growing on the Alatamaha River in Georgia and in east Florida, which he described as, ‘Annona incarna,’ the name later was updated by modern taxonomists. “The fruit the size of a small cucumber …containing a yellow pulp of the consistence of a hard custard, and a very delicious, wholesome food.” This fruit is agreeably flavored and considered to be the largest native fruit of North America. The pawpaw trees are said to be endangered or threatened in the states of New York and New Jersey, in the forests where it grows naturally. The pawpaw tree grows across most of the eastern United States as a native tree. Mature pawpaw trees produce fruits 2" wide by 10" long, looking and tasting very much like a banana. The fruit is liked immensely by most people and may be purchased at many outdoor markets in West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, etc. The pawpaw pulp has the consistency of creamy custard and may be eaten raw, baked, or used as a pie filling. The trees grow about 15' tall and have been known to produce as much as 60 pounds of pawpaws per tree. Some individual pawpaws weigh up to a pound each. Zones 5-10 Much interest has been recently directed towards research and development of improved varieties of the pawpaw at Universities in Tennessee, Kentucky, and Ohio. The large fruit is not well known in much of the United States, but its flavor and exotic shape make it a candidate for the expansive, potential of specialty fruit markets in the future. Taste it once fresh and you will feel compelled to have some of these pawpaw trees growing in your personal fruit orchard. One of the great horticultural mysteries of the world is: why have most paw paw trees, that were plentiful throughout early U. S. forests, virtually disappeared from their natural habitat today? That answer may lie within the research results (Peterson 1991), that showed that the paw paw is sensitive to ultraviolet light, thus, paw paw seedlings may not grow back after the forests have been harvested, and there are very few virgin forests left in the United States. Paw paws can be found growing there abundantly, but once the forests are clean-cut, the paw paw will not usually become re-established. These experiments must be clearly remembered, when you order your paw paw trees. They must be planted under partial shade of other trees, however, you may plant your pawpaw trees in the open, if the trees are grown under shade cloth for a couple of seasons. The tree will lose its sensitivity to full sunlight once it has become established and the shade cloth can be discarded. Some gardeners wish to plant their pawpaw trees in pots for a couple of years under shady conditions, but this is not necessary if the above guidelines are followed. Since paw paw trees are tap rooted, growth will be slow during the first year, but after that, very rapid growth occurs afterwards. Paw paw leaves are large and that large leaf surface generally indicates a need for large amounts of soil moisture, and therefore, generally, paw paws are found in their greatest numbers near river flood plains. Leaves or other organic composted materials are very beneficial to paw paws. The skin of paw paws is thin and edible and can vary in color from a light green to a golden yellow. Most people prefer to eat the pawpaw fruit after it becomes soft to the touch. The custard - like pulp tastes like banana and varies in color from white to deep orange. The seed are few and large, thus, pawpaws are easy to eat raw. Most paw paws are sold at roadside markets, because the shelf life is short. Commercially, the paw paw is important in juices, pies, cakes, custards, ice cream and other processed products. The pawpaw tree was voted by Better Homes and Gardens, in the year 2000, as the landscape tree of the year. The pawpaw and the pawpaw tree are loaded with beneficial health extracts. The bark contains fluids that demonstrate anti-tumor properties and have been used over the years to fight scarlet fever and red skin rashes. These extracts from pawpaw trees are highly useful as an organic insect killer (pesticide). Pawpaw fruits are rich in minerals such as magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese, potassium, and phosphorus. The fruit also contains abundant concentrations of Vitamin C, proteins, and their derivative amino acids. There are a number of grafted cultivars of paw paw but their range of adaptation is very narrow, and many cultivars that produce heavy crops of large fruit in Kentucky, Indiana or West Virginia do not perform satisfactorily in Georgia, Florida, Carolina or Alabama. Consider buying improved seedling paw paw trees, which appear to be more adaptable universally. Try some of these trees in your orchard for a real tasty treat.



Online History of the pawpaw tree

So where s the silver lining

Baby boomers beware! What you have been told all these years about silver fillings may not be all they are cracked up to be. Truth is, it may be time to retire those old silver fillings, also known as amalgams. Post WWII children grew up in an era in which there was a high consumption of sugar-laden foods. Foods like your favorite cereal, sodas, candy bars and desserts. The amount of sugar filled foods for that generation and the current generation is staggering. Additionally, during this period the tooth strengthening benefits of fluoridated water were still undiscovered.

These two factors combined were a major contributing factor to reception rooms of every dentist office in America overflowing with unsuspecting patients. Unsuspecting in that the solution dentistry provided for all of these teeth pitted with cavities and resembling the surface of the moon was an inexpensive silver tooth patch invented in 1894. Most people were led to believe that silver fillings were actually good for them. Unfortunately, when the dentist patted you on the head, sent you on your way with your lip hanging off of your face and a shiny toy ring in your pocket, he or she failed to tell you, “Oh by the way, your shiny new teeth are packed with mercury and they are going to wear out someday. Only next time there won’t be a pretty ring in your pocket - just a hefty bill.” Why Do Fillings Wear Out? Several factors cause the demise of amalgam restoration. Size, personal hygiene, and diet seem to have the greatest influence on their life expectancy. When a tooth is filled, amalgam is packed into a hole created by bacteria and your dentist’s drill. The bigger the hole, the larger the filling used to repair the damage is and the weaker a tooth becomes. Weaker teeth are doomed to fracture because a large filling acts like a wedge, similar to a wedge used to split firewood. Chewing even soft foods wears the surface of each filling and intensifies the wedging. Hard foods like Corn Nuts and ice wreak havoc on your teeth and should be completely avoided. Acids found in citrus products, coffee, cola products, and foods containing sugar cause the surface of the filling to become rusted and pitted, like a rusty old tin can. The Truth About Mercury There are two primary areas to consider regarding mercury. One is how pliable a material it is. The other is how toxic it is. Mercury is placed in thermometers for a reason; it is very sensitive to temperature change. Even a two-degree difference will register on a thermometer due to the mercury expanding. With mercury being as much as 55% of the substance in an amalgam filling, imagine what that is doing to your tooth structure. Incredibly it seems that temperature fluctuation in the foods we eat cause the most dramatic breakdown effects in the teeth. When we eat hot or cold foods our fillings expand and contract more that the teeth they are placed inside. Since these fillings are packed tightly into the tooth there is absolutely no room for change. A can of soda pop placed in a freezer provides an example of two materials expanding at different rates, left long enough and it will explode. Although not as dramatic, the pressures associated with changing mouth temperatures does create microscopic fractures in your teeth, similar to cracks in the windshield of a car. These cracks continue to grow and provide a convenient hiding place for cavity causing bacteria. Even the best brushing and flossing techniques are little match for this type of cavity, and left untreated they can cause large portions of your tooth to break. Many people don’t realize that the mercury in your silver fillings just happens to be number two on the list of the most toxic elements known to man. In California all Amalgam manufacturers, as of December 1993, must display the following warning. Warning - This Office uses amalgam-filling materials, which contain and expose you to Mercury, a chemical known to the state of California to cause birth defects and other reproductive harm. Please consult your dentist for more information. Some countries have actually banned the use of mercury altogether. In the United States dentists cannot just throw old mercury down the sink. They have to treat it like the toxic waste it is. Treatment Options Fortunately there are now alternatives to silver fillings. New types of replacements have revolutionized dental care. Tooth colored restorations made out of porcelain or plastic can be safely bonded (glued) into place creating a much stronger and more stress resistant chewing surface. However, there is a downside. Be prepared to pay a little more for these types of restorations because the materials used are more expensive and more difficult for your dentist to place. Also, don’t be surprised if your insurance company saddles you with more of the share of the additional fees. It may take years for them to discover how long term benefits of bonded fillings out way the increase of up front costs. The question you must ask yourself in any health decision you make is, “What is my health worth?” Your answer will help you find your own silver lining while maintaining a safe, healthy and beautiful smile. Copyright: © 2004 by Dr. Scott Kiser Publishing Guidelines: You may publish my article in your newsletter, on your web site, or in your print publication provided you include the resource box at the end. Notification would be appreciated but is not required.



Online So where s the silver lining

A commonsense guide to exorcism

Enlightenment shines its spotlight in all the dark nooks and crannies of religious dogma gone wrong. As long as there have been humans and religious authorities to frighten the masses into obedience, there have been exorcisms. From trepanning in prehistoric times to the deliverance ministries and catholic rites of today, well meaning shamans and clerics have sought to exorcise the “demons” of mental illness and addiction to no avail. It’s time to stop the nonsense. A Commonsense Guide to Exorcism Bloodshot eyes stared at the crucifix six inches from his nose. Leather restraints lined with lamb’s wool fastened his arms and legs to the chair. The demon-possessed man lunged at the hand holding the holy symbol. Gnashing teeth struggled to bite the outstretched wrist. Crimson scratches and cryptic markings appeared across his belly. Blood and sweat spattered the floor around the brute, while a puddle of urine under his chair slowly spread out until the priest could no longer avoid standing in it. The satanic beast chewed his tongue and the tender flesh inside his cheek. His tortured mouth spit blood and tissue and obscenities at those attending the exorcism. What we have here is a Hollywood-embellished, grotesque superstition at work. What happened to cause rational people to accept this archaic remnant of religious authority’s attempt to control the masses with fear? Frightened followers submit under scare tactics of hellfire and damnation. This is doubly effective because the authorities believe in what they are teaching people. They too fear the evil entities brought to life by their imagination. Why are we so vulnerable to this indoctrination? Because all souls are encoded to seek God. We begin our life on earth with a "god-shaped hole" in our soul. God puts it there so we will want to find our way back to Him. We spend our lives trying to fill the “empty spot.” We pack it with lovers, religion, money, drugs, work, excitement, gambling, etc. None of these fits, so we’re soon on the search again looking for love, for attachment, for distraction, and for fulfillment. In the older religions from Abraham through Jesus Christ and Mohammed, the lower nature of humans was referred to as demons, devils, and Satan. These are allegorical names for turning away from God and goodness. The pure teachings of the Messengers of God never suggested that demons, devils, Satanic powers, or fallen angels are anything other than allegory. The Church and Hollywood borrowed their concepts and descriptions of these entities and their work from Dante’s “Inferno” written over 700 years ago during the European Dark Ages. Family traditions, religious teachings, television, movies, and books instill the belief in demons, devils, and possession. When someone in authority tells a person that they are possessed by a demon, most believe it. Traditions, television, movies, and books show people how a demon-possessed person is supposed to act. Psychogenic purpuras is the medical term for stress related bruising and bleeding from the skin and mucosa. It’s common in cases of great emotional stress. It’s “super hives.” Exorcisms are created for these man-made demons. As cultures progress, they recognize the absurdity surrounding religious superstition and dogma. Today we understand that the Greek and Roman mythological gods were a phenomenon of that age, and our enlightenment invests less and less fear in imaginary devils and demons. Education shines its light in the dark corners of the mind. A culture’s fear of demons is in direct ratio to the education of its people. Fear of an overwhelming power of evil is a learned fear. It is taught in order to control the behavior of people. Religious belief and spiritual authority without the influence of science is superstition. In the same way that Galileo was excommunicated from the church for saying that the earth was not the center of the universe, people are controlled by a belief in demons and demonic possession. Some religions have become the stronghold of superstition. I have attended both a voodoo service and a holy roller church service. The physical actions appeared the same. The guttural gibberish sounded the same. They both had people rolling on the floor in a state of spiritual “ecstasy,” and they both teach demonic possession. We live in a world of great scientific discovery, a world of brain science and neurotransmitters. Why to you think the chemical lithium can exorcise a demon? Why can PCP unleash a demon? If you look at demon possession clinically, you will find schizophrenia, psychoses, Tourettes Syndrome, alcoholism, drug addiction, etc. Where a belief in demons is strongest, incidents of possession are strongest. This is commonsense, folks. People, who fear demons, find demons to fear. People, who worry about demon possession, find demons to possess them. People, who imagine demons are lurking and waiting for a chance to pounce upon them, get pounced upon. People, who understand the psychological impact of superstition and fear, know that they are fully in charge of themselves, and they are never possessed by mythical demons. People, who know that old houses creak, squirrels make nests in the attic, and underground caverns cause infrasound vibrations are not haunted by demons. Why is that? I think you know the answer. An evil spirit is nothing more than a bad attitude ... a spirit of hate, a spirit of greed, a spirit of cruelty, etc. And you can choose to replace these with a spirit of joy, a spirit of love, a spirit of giving. These are conscious choices made by a human’s free will. We choose how we think, what we do, and what we say. “The devil made me do it” is a powerful alternative to accepting responsibility for our free will choices and behaviors. So, how do you exorcise demons? By seeing them for what they are, unhealthy childhood experiences of mental, emotional, or physical abuse. Sick families raise sick children. Sick children raise more sick children. Loving, nurturing environments exorcise demons. Knowledge exorcises demons. 1. Know that demons are imaginary creations of fears common to man’s lower nature. 2. Understand that there are no demons with the power to possess you. 3. In cases of mental illness, seek professional help. 4. In cases of addiction, seek professional help. Copyright 2005 Robbin Renee Bridges



Online A commonsense guide to exorcism

Is low carb weight loss really just water loss

Any weight loss or diet plan, including low-carb plans like the induction phase of the Atkins Diet will result in water loss during the first week or two. However, one of the real beauties of following a low carbohydrate eating plan is that most of the weight loss than extends beyond the initial induction phase of the diet is really from a drop in fat pounds. How can this be? Well, when you follow a controlled carbohydrate eating plan like Atkins or the South Beach Diet, your body soon switches from burning carbohydrates (which the diet deprives the body of) to burning fat for energy. In other words, the majority of the weight loss that occurs beyond the initial induction phase is really loss of fat that has been stored in your body. Contrary to what many skeptics and misinformed persons may report or say, even if your body sheds water during the first few days of a controlled carbohydrate diet plan like the South Beach Diet or Atkins, the body’s water balance soon returns to normal and the weight loss that follows is the depletion of fat pounds. This loss of fat reveals itself to one and all in the form declines in inches (your body measurements) and pounds – regardless which low-carb diet you follow.



Online Is low carb weight loss really just water loss

London builders sheer appeal of your shower part two

Silver or golden impeller wheel with plenty of fans penetrating small outlets is rotated under the pressure of water streams. As a result, they form zigzag spirals that, sliding and dancing, massage the body slightly, which is very pleasing and useful. It appeared as a part of multifunctional shower cubicle equipment; now it is available as a separate unit and can be installed on the wall or ceiling. Rotating shower heads look very original and besides its direct functions, it also serves as a decorative addition to bathroom furniture. It should certainly be complemented with a manual shower, as a rotating shower head rather serves for giving its owner a pleasure, than suites as a main washing system. Chandelier shower. Chandelier shower is really something exotic. Huge shower head mounted on the ceiling have become an integral part of modern first-class bathrooms. They resemble fantastic chandeliers.

Imagine, for example, such "chandelier" consisting of two sections, each having almost 11 inches diameter, installed into huge murano glass screen, sometimes coloured, with an impressive illumination. This is a spectacular construction. In combination with frameless glass it looks striking. Artifact shower. A number of shower heads have such unusual shape that it is difficult to describe them. We have even got used to thin cigar-shaped shower head, which has shorter diameter than a hosepipe, but artifact shower odd shapes are often impossible to describe or classify.

Stationary shower, shaped as complex unsteady connections located directly at the top of its body, which allow one to change a stream angle, is something truly innovative. Or some object consisting of seven autonomous small showers heads (a big central one and six rays), that connecting their jets together are capable of giving unforgettable pleasure. When looking at such objects for the first time, one can only guess, what their functions are. Their shape puzzles with the lack of objects to compare them with. The only way to be sure that this is really a shower you have to try it out yourself! While choosing a shower one should first concentrate on its functional benefits and reliability. Certain factors would determine which shower is right for your. Without going into technical details of a household hot and cold water pressure, there is a choice of the modern showers designed for your needs. Choose a shower that is compatible with your water supply system. It may be worth checking installation requirements to ensure the shower is coping with water system, or get it fitted by experienced plumber.

Because of different methods of delivering hot and cold water in the dwelling it is fundamental that you use the right product. Good mews is that having hot and sold supply you will find the best shower solution for bathroom. Nevertheless, design is important too: a shower is now a decoration element, not only a technical one. Constructions presented today are usually close to high-tech style, but there are also offers of other style showers: from modern to almost traditional English style. Professionals say there is a choice.



Online London builders sheer appeal of your shower part two

Nature as a source of inspiration for writing child stories

Copyright 2006 Paul Arinaga Nature can be a rich source of inspiration for writing a child book. Here are 7 ways that you can tap into nature to uncover material for your children’s stories and unleash your creativity. #1: Flora, Fauna and… This is obvious, but you can use animals, or even plants, mountains, stones, rivers, etc. as characters in your story. They will probably be anthropomorphic, having the characteristics of humans. For example, a river that becomes angry and turns into raging rapids. You can use nature in this way to help your reader see things from a different perspective. For example, you could make up a story about the animal kingdom (e. g. an ant colony). You might imagine what it would be like to become an ant and see the world from that perspective. Nature may also form the setting for your story. Just remember to describe only what’s necessary to move your story forward and convey your message. Don’t get bogged down in lengthy descriptions. #2: The Four Seasons Not the musical group but the four seasons of winter, spring, summer and fall. These could be an integral part of your story, not just the backdrop to it. The fable of the ant and the grasshopper is a good example of how the seasons can propel a story forward and be a metaphor, too. A beautiful example of how you can use the seasons as both a metaphor and a setting is the Korean film “Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter, and Spring Again”. #3: Cycles More than just the four seasons, nature is full of cycles: life and death; healing; pregnancy and birth; maturation; etc. A common theme in many children’s stories is the maturation or growth of the protagonist. The hero or heroine of the story overcomes obstacles and becomes stronger or more mature in the process. #4: The Elements Did you know that each element has a concept associated with it? Air = Thought, Fire = Desire, Water = Emotions, Earth = Stability. In Chinese philosophy, the elements are also linked to parts of the body. This gives you three dimensions to play around with: elements, concepts and parts of the body. The elements themselves could be anthropomorphic reflections of the different concepts and their interplay could be a metaphor for human being’s difficulties in finding balance between thought and emotion, desire and stability, etc. #5: Astronomy The universe or astronomy (sun, moon, planets, stars, etc.) is another possible source of inspiration. The planets can be anthropomorphic characters or can be manipulated by the characters. Characters that manipulate the planets represent a theme often found in mythology and even modern-day stories such as “Papa, Please Get the Moon for Me” #6: Nature’s Patterns As we all know, nature is very complex, yet elegantly simple at the same time. Natural dynamics such as evolution and propagation could be an interesting element in your stories. You could, for example, explore how a creature has evolved over time (this could be a good sci-fi story). On another level, there are also little truisms in nature. Remember when the giant sea monster threatening to devour the Jedi Knights in one of the Star Wars films gets swallowed whole by an even bigger monster? Qui-Gon Jinn, the Jedi, then says wryly: “there’s always a bigger fish.” #7: Study and Absorb Nature If you want to really be inspired, try just sitting somewhere in nature and observing it in all its splendor. You may discover interesting (anthropomorphic) behaviors or larger patterns. You will also become more relaxed and when you’re relaxed it’s easier to be creative. Conclusion These are just a few ways you can get inspired by nature to make up child stories. I'm sure you'll think of more. I think nature is particularly interesting as a source of inspiration because it is awesome and powerful, neutral (with “pure nature” there is no good or bad per se), beautiful and perfect. It’s pretty hard to improve upon nature. P. S. If you record or write down any of your stories, you can send them to me and I'll publish them on my website with your name (and copyright) on them.



Online Nature as a source of inspiration for writing child stories

All you ever wanted to know about earrings but were afraid to ask

It is thought that earrings date back to 3000 BC where they originated in Asia and appeared in 2 formats, one being the simple hoop earring and the other the more elaborate pendant earring. The oldest earrings ever found by archaeologists were discovered in royal graves in Iraq and date back to around 2500 BC. Gold, silver and bronze hoop earrings have also been found dating back to 2000 BC in Crete. In those days it was customary to bury jewellery with the dead. In 16th century in the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt a type of earring called an earplug became fashionable and these fitted snugly into a wide stretched hole in the earlobe. This type of piercing is seen on the sculpture of Tutankhamen.

Poverty in the Dark ages meant that work with precious metals dwindled although some goldsmiths preserved designs that were to later emerge in 7th century Greece. The most popular earrings then there were the pendant type and they often featured a bird or likenesses of the gods Eros and Nike. In the 2nd century during the Roman Empire, earrings became a popular way for rich women to show off their wealth and the use of precious gemstones in the jewellery also became more popular. During the Middle Ages, earrings became less popular and practical due to the popularity of elaborate hairstyles and headdresses. In fact for a time it was considered immoral for respectable married woman not to have their heads covered in public. In 16th century Italy, hairstyles changed with hair being swept away from the face leaving ears exposed although for another 100 years things stayed the same in England, Spain and France with the wearing of high collars keeping earrings out of fashion. By the 17th century, earrings became very fashionable accessory for the well dressed lady across the whole of Europe. One of the most popular designs of those times were the very large heavy pendant type earrings called girandoles which were great favourites of Queen Victoria. These earrings required a substantial amount of precious metals and gemstones and so were very heavy, which meant that most people that wore them suffered from elongated earlobes.

Although earrings were popular with wealthy people throughout the ages, they were also popular with poorer people who adopted their own styles which were less elaborate and made from less expensive materials. It wasn’t until the 20th century that earrings were completely revolutionised. Different fittings appeared such as screw and clip on as well as those for pierced ears and it also became the norm for women to wear earrings in the day and not just for special occasions. The 1960’s marked a massive change for the wearing of earrings when designs became completely unrestrained and it became common to see men also wearing earrings although most only usually wear one earring. Women began to collect earrings and with so many designs available the choices were endless. Today the choice is even greater and the popularity of earrings increases with many people now having more than one set of piercings in which to display their jewellery. Modern materials such as titanium and different types of plastics have also become popular in the making of earrings because of their lightness, design possibilities and in the case of titanium because of its hypoallergenic qualities. There is now a never ending choice of different types of earrings from modern trendy cheap and cheerful everyday earrings to the more expensive gold, silver or platinum earrings inlaid with diamonds and other precious gemstones.



Online All you ever wanted to know about earrings but were afraid to ask