Getting to know acne

Acne This factsheet is for people who have acne. Acne is a skin condition that causes spots. Most people affected by acne are aged between 12 and 25.1 However, men and women in their 30s and 40s can also suffer. There are many treatments available to help deal with the condition. What is acne? Acne is a skin condition that typically causes one or more of the following: * blackheads (comedones) * whiteheads * red or yellow spots * greasy skin * scars Acne typically affects the skin of the face, back, neck, chest and arms and the severity of the condition can vary. Acne affects people of all skin colours. The processes that cause acne are exactly the same in people with black or brown skin but the impact is altered by the skin pigmentation. Acne is very common and affects about 80 in 100 people aged 11-30 at some time. home | health information | health factsheets Acne This factsheet is for people who have acne. Acne is a skin condition that causes spots. Most people affected by acne are aged between 12 and 25.1 However, men and women in their 30s and 40s can also suffer. There are many treatments available to help deal with the condition. What is acne? Acne is a skin condition that typically causes one or more of the following: * blackheads (comedones) 2,3 * whiteheads2,3 * red or yellow spots2,3 * greasy skin2,3 * scars2,3 Acne typically affects the skin of the face, back, neck, chest and arms and the severity of the condition can vary.1,4 Acne affects people of all skin colours. The processes that cause acne are exactly the same in people with black or brown skin but the impact is altered by the skin pigmentation. Acne is very common and affects about 80 in 100 people aged 11-30 at some time.4 The skin The surface of the skin has lots of small sebaceous glands just below the surface. These glands make an oily substance called sebum that keeps the skin smooth and supple. Tiny pores (holes in the skin) allow the sebum to come to the skin surface. Hairs also grow through these pores. IIllustration showing the structure of skin Illustration showing the structure of skin What causes acne? Acne is caused by the overactivity of the sebaceous glands that secrete oily substances onto the skin. The sebaceous glands of people with acne are especially sensitive to normal blood levels of a hormone called testosterone, found naturally in both men and women. Testosterone in people prone to acne triggers the sebaceous glands to produce an excess of sebum. At the same time, the dead skin cells lining the openings of the hair follicles (the tubes that hold the hair) are not shed properly and clog up the follicles. These two effects combined cause a build-up of oil in the hair follicles. This causes blackheads and whiteheads to form. For some people, their acne does not progress beyond this stage. However in other people, the build-up of oil in the hair follicles creates an ideal environment for a bacterium called Propionibacterium acnes to grow. These bacteria normally live harmlessly on your skin but when this ideal environment is created, they grow. They feed off the sebum and produce substances that cause a response from your body's immune system. This inflames the skin and creates the redness associated with spots. In more severe 'inflammatory acne', cysts develop beneath the skin's surface. These acne cysts can rupture, spreading the infection into nearby skin tissue. This can result in scarring. What makes acne worse? There are a number of things that can make your acne worse. These include the following: * picking and squeezing the spots may cause further inflammation and scarring1 * stress can make acne worse in some people, although it is not clear why1, * in women, outbreaks may be affected by the hormonal changes that occur during the menstrual cycle1, * excessive production of male hormones such as testosterone from conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome may be another cause.5 For more information, please see the separate BUPA factsheet Polycystic ovary syndrome * some contraceptive pills may make acne worse. This is due to the type of progestogen hormone in some pills whereas some other types of contraceptive pills can improve acne - see Treatments section below. Your GP will advise you which contraceptive pill to take * some medicines can make acne worse. For example, some medicines taken for epilepsy, and steroid creams and ointments that are used for eczema. Do not stop a prescribed medicine if you suspect it is making your acne worse, but tell your GP. An alternative may be an option * steroids can cause acne as a side-effect Treatment Acne may cause you considerable emotional distress but there is a range of treatment options to help you tackle the problem. No treatment will completely 'cure' your acne. The aims of treatment are to prevent new spots forming, to improve those already present, and to prevent scarring.3 Home treatment It is important to keep spot-prone areas clean, so wash the affected area twice a day with an unperfumed cleanser.1,6 The skin needs a certain amount of oil to maintain its natural condition, so avoid aggressive washing with strong soaps. There are a number of over-the-counter remedies available from pharmacies to treat mild acne. These usually contain antibacterial agents such as benzoyl peroxide (eg Oxy and Clearasil Max). As well as its antibacterial effects, benzoyl peroxide can dry out the skin and encourage it to shed the surface layer of dead skin. Together, these effects make it harder for pores to become blocked and for infection to develop. Benzoyl peroxide can cause redness and peeling, especially to start with. This tends to settle down if you reduce the number of times you use it. You can then build up your use gradually. No home treatments for acne will work immediately. It can take weeks, if not months, for significant effects to be noticeable. If home treatments have not worked after two months, or you have severe acne, you should visit your GP. Prescription medicines Your GP may start your treatment by prescribing a preparation containing benzoyl peroxide. If this does not work, or if you have more severe acne, there are a range of other treatment options that you can either rub onto your skin (topical) or take in tablet form (oral). Topical treatments There are several topical treatments you may be prescribed including those listed below: * azelaic acid (Skinoren) is an alternative to benzoyl peroxide and may not make your skin as sore as benzoyl peroxide * topical retinoids (eg Adapalene) are medicines based on vitamin A, which are rubbed into the skin once or twice a day.7 They work by encouraging the outer layer of skin to flake off * a topical antibiotic lotion applied to the skin can be used to control the P. acnes bacteria (eg Dalacin T). Treatment needs to continue for at least six months. Preparations that combine an antibiotic with other acne medication are available (eg Benzamycin which combines an antibiotic with benzoyl peroxide) Oral treatments There are several oral treatments you may be prescribed including those listed below: * oral antibiotics (tablets), such as tetracycline, can be prescribed for inflammatory acne. They should be taken daily for around three months, although it might take four to six months for the benefits to be seen.7 The success of this treatment can be limited because the strains of bacteria are often resistant to the common antibiotics. Antibiotics do not prevent pores from becoming blocked so treatment to prevent blackheads, such as benzoyl peroxide, is often also prescribed at the same time * some types of oral contraceptive tablets help women who have acne. A combination of the usual pill hormone called ethinylestradiol with cyproterone acetate (eg Dianette) suppresses male hormone activity so is often used in women with acne * isotretinoin (eg Roaccutane) is a medicine known as an oral retinoid, which also exists in a topical form (see above). Isotretinoin works by drying up oily secretions. It tends to be prescribed to people with severe forms of acne that have proved resistant to other treatments. There a number of serious side-effects of this drug, such as liver disorders and depresssion. You should not take isotretinoin if you are pregnant, as it is very dangerous to an unborn baby. For safety reasons, isotretinoin is only prescribed under the supervision of dermatology specialists.



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2006 chevrolet corvette z06

What’s new for the 2006 Corvette Z06? First, the 2006 Chevrolet Corvette has been redesigned for the 2006-year model. It has enhanced features, but in this article I want to tell you specifically about the Z06 features to this model. The Z06 is, of course, the fastest vette ever built. It will have a 500 horsepower 427 cubic inch engine with lightweight components. What does this mean in a 3130-pound car? It means superior performance beyond all other Corvettes. Estimated 0-60 in less than 4 seconds along with a sub 12-second quarter mile. Top speed is reported to be more than 190 MPH (on a closed race track of course). What makes this new Corvette so much better? Several components: 500-hp/475 lb.-ft torque 7000 RPM redline 11.0:1 Compression Titanium connecting rods Titanium intake valves and pushrods Hand built engine Dry sump lubrication Aluminum body structure Carbon fiber front fenders Magnesium front cradle Fixed roof design for rigidity Larger grill and cold air intake scoop Wide rear fenders and a rear spoiler incorporated into the tail of the car Larger cross-drilled front and rear disc brakes Larger wheels and tires 3” exhaust Light weight seats with fixed side bolsters Options: Bose audio with an in dash six CD changer Polished wheels Telescoping steering wheel Heated seats Navigation system Homelink XM Satellite Radio All in all, this is going to be one of the best Corvettes Chevrolet has ever offered. I can’t wait to see one.



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How to never make another car payment

Car prices today compete with small houses and well-equipped mobile homes. As these price increases become more accepted by consumers, so too are the longer terms that are necessary to fit them into cost of living budgets. At one point, the magic payment amount for the retail automobile market was $200 per month. But that payment would only satisfy a loan of approximately $8000- 10000 depending on interest rates. The average car payment today is closer to $400 per month and that's with financial institutions stretching the terms to 72-84 and 120 months. Something has gone terribly wrong in the psyche of consumers to even imagine that an automobile will not become obsolete before it is all paid up, 6, 7 or 10 years down the road. All they really need to do is take a look at a vehicle sold in 1995, 1997 or 1999, to get a live preview of what their new car will look like and potentially what it will be worth. Interestingly, research indicates that most Americans get bored with a car after driving it for 24-36 months. Why then would the typical financing term be 72-120 months?

At the point of purchase, most consumers tend to forget that car payments never include the cost of insurance, required maintenance and gas. When these items are added to a car payment, it can easily exceed what some people are paying in mortgages. It's analogous to the Middle Eastern people like Iranians whose culture practices beating themselves on the back with chains and whips. Every month, millions of Americans face the self-inflicted pain of making another car payment. Like the Iranians, they believe that if they can do it, it must be good and it will somehow make them better people in the hereafter.

A self-made millionaire, Dr. Cooper, an advocate for reversing unnecessary consumer debt has come up with a simple plan to change how we think of automobile ownership. His plan uses the same philosophy that our grand fathers grew up with, i. e. never buy anything that you cannot afford to pay for out of your own pocket. Unfortunately, if we lived by those rules we would need traffic lights and zebra crossings on our major highways because they would be packed with pedestrians. Well let's share Dr. Cooper's plan. He calls it the "Vehicle Saving Fund". This is a basic commercial bank savings account that can be started at any local bank. To make it more meaningful to you, lets call it the "Freedom From Car Payment Fund.

" Anyone can start such a fund; it does not matter if they are currently financing a vehicle. The idea is that if you intend to be a productive member of society and enjoy the benefits of your labor you will need to have personal transportation. This is not optional for most people who do not live in a big city where public transportation is available. The fund should be considered absolutely necessary, much like the rent or mortgage, it's a living expense. Here is how it works; if you are currently driving a financed vehicle, resolve to pay it off in its normal term. It's hard to keep making payment on a vehicle you do not like but that's where the discipline becomes important. Also, resolve to put aside a small amount every month to your "Freedom From Car Payment" account. Initially, it is totally understandable that it may be a little difficult but the amount is not important, it's the habit and the psychology of doing it that makes all the difference.

You can start with as little as $5-$10-$25 just be committed to doing it every month until it becomes a habit. You will also have to make a decision to continue driving the vehicle you are currently paying, this plan does not work if you decide that you need a new vehicle before paying off the one you are driving. The closer you are to your end of term, the better position you will be in to get what you want. But there is no rush, when you pay it off you should then begin to put the amount of your previous payment into your vehicle fund. Now with the equity in your current vehicle and your savings you can begin shopping. Considering the prices of automobiles today, there is a high probability that because of your vehicle depreciation and the small savings, you might not have enough money to buy a new vehicle. If you do not have enough to purchase what you want, there are always other options; the first is to buy what you can afford.

The alternative (worst-case scenario) is facing the dealer with no savings and having negative equity in the vehicle you are currently driving. Strange concept, I know, but when its all said and done, transportation is transportation, it gets you from point A to point B. The only difference is what you are willing to pay to get there. For many, because of the values they hold "whatever it takes" is an appropriate answer but the mind set has to now change to discipline and the desire to stop making lifetime payments. If you don't have a car right now and are enjoying the bliss of not having a financial obligation to an automobile, you can begin your savings immediately so that when the time comes you will have a sizable chunk to begin your search for your new car. You are in a very good position if you are not in the market presently looking for a vehicle. You have the time to save and plan for your next automobile. Begin the "Freedom From Car Payments Fund" today and in a couple of years you will really be much better off. Contrary to what dealers try to make you believe, car ownership does require long term planning in order to break the cycle of swapping payments every 3-4 years. It is a long term serious investment.

It's that simple. Easy, no but simple, and it can be done. It requires discipline and patience two characteristics that are not easily harnessed in by the now generation. The obvious benefit is no car payment but you will also save on insurance and have much more disposable income for other necessities. With determination, a little vision and planning anyone can drive exactly what they want; without the burden of a monthly payment. Could that be you?



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Changing business etiquette affects secretary s day gifts

Once upon a time a boss could take his secretary to lunch, or give flowers and candy for what began in 1952 as "National Secretaries Week". Today, the etiquette for what is now known as "Administrative Professionals Week" has changed, according to human resources experts. It's leaving bosses wondering what kind of gifts are appropriate to give their office staff in today's workplace. "There's increasing concern over what's proper for a boss to give an employee in the workplace," said Daniel Karpelman, who edits gifting advice for GiftCertificates. com. "Are flowers too personal? Is taking your admin for lunch and cocktails inappropriate? Bosses are worried about crossing the line in the current atmosphere of workplace etiquette and potential liability.

" Karpelman notes that giving the right corporate gifts can not only motivate and reward, but helps build employee commitment and strengthens your organization from within. Taking time to choose the right gift can enhance the employee's appreciation of the gesture. "Gifts that demonstrate some thought and effort are always better than something that feels hastily purchased, said Karpelman. "Many people enjoy a gift certificate to their favorite store - they are thrilled that you've recognized their diverse interests and given them a choice! When accompanied by a handwritten note, your gesture is sure to be appreciated; everyone likes to be recognized for hard work." If you're puzzled on what interests your staff members might have, GiftCertificates. com has an innovative solution - a SuperCertificate® which gives your employee the gift of choice. Imagine sending your secretary on a virtual shopping spree with a certificate redeemable at over 200 top stores and restaurants including gifts like clothing, jewelry, electronics, movie tickets and much more. SuperCertificates® are easy to give, never expire and can even be sent by email. Karpelman adds that although it's only natural for co-workers to compare their gifts, the monetary value of your gift certificate need not be the same for everyone on your staff. "If there are wide discrepancies in the gifts that you give, be aware that hurt feelings could arise. However if the same individual has worked for you steadily for 20 years, it would be perfectly appropriate for that person's gift to be substantially more significant than for someone who has only been with the company for six months." Whether you call them secretaries or administrative professionals, a stellar one is the heart of a well-run organization. This year, National Administrative Professionals Week is April 23-29. Make sure you don't miss this opportunity to let your staff know how much they are appreciated with a gift that is appropriate and welcomed.



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Eurosun solarium

Melanina a wolne rodniki Wiele się mуwi o tym, że opalanie przyczynia się do starzenia skуry. Tymczasem - ciekawostka - podczas opalania w organizmie aktywowany jest jeden z najsilniejszych znanych antyoksydantуw. Antyoksydanty lub - prościej - przeciwutleniacze, czyli substancje zwalczające tzw. wolne rodniki (niepożądane efekty przemiany materii, wpływające na starzenie się skуry) - to jeden z podstawowych składnikуw kosmetykуw pielęgnacyjnych. Najbardziej chyba znanym i jednym z najskuteczniejszych przeciwutleniaczy jest witamina E. Mało kto jednak wie, że podobnie skuteczne działanie wykazuje... melanina. Tak, tak, melanina, ciemny barwnik skуry, odpowiedzialny za powstawanie opalenizny. Ze względu na jej właściwości melanina bywa często wykorzystywana w produktach kosmetycznych. Syntetyk i natura W kosmetyce wykorzystuje się dwa rodzaje melaniny - naturalną (pozyskiwaną przede wszystkim z wełny czarnych owiec lub gruczołуw ośmiornic i kałamarnic) i syntetyczną (pozyskiwaną w drodze reakcji biochemicznych). Ta pierwsza jest lepsza - jej cząstki mają mniejsze rozmiary, dzięki czemu może przenikać do głębszych warstw naskуrka. Bywa stosowana między innymi w wysokiej klasy samoopalaczach, a także niektуrych specjalistycznych preparatach solaryjnych przyspieszających opalanie. Problemem są jednak wysokie koszty jej pozyskania. Wersja syntetyczna jest mniej skuteczna, za to dużo tańsza, a przez to bardziej popularna i częściej stosowana. Ze względu na stosunkowo duże rozmiary cząsteczek nie jest jednak w stanie przeniknąć przez skуrę czy choćby wniknąć w naskуrek, w związku z tym może działać jedynie powierzchniowo. Być może już wkrуtce uzyskana zostanie forma pośrednia - melanina biosyntetyczna, produkowana przez rośliny i niektуre bakterie. Łączyłaby skuteczność melaniny naturalnej z niskimi kosztami uzyskania. Badania trwają. Skuteczniej w duecie Melanina produkowana przez skуrę pod wpływem promieniowania UV stanowi - jak wiadomo - w duecie ze zgrubieniem skуry - najskuteczniejszą naturalną formę zabezpieczenia przed promieniowaniem UV. Jako składnik preparatуw kosmetycznych (rуwnież tych z filtrem SPF, zabezpieczających przed promieniowaniem ultrafioletowym) nie spełnia takiej roli - jej działanie ogranicza się do zwalczania wolnych rodnikуw. I trzeba przyznać, że robi to bardzo skutecznie. Już w stężeniu rzędu 0,05 - 1 promila potrafi zwalczyć do 80% wolnych rodnikуw. Jeżeli jej działanie pokryje się z działaniem witaminy E - skuteczność jest jeszcze większa. Melanina nie bywa stosowana w wyższych stężeniach (szczegуlnie powyżej 1%), ponieważ nadaje preparatom bardzo nieestetyczne zabarwienie, co mogłoby być odebrane przez użytkownika jako efekt niepożądany.



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Adverse debt levels blight uk consumers personal finances

Debt levels are at an all time high in the UK. The younger generation tend to be feeling the pinch the most, but parents are increasingly being required to bail them out, often at great expense to their own limited mortgage or retirement savings. It has become almost accepted as a fact of life that graduates will begin their careers with a considerable level of personal debt. The Association of Investment Trust Companies found that on average students expected to graduate with Ј7,208 of debt, while parents believed it would be nearer to Ј9,741, however the real average was found to be currently running at Ј13,501. Graduates then need to service credit cards, take out a mortgage, then cover the payments, repay university loans, not to mention the pressure to start saving earlier, and save more, for their retirement, whilst the basic state pension increasingly becomes inadequate. The government revealed in June that student debt for 2003-04 was seven times higher than they were in 1994-95 and the Student Loans Company has shown that debts owed to them has risen to more than Ј13bn. It is not only students who face financial difficulties early in life. Consumer Credit Counselling Services – Scotland ( http:// cccs. co. uk/ ), has indicated that young adults in general, under the age of 25, now account for more than 10 per cent of the estimated 32,000 people who have fallen into severe arrears on non-mortgage debts of more than Ј1 billion.

Malcolm Hurlston, Chairman of the Consumer Credit Counselling Services (CCCS) said, "It is noticeable that young people are accounting for an increasing proportion and the number of them seeking assistance has risen by about 25 per cent over the past two years or so." Analysts have been bracing themselves for news of a sharp increase in adverse debt levels from the major high street banks following report figures of a 21 per cent increase in bad debts levels at Lloyds TSB. City analysts expect HBOS and Royal Bank of Scotland to declare that bad debt charges have risen by around 20% in their personal banking businesses, and Barclays, HSBC and Alliance & Leicester are all expected to tell a similar tale of rising loan defaults. Citigroup analysts are expecting bad debt charges from its retail banking division to rise about 24% in the first half of this year to Ј230m, while last year HBOS’s provisions for bad debt rose from Ј1bn to Ј1.2bn. Keith Stevens, of the chartered accountants firm Wilkins Kennedy ( http:// wilkinskennedy. com/ ), said: "Creditors profit by lending money to people and collecting interest, and the longer they can keep that cycle going the better for them. Unless borrowers own property of significant value, it’s often not in creditors’ interest to call in their debts." He also continued that he believed some creditors were increasingly taking a hands-off approach, allowing debtors to pile up large amounts of debt, and then collecting interest and penalty charges for as long as borrowers were able to continue paying. This has lead to an increase in the number of borrowers filing for bankruptcy themselves when previously they would have been forced into it earlier by their lenders. House repossessions have also significantly increased over the past year, with the Council of Mortgage Lenders announcing 4,640 home repossessions during the first half of 2005, compared with 3,070 for the last half of 2004. Government figures show that there has also been an increase in the number of homeowners being taken to court for mortgage arrears. Some of the major banks and financial service providers have taken the initiative and started to help police the growing adverse debt problems with HSBC announcing that it will share their full credit record, of both positive and negative information, on its personal customers with other regulated financial services companies through the Experian, Equifax and CallCredit credit reference agencies, in efforts to keep tabs on its consumers' debt. Michael Geoghegan, Chief Executive of HSBC said: "It is no more in the interests of a customer to borrow more money than they can afford than it is for a bank to lend them the money." The move has been widely heralded by analysts, as Michael Geoghegan added, "It is the only way to ensure that lenders properly understand the full financial exposure of customers before they let them sign up to debt that some simply can't afford." This all comes amidst media pressure for financial firms to become more responsible. One case widely featured in the news concerns a couple who took out the Ј5,740 loan at 34.9% APR for house improvements, but they were already in arrears on two prior mortgages, and became unable to keep up the loan repayments. Over the course of the 15 year loan term the amount repayable had escalated to Ј384,000. Attempts by the loan company to still enforce the huge debt, eventually had to be fought off by the couple through the law courts. The couple urged others considering taking out a loan to seek advice and to, "obviously read the small print and ask the questions that perhaps you don't think about at the time, and just make sure you know exactly what the consequences are should anything go wrong". There are currently many sources of information to help consumers make decisions regarding their finances and debt levels. Financial comparison sites like Moneynet ( http://moneynet. co. uk/ ) can provide impartial information on loans, mortgages, adverse credit, etc, to find the best product for individual circumstances. Consumer help sites like the National Debtline ( http:// nationaldebtline. co. uk/ ) provide free confidential and independent advice on how to deal with debt problems, and the Citizens Advice Bureau ( http:// citizensadvice. org. uk/ ) are there with trained volunteers to help with legal, monetary and other problems, through a free, independent and confidential advice service. The more help and information that is available to consumers and the more responsible the lending agencies become, the safer finance will be for the most vulnerable who are looking to borrow money, to prevent them getting into un-repayable levels of debt, however these services can only be of help if people actually use them. Malcolm Hurlston of CCCS said, "We are advising about 4,000 people in Scotland and I would estimate that our figures represent only about one in eight of those who need help". Financial education is something needs to be provided at an early stage to make people realise the importance of taking on the accountability for their own finances, as well as highlighting where to access help for when it is required. Budgeting is a subject many school leavers have little practical knowledge of, but one which they desperately need to be made aware of before they start to control their own finances. Where there is existing advice or help, this must be made available and known to all in order to prevent more people getting too deeply into debt, or falling prey to loan sharks like the recent case of Mark Washington Johnson who has been jailed in Birmingham for nearly four years. Mr Johnson was found guilty of charging up to 8,000 per cent interest on loans, taking Social Security benefit books or National Insurance numbers as "security" for the unauthorised loans and then piling on default charges for missed payments. If we are to prevent this sort of abuse occurring to the weakest members of society then public awareness needs to be raised and the most vulnerable people given the assistance best suited to understand and control their own money. Released by bigmouthmedia ( http:// bigmouthmedia. com )



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Christmas shopping for kids

Christmas Shopping for Kids Christmas is a truly magical season that is enjoyed by many but no one enjoys the Christmas season more than kids. It might be the prospect of some well deserved time off from school, the allure of the lights and decorations, the beauty of the snow that often accompanies Christmas or just the anticipation of Santa and his sleigh filled with toys that is so exciting for children but it is evident that most kids are truly enchanted by Christmas. For this reason many adults truly enjoy shopping for kids and Christmas time. While Christmas shopping for kids is a great deal of fun there are some factors to consider when Christmas shopping for kids. A few of the specific concerns include selecting age appropriate toys, selecting toys which are not too noisy or too big for the child’s living situation, selecting toys the child does not already have, selecting toys which the parents consider to be acceptable and finally selecting toys the child will enjoy. This can make Christmas shopping for kids a little more difficult but does not make the shopping any less fun. Selecting age appropriate toys is very important when Christmas shopping for kids. This is so important for a couple of reasons. First of all it is important because toys which are designed for older children might be potentially dangerous for the child. For example toys which are designed for children over the age of three may contain small pieces which pose a choking hazard. Children under the age of three still often put toys and other objects in their mouths so they must receive toys which contain only pieces large enough to not be a choking hazard. Also, toys which are designed for an older child or even a younger child may not be as much fun for the child as they would be for children of the appropriate age. If the child is too young for the toy, they may be come easily frustrated because they can not use the toy appropriately. Conversely a child who is too old for a particular toy may become bored with the toy quickly. When shopping for Christmas gifts for a child, it is also important to consider the child’s parents and the living situation. This includes the size of the living area and the proximity to neighbors. Specifically toys which are particularly noisy may not be appropriate for a child who lives in an apartment building with other apartment units nearby. Also, large toys such as a trampoline may not be appropriate for a child who does not have a yard large enough to accommodate such a gift. Similarly large indoor items such as a foosball table would not be appropriate for a child who does not have a dedicated toy room to accommodate such a large item. As a general rule it is best to stick with small items which do not make a great deal of noise when Christmas shopping for kids. It is also important to consider the personal beliefs of the parents when shopping for Christmas gifts for their children. Specifically you should not purchase an item for a child if you know their parents are ethically opposed to such as item. Guns and violent video games are a couple of obvious example of Christmas gifts which may offend the parents. There are many parents who do not allow their children to play with these items because they believe they promote violence. If you are not sure about the feelings of the parents, it is best not to select these items. Finally, when Christmas shopping for a child, it is wise to consult the parents beforehand. This can be helpful for a couple of different reasons. First the parents can give some insight into the child’s hobbies and interests which may make selecting a gift easier. They may even suggest a specific item from the child’s Christmas list ensuring you are giving the child something he really wants for Christmas. Consulting the parents can also prevent you from giving the child a gift he already has. Try calling the parents before you make a purchase to suggest a particular item. They can let you know if they think the child will enjoy the item or if the child already has the item. Word count 724



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Buy dc kids shoes and dc kids junior clothing at hardedgeuk com

Hardedge is an exclusive fashion and lifestyle store, where brands are chosen on their design appeal and popularity with customers. We specialize in Dc Clothing, we carry all 12 colors of the star Basic all year as well as the Dc Straight jeans, the Basic star hoods in all colors all available at hardedgeuk. com. Dc Clothing and DC shoes has made a huge come back from its skate roots to change direction become the most popular streetwear brand this year, its collection of street trainers and dc clothing which brings in new style of t shirts and trainers every three months. Dc also produces a funky range of junior shoes for girls and boys and to compliment that a very compact range of dc t shirts, hoodies and denims for boys aged 10 to 16 years of age. We also stock DC toddler trainers for girls and boys from age 2 to age 5, these are very funky designs made for infants with lace and Velcro fasterners for the young kids. Under one roof we sell premium fashion brands like G star which is the most popular denim brands as it produces over 100 styles of jeans each season using very unique denims and washes like travis wash, walker denim to name a few. The elwood jeans and the radar low loose and the classic fit Coder pant in five denim washes. It also produces the over jacket cornwall which blends with the range of t shirts, shirts, polo t shirts and just introduced for the first time the Underwear story. Carhartt denims, Gio Goi, Zoo York, The motor cross brand Alpine stars. We also stock urban streetwear brands like Famous stars and straps which is enjoying great success in America with is popularity with majors bands featured on MTV Music channel. Zoo York which stems from urban roots in NYC which is going from strength to strength in the uk. Dc also produce toddler trainers for girls and boys from age 2 to age 5, these are very funky designs with Velcro fasterners for the young kids. Carhartt clothing has been a consistent performer, they sell urban clothing from Europe deigned in germany for the whole of Europe. Its range of denim carhartt jeans, carhart t shirts, carhartt jackets are fresh and fashion led.



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Software review does xcelerator create better excel workbooks

If you regularly use Excel workbooks and you're frustrated about the time you spend doing the mechanical, time-consuming tasks associated with formatting and analysis, help is near at hand. Data Presentation Products, a Microsoft Certified Business Solutions Partner, has developed Xcelerator, a suite of five products that quickly and easily performs mundane steps in minutes. Xcelerator is a breeze to install, and easy to learn to use. It consists of EZ-Format, EZ-Chart, EZ-Pivot, EZ-Calc, and EZ-Stat. EZ-Format's better subtotaling is only one of over two dozen Excel formatting and analysis enhancements, while EZ-Chart automatically summarizes data and creates identically formatted user-customized Excel charts. EZ-Pivot creates formatted PivotTables, PivotCharts, and Drill worksheets in seconds, while EZ-Calc creates Excel formulas and seven different calculated fields that are too time consuming to create manually.

Finally, EZ-Stat creates sum, count, average, max, min, standard deviation, and median for selected numeric fields. The beauty of Xcelerator is that it works its magic without modifying the original Excel data. Operating directly from inside Excel, Xcelerator's suite of products not only saves time, but they also enhance Excel's formatting and analysis capabilities. For example, the software can easily extract subsets of data or split data into multiple workbooks. It also transparently creates workbook formats that you can re-use. The effect is that you can re-create identically formatted workbooks for new data in as little as 60 seconds. In other words, unlike using only Excel, you'll never lose the time you invest in formatting data for a specific set of fields. The bottom line?

Xcelerator isn't a replacement for knowing and understanding Excel, but it enhances Excel's features in a way that saves you an incredible amount of time. The software truly addresses the major pain points of most Excel users, such as: * The amount of time it takes to implement most Excel features; * The fact that there is virtually no re-usability of the work performed in Excel; and * The knowledge that Excel does not automatically perform frequently and identically performed steps. In addition, in this day and age when software upgrades can cost $50 to $200 or more, Data Presentation Products include a lifetime of free updates for product enhancements and bug fixes. When you use Xcelerator, you'll spend significantly less time formatting Excel Workbooks - time that can be better spent analyzing your data and developing actionable recommendations to improve your company's bottom line.



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The inner workings of the satellite phone system

In a lot of the very remote places around the world, satellite phones are becoming more and more popular. Since these phones do not require cabling, the need for communication in these areas has been covered by the use of these satellite phones. A lot of these remote areas just do not have the infa structure available to allow for a more traditional land line phone. Radio frequencies could be considered as well but all the frequencies for radio are for the most part, already occupied with other things. For communication, satellite phones use what is called low earth orbiting satellites or LEO for short. The main advantage to using these types of satellites over other types such as geo stationary satellites, is that there is very little latency. Since low earth orbiting satellites are quite a bit closer to the earth, there is less delay in communication. Each satellite phone system includes a number of LEO satellites usually called a constellation.

The use of many satellites makes sure that there is always a satellite visible to the phone so that calls can be made or received whenever they are needed. This ensure that there are never any missed calls or calls that get go through to the person that you are calling. There are a number of different providers that offer these types of phone services - Iridium and Globalstar are just a couple and there are a number more. Each of these companies use various technologies to get the service done but in the end, they are mainly all the same. They all provide the satellite communication service. A few of these companies use a multiple access method of time division to allow and increased number of calls.

This includes connections that are satellite to satellite and the phones work directly with these satellites. There are also digital technologies that are used to manage the traffic of calls and sometimes this is called, code division multiple access. When division multiple access is used, the satellites are used to forward the incoming calls directly to the telephone gateways that exist on the earth. This way, the call eventually goes through the tradtional land telephone network.

With the different ways this satellite phone technology work, the end result does not change. The basic thing is that in the end, you get through to who ever you need to talk to!



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Cooking for crowds shouldnt be a frightening proposition

Cooking for Crowds Shouldn't be a Frightening Proposition Most people balk at the idea of cooking for large crowds of people. With images of huge stockpots boiling over and becoming chained to a hot stove and oven for countless hours on end, it's no wonder that so many people avoid the idea of cooking food for large crowds with more tenacity than they avoid being last in the dinner line. The good news is that it doesn't have to be the frightening proposition that so many make it out to be. When it comes to cooking for a large crowd, the planning phase is the most important. You absolutely must plan your meals when feeding a large group of people. This goes far beyond the notion of spaghetti or fried chicken as the meals you are planning. You need to know how many servings you will need. While obviously you never know how hungry people will be or who will eat how much when it comes to cooking for a large crowd it is a good idea to always plan for a few extra mouths in case some need a little more than you may think (you might want to double servings for teen and college aged men that will be dining). You need to know at least a general number of servings to prepare and adjust your recipe in order to accommodate those needs. Some people find it much simpler if they can double or triple recipes rather than scaling them to specific serving sizes. If this works best for you then by all means incorporate this practice when cooking for crowds. One thing you must be aware of is that you will need to include in order to create the meal you are planning. Having the proper ingredients and the proper amounts of ingredients is more important in bulk recipes than is often necessary in smaller recipes as there is less leeway when it comes to creating the proper consistency. You should keep this in mind when making purchases for your cooking for a large crowd event. Some people find the best route to take when it comes to cooking for crowds is to keep everything as close to their normal cooking routine as possible. This would mean that instead of cooking one really huge pan of lasagna for a triple sized crowd, they would instead cook three normal sized pans of lasagna. This accomplishes two things really and is something you may wish to keep in mind despite the extra time spent in the kitchen. First of all, if something goes, wrong only one third of the meal is in shambles rather than the entire dinner. Second, you have a greater possibility of finding consistency issues before the baking begins if you are using measurements and cooking containers that you are familiar with and comfortable using. It is always best to discover errors and omissions sooner rather than later when it comes to cooking as very few ingredients can be properly added after the fact. While cooking for crowds may send some into dizzying spells with heart palpitations it helps if you take a few deep breaths, sit down, plan your menu, plan your meals, make a list of your ingredients, and cook in a manner that is comfortable for you. If you would rather get it all over with in one fell swoop, then by all means do just that. If you are more comfortable making multiple dishes of family favorites then that is probably going to be the best course of action in order to meet your large crowd cooking needs. Most importantly you should remember when cooking for crowds is that you might have just earned yourself a well-deserved night off afterwards. Cooking for crowds is time consuming and should be approached when well rested (if that is even possible) for the best results. There is something that is actually very satisfying about knowing that you have fed a crowd and fed them well. 670



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How to survive and enjoy a blind date

You may not agree, but it seems to me that blind dates are high on the list of things that everyone loves to hate. I have just one question – why? Apparently, there are a number of myths about blind dates that are ruining their reputation. If you’re interested in exploding those myths and learning how to make blind dates productive and even enjoyable, this article is for you. Myth #1: Blind dates are silly because you can just as well meet someone spontaneously. Fact: Let’s face it. If you’re working full time, how many opportunities do you have to suddenly meet a potential dating partner? The majority of married couples will tell you: They did not meet at a club or in college. Someone introduced them. The sooner you accept that a blind date can be the most valuable tool in searching for your soul mate, the sooner your whole outlook on blind dates will take a positive turn – and so will your ability to utilize them. Myth #2: Your first impression on a blind date is usually correct. Go with it. Fact: The area where first impressions count least might just be blind dates. Anyone can be nervous on a first date, or have had an awful day at work. Be honest: Do you show who you really are inside on that first, blind date? Well, neither does your date. Instead, look at it as an icebreaker. Don’t make any decisions if they’re based on mere impressions. Just relax and enjoy the evening as much as possible. Don’t let first impressions get in the way. Myth #3: If you don’t click right away, then you aren’t right for each other Fact: Although many of us expect to click instantly with the person who is right for us, in reality that doesn’t happen too often. Instant connections are rare, and for most people they take several meetings to develop. So if you find that you have a few things in common, or some aspects of your date’s personality appeals to you – that’s enough to go out on a second date. Myth #4: If you don’t feel physically attracted very early on, you never will. Fact: Even though physical attraction is an obvious requisite for marriage, it does not necessarily come instantly. If a man prefers women who are tall, dark and exotic looking, then when he goes out with a petite, blonde, blue-eyed woman it will take him another date or two to appreciate her looks no matter how beautiful she is. The thing is that, when you begin to like a person for who they are, you find yourself appreciating their physical appearance, too. Now that we’ve dealt with the myths, we can get down to some practical advice: How to survive and enjoy (!) a blind date – and how to set the stage for date number two. 1) Don’t spend more than a few minutes talking about your job. Your date wants to see who you are, and if you have the personal qualities they think are important in a future spouse. You are not going to impress the other person by showing them what an accomplished business executive you are. A date is not a job interview. Show the softer side of your personality. 2) Be a good listener. Remember, you want to get to know the person you’re with. Show a genuine interest in your date by picking up on a hobby, interest or project that she mentioned. Let him know that you’re interested in what he’s saying. 3) Keep the conversation light. You do not want to reveal your deepest secrets to someone you hardly know and are not sure if you will ever see again. And they don’t want to hear you pour your heart out over whatever may or not be going wrong in your life. A good rule is to stick to “airplane talk” – the kind of information you would share with a complete stranger who is sitting next to you on a flight. 4) If it’s hard for you to make small talk, practice beforehand. Not everyone has the gift of gab. If you don’t, then practice ahead of time by going over possible topics of conversation. If you’re really shy, then role-play with a friend and walk yourself through that first date. 5) Some ideas for conversation on that first date: These ideas will help you stimulate the kind of conversation you want to have on a first date – conversation that will help you learn a little bit about each other’s values and way of thinking, and will also form the basis for more conversation on the second date. Who do you most admire? How did they inspire you? What has been the most satisfying achievement of your life? Is there something you’ve dreamt about doing for a long time? What is your most treasured possession, and why? 6) Don’t stretch the date out for too long. There is a limit to how much conversation two people can sustain when they go out for the first time. The ideal first date should last between two and two and a half hours, and should give both of you the opportunity to talk in a pleasant and relatively quiet atmosphere; a walk through a beautiful park followed by a good cup of coffee and dessert is great. Men, if you are dealing with social expectations that demand that you take her out for a costly evening, take this advice anyway. Don’t go for a five course meal. And if you’re going to a concert, make sure you have time either before or after to talk with each other. Now that you’ve exploded the myths and gotten some great advice, you can put it to work. Next time you have a blind date, keep all this in mind and see the difference!



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How to get rid of yeast infections effectively

Candida is a type of fungus which lives in our body. Yeast infection happens when Candida grow too much in the body system. The good bacteria in your body keeps the yeast from overgrowth. However, when you consume medication such as antibiotics, it kills the good bacteria thereby allowing the yeast to grow out of control. Yeast infection affects mostly women in the age group of between 16 and 35. Some of the symptoms to help identify this infection are: 1.burning feeling when urinating 2.feel itchy and irritating around vaginal area 3.white cheesy discharge from vagina Anything that changes the acidity in the vaginal area and kills the good bacteria can encourage the yeast to grow at a faster rate. Some of the causes are lack of sleep, steroid hormone medication, high intake of sugary and starchy foods, antibiotics, stress, immune-damaging illnesses such as diabetes, oral contraceptives (birth control pills), weakened immune system, steroid drugs, and estrogen replacement therapy. The most common infection is at the vaginal area. You can get rid of these infections by using anti-fungal medicines which are easily available at the pharmacy. If you see your doctor, he may prescribe over the counter (OTC) medicines such as Femstat 3, Monistat 7, Vagistat, Gyne-Lotrimin, and Diflucan. Sometimes the infection doesn't respond to these medications. There are other alternatives you can consider. Boric acid capsules is the best natural treatment. Boric acid cures up to 98% of women infected with vaginal yeast infections. You can make your own boric acid suppositories by filling size 00 gelatin capsules with boric acid powder (approximately 600 mg). Standard yeast infection treatment is one capsule. You insert it into the vagina at bedtime for two weeks. Boric acid acidifies the vagina, which restores the natural balance of bacteria and yeast. After thirty days, symptoms may return in some women. For this recurring or chronic infection, you use boric acid as maintenance treatment twice a week for six months to one year. During your menstrual cycle, your pH changes and this leads to yeast infection. You can use KY jelly lubricant because it helps restore the pH balance. The infection may go away within 24 hours depending on the severity of your infections. Oregano oil is very potent against yeast, especially those containing high content of carvacrol, an active ingredient. Just follow the directions on the bottle. This is to be taken internally. Yogurt with active cultures such as acidophilus can be used as a treatment for Candida infections. Insert unpasteurized, plain yogurt with a small spatula or vaginal cream applicator into your vagina at night and wear a pad. Repeat this process for three to seven nights, until the symptoms are gone. You can even have a yogurt every day. By eating a cup of yogurt a day can help to keep the yeast in your body in balance. Make sure when you buy yogurt, it contains healthy active bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus. After successful yeast treatment, you can take certain precautions to keep the infections under control such as: 1.Avoid douching with water as this causes an imbalance of the pH in the vagina 2.Avoid bubble baths. 3.Stop wearing thongs and g-strings that are to tight and leaves no room to breath. Wear cotton only. 4.Avoid clothing that fits tightly at the crotch. 5.Avoid scented hygiene products, harsh cleansers, perfumed soaps, deodorant tampons/sanitary pads and feminine deodorant sprays, . 6.Wipe your vagina from front to back after every use of the toilet. This prevents bacteria from rectum reaching your vagina. 7.Don't stay in your wet swimsuit after swimming. Change as soon as possible. 8.Stop taking antibiotics. If you have to, then take some probiotics such as acidophilus. 9.Cut down on food which are rich with yeast such as breads, sourdough, bagels, cakes and beer. Whether you've never been treated for a yeast infection before or have repeated infections, you should consult a doctor first. There is no instant remedy for yeast infection. Most the treatment normally takes three to seven days. Sometimes up to four weeks. This is because the treatment you choose depends on many factors such as your symptoms and your previous treatments.



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Teaching used to to esl students

Here's a way to introduce the structure "used to" to your ESL students. 1 Find or draw on the board a picture of someone who looks like they could have just won some money. A photo from a magazine of someone driving an expensive car, or sitting in a luxurious room, for example, would work well. Give the person a name, and set the scene for your students of someone who has just won the lottery, or elicit it from them ("Why is Jane driving an expensive car?"; "How did she afford her expensive clothes?" etc.) 2 Ask students about Jane's life after winning the lottery. Depending on the imagination of your students, you might have to prompt them a little ("Where does she live?"; "Does she have a job?"; "Is she happy?"; "Where does she go on holiday?" etc.) Then ask students to describe how Jane's life was different before winning the lottery ("Where did she live?"; "Was she happy?"; "What was her job?") After you have built up some facts about Jane's life before and after her lottery win, put your picture to one side and tell them to remember Jane because you will be returning to her later in the class. 3 Next, as a group, brainstorm important inventions in history. Take one suggestion (it doesn't matter which one, as this is just an example to model the exercise which will follow). Elicit what life was like before this invention, and how life changed with the invention. For example: "The internet. Before the internet, most people wrote letters, but now most people send emails." 4 Now put students into pairs and have them think of three more important inventions, what life was like before the invention and how life has changed with it. When they have done this, have each pair share one of their ideas with the class, but this time introduce "used to" by rephrasing their ideas as they give feedback. For example: Student: "The aeroplane. Before the aeroplane, people travelled long distances by ship. Now they fly." Teacher: "Good! So, people used to travel long distances by ship, but now they fly." 5 After the first round of feedback, students will be starting to catch on, so now do a second round, asking students to use the new structure with their second invention. They will probably still need some prompting, but by the third round of feedback, using their third invention, they should be producing "used to" without too much help. 6 Use one or two of the students' ideas to highlight the written form of the structure on the board. Don't forget the question and negative forms! 7 Now it's time to go back to your picture of Jane. Ask the students if they remember Jane and why she is driving her expensive car. Then ask them once again to tell you about her life before and after winning the lottery, this time using "used to". ("She used to live in a small flat, but now she has a mansion"; "She used to work, but now she doesn't"). Be sure to give students plenty of practice with the question and negative forms as well. You could have one student ask another a question about Jane's old life, and ask some questions yourself that require a negative response. 8 For further controlled communicative practice of "used to", you could devise a questionnaire about students' childhood for students to use in pairs. This could contain some prompts, such as "go to school"; "live". One student in each pair must then form a question ("Where did you use to live?") and the other must answer ("I used to live in Paris"). And there you have it, an easy way to introduce "used to" to your ESL students.



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Missed opportunity are my parents to blame

Parent's have undying love for their babies which grows stronger and stronger each and every day. The infancy months where four hourly feeds are followed by the hand aching task of burping baby. Dribbles of milk flow through your fingers as the infant rests his/her weary scrunched up face in the palm of your hand fighting off the land of nod. What is baby thinking? As he/she loses the battle to stay awake. Then we have the nightmare months of the toddler years where mum and dad need eyes in the back of their heads. It is at this time we teach the toddler to walk/talk, and when they do we tell them to shut up and sit down. It only takes a second for baby to scale the stairs, and then it is panic stations while you negotiate and try to convince the child to stay put till you manage to reach out for them. What a relief when you have them safe in your arms smothering them with affection while you chastise them at the same time. What is the child thinking? Being loved and shouted at, at the same time. We have the first day of school where many a mothers' heart is broken leaving their child behind. Some children adapt easily to their new school and we have the ones that don't. Thus making it harder for mummy/daddy to leave as teacher tries coaxing the screaming child tugging at the apron strings. What is the child thinking? Teenage tantrums have to be controlled and the best person for the job is the parent. We are there to lend a shoulder to cry on all because they can not have Justin Timberlake or Brittany Spears on their arm. Then as parents we struggle with Once upon a time there were the birds and the bees. Parents are the first to see danger signs. Whether it be the wrong choice in boy/girlfriend or maybe the people they hang out with. so when they receive a clip around the ear for doing something they felt was right and mum and dad didn't, then what was that child thinking? The wedding ring exchange between your child and their partner tells you the parent it is time to let go now they have all grown up. But do we ? I don't think so. Whatever the age of your kids you will find they will always be your babies. What were those children thinking? Well let me tell you, mum and dad it because they cared. Want to know what the married kids were thinking? Well I think you may have guessed that one yourself. So you see as protective and caring parents we could not let go if we wanted too because someone has to look after the grandchildren. It is cruel world out there and in some sad cases children have lost their parents to illness or misfortunate events and have no one to point them in the right direction. If you want to help your kids then further their education. This way they have a chance to get on in life. An educational background works wonders in the career world. You can find more information about online education on the internet. Don't have your kids thinking they missed out on an opportunity because mum and dad chose not care anymore.



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20 minute home work out

If you are busy, not able to get up early morning or have no time for gym just follow this 20 minute home work out to stay healthy and fit. 1) Jog : in one place for 3 minutes 2) Jumping jacks: 25 repeats When landing, bend your knees slightly to reduce the impact on knee joints. 3) Crunches : 15 repeats Lie flat on your back with your knees bent. Place your hands behind your head with elbows pointing outwards. Support your neck with your hands. Keep your neck in a straight line with your spine. Flex your waist to raise the upper torso from the mat. Lower yourself until the back of your shoulders touches the mat. Muscle worked: rectus abdominis 4) Hip Bridges : 10 repeats Lie on your back. With your hands at a 90 degree angle to the floor, lift your body off the floor to form a straight line, a sort of a bridge, from the shoulders to the knee. The position should resemble a table … your hands and legs as the legs of the table and your upper body to your knees as the surface. Hold this position for two seconds. Squeeze your gluteus (butt muscles) and then lower yourself. Muscle worked: Lower back, hamstrings and gluteus. 5) Step – up’s : 1 minute You will need a stepper for this. Muscle worked: hamstrings, gluteus, quards. 6) Reverse crunches: 15 repeats Lie on your back with your hands on your sides. Keep you knees bent. Bring your knees towards your head, till your hips come slightly off the floor. Hold this position for a second, and then lower your knees. Muscle worked: lower abs and obliques. 7) Mountain climbers : 1 minute Get your hands and knees and raise your knees like a starting block sprinter. Run in that position, supporting your upper body with the palms of your hands. Keep your back straight. Muscle worked: triceps, deltoid muscle, gluteus, quards, hamstrings, calves. 8) Push – ups : 15 repeats Muscle worked: triceps, deltoids, pectorals. 9) Squat thrusts: 1 minute Stand straight. Now, drop to a crouch position. Immediately thrust your legs out straight behind on your toes, in push up position, now jump to pull legs back to the chest, in crouching position , then stand up straight, Muscle worked: arms, legs, chest, and lower back. Cool down by walking around, till your heart rate starts getting back to normal, stretch. A minutes rest is needed in between exercise. Proper form is important. Do not hold breath. Sip water during the workout. This workout targets the whole body, improves cardiovascular efficiency and tones and strengthens the body. Copyright http:// health-care-information. org



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What is sleep apnea

Are you feeling sleepy all the time? Do you snore? Is your doctor having a difficult time treating your high blood pressure? If you answered “yes” to any of these questions, then you might have Sleep Apnea (also called Obstructive Sleep Apnea or OSA). Sleep Apnea is a condition involving pauses or decreases in breathing during sleep. It is usually due to airway collapse. This collapse occurs in the nose and/or the throat – anywhere from where air enters the nostrils to the back of the tongue. Imagine a straw collapsing when trying to suck on a thick milkshake. Frequently, this airway collapsibility problem is inherited and starts in childhood. In the daytime, it is not a problem because there is good muscle-tone in the airway and the brain monitors breathing. But at night, the throat muscles become relaxed and the brain is not as attentive to the airway. So on inhalation, the airway walls can either completely collapse or significantly narrow. This is a problem because 1) the body must struggle to breathe and 2) the brain has to “wake up” to reopen the airway. These frequent awakenings lead to fragmentation of nighttime sleep. You may not remember them because they are so short. In fact, patients with sleep apnea can wake-up more than 30 times an hour and think that they slept uninterrupted through the night. Since sleep must be continuous and consolidated in order to be restorative, a number of cognitive problems can occur with sleep fragmentation: daytime sleepiness, memory problems, concentration difficulties, emotional instability, irritability, slowed reaction time, and most importantly, an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents. There are also cardiovascular consequences of this constant “struggling to breathe.” This puts a strain on the heart and blood vessels, leading to increased risk of high blood pressure, heart disease and stroke. Finally, there are social implications to Sleep Apnea. The snoring associated with sleep apnea can disrupt the sleep of others. In fact, one study showed that when a person treats his/her sleep apnea, the sleep partner gets the equivalent of one hour more sleep per night. Sleep apnea is a progressive disease and often gets worse with age. Weight gain, alcohol, and other sedating/relaxing substances exacerbate it. Who Gets Sleep Apnea? A common misconception is that only overweight men that snore loudly have sleep apnea, but the facts are: 1) Sleep apnea can occur without snoring 2) Thin people can have sleep apnea 3) Women can have sleep apnea 4) Children can have sleep apnea In other words, anyone can have it. Even skinny women. Even children. I Think I Might Have Sleep Apnea, How Do I Find Out If I Have It? Make an appointment with your primary care physician, or if your insurance allows it, go straight to a sleep specialist. If your physician thinks you might have sleep apnea, then he/she can refer you for a sleep study or comprehensive sleep evaluation. How Is Sleep Apnea Treated? There are four main categories of treatment for sleep apnea: Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP), Surgery, Oral Appliances, and Behavioral Modification. The most effective way to treat sleep apnea is with CPAP. CPAP is a mask worn over the nose attached by a hose to an air compressor. The air compressor gently and quietly blows room-air into the nose, which “stents” the airway open, preventing airway collapse. This is the most effective way to treat sleep apnea, and all patients diagnosed with sleep apnea should at least try it before considering other options. Surgery can be an effective way to treat sleep apnea. A number of different procedures can be performed. These range from nasal septum repair to jaw reconstruction. Talk to your doctor about whether surgery is the right option for you. An oral appliance is a device made by a dentist or an orthodontist designed to pull your lower jaw forward. By pulling your lower jaw forward, the tongue is pulled away from the back of the throat. If your airway obstruction is occurring behind the tongue, then this can be an effective way to treat your sleep apnea. The treatment of sleep apnea with oral appliance should be a coordinated effort between the sleep physician, the dentist/orthodontist, and the patient. Behavioral modifications can help in the treatment of sleep apnea, but are usually the least effective. These include such techniques as weight loss, sleeping on your side, and avoiding alcohol before bedtime. None of these treatment options is ideal, but they all can be useful in treating sleep apnea and resulting in more restful sleep. With risks like heart attack and stroke, you should do everything you can to get your sleep apnea under control. If you think you have sleep apnea, contact your doctor or go to a sleep center. It could be the best decision you ever made.



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Are all dementias alzheimer s

I’m surprised when some patients and caregivers confuse dementia and Alzheimer’s as one and the same. Each time a family member is suffering from memory loss, the conclusion is always Alzheimer’s. Is it reasonable to label all dementias as Alzheimer’s? As a clinician, my answer to queries is that Alzheimer’s dementia is only one type of dementia and that not all dementias are Alzheimer’s. Aside from Alzheimer’s disease, other dementias exist such as Dementia with lewy body, Vascular dementia, Parkinson’s disease with dementia, and dementias due to various neurologic and medical conditions. How will you know if a person is suffering from Alzheimer’s dementia? What is Alzheimer’s dementia? Alzheimer’s dementia is a neurologic disorder characterized by a progressive and irreversible cognitive decline associated with impairment in functioning. The cognitive deterioration consists of memory impairment. Initially there is recent memory impairment but as the disease progresses, even the long term memory is affected. In addition to memory impairment, a patient with dementia has impairment in one of four cognitive areas: aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, and impairment in executive functioning. Aphasia is a problem in language characterized by inability to express oneself, repeat words or phrases, or understand what is being said. Apraxia is inability to adequately perform a usual motor activity such as combing the hair or brushing the teeth despite no paralysis or musculoskeletal abnormality. Agnosia is inability to recognize objects or things despite intact sensory functions. For instance, a demented patient cannot recognize a key or a pen placed in his or her hands without looking at it. Impairment in executive functioning is characterized by difficulty in abstract reasoning and in organizing things, schedule, and activities. Patients with this problem give concrete meaning to proverbs. For example, when a patient is asked what “don’t cry over spilled milk” means, the patient responds, “It’s easy. Just wipe it!” Moreover, knowing the specific similarities and differences of certain things (e. g. apple versus orange) is a struggle for some patients. What are the possible causes of Alzheimer’s? The cause of Alzheimer is still unknown. However, several risk factors have been identified. One major risk factor is age. The risk of developing dementia increases as our age advances. Older individuals therefore are more at risk. Having said this, Alzheimer’s can also happen to young individuals. Other important risk factors include the presence of apolipoprotein E4 allele, the predominance of plaques and tangles in the brain, and the brain’s impaired cholinergic system. Is there any successful treatment for Alzheimer’s? Alzheimer’s disease is irreversible so current medications are only geared to slow down the deterioration. These acetylcholisterase inhibitors, namely galantamine, rivastigmine, and donepezil, are aimed at improving the cholinergic functioning in the brain by inhibiting the cholinesterase enzyme. Although initially indicated for mild to moderate dementia, some recent evidence shows that some of these drugs may also benefit patients with moderate to severe dementia. Further studies are warranted to determine its efficacy in this group.



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The illogical puppet of iran any chance of getting the little guy a new script

First, we learned to say and spell the puppet’s name: Armadinejad. Not exactly Smith. Then we watched him perform upon a crafty mullah’s knee. We have been patient, like any fair-minded audience, but the more we listen, the more we realize that the puppet has a script that just doesn’t make sense. He raises one hand and, without the mullah appearing to move his own lips, practiced ventriloquist that he is, little Armadinejad threatens to “wipe Israel off the map” and blusters against anyone in the audience we disagrees with his absurdly unachievable goal. No sooner does he do that than he raises his other hand and announces that he has the right to nuclear technology but only for peaceful purposes. The audience is finally beginning to lose patience with the nonsensical but dangerous show. Some members of the audience have become so alarmed that they’re stamping their feet and demanding a new script.

A few have even said if they don’t get one they may decide to knock down the little puppet’s playhouse. Poor little Armadinejad. We certainly wouldn’t want such a tragic thing to happen to him and just because he hasn’t been given a good script. In fact, all he can say back to the threatening audience are dares based on fragmented variations of his nation’s name, as in “I ran? You ran? Who ran?” So we must turn to the troupe of turbaned puppeteers who have provided the script. We assume that they’re allowing his illogical performance to continue because they think the survival of their anachronistic theocracy depends on demonizing the West and thereby distancing their own people from the truly beneficently revolutionary ideas that would upend their rule, generally, enlightenment, freedom, democracy, and a hot nightlife, where men and women actually go out together. And little Armadinejad is, with consistently provocative bravado, doing an extraordinary job for them. We can understand their urgency. They’re living in a world that has, especially in the West, managed largely to emerge from the overhang of The Dark Ages. Yet the dominion they have imposed over their people depends on the tenuous preservation of a medieval mindset. Meanwhile, their darksome enclave is being continually and very annoyingly impinged upon by unwelcome flashes of modernity, such as the sometimes substantial content of the Internet, the frivolous baubles of the Hollywood road show, and the general conduct of free nations. We assume that the puppeteers are, in fact, so pleased by the puppet’s performance that they have decided the he’s doing just fine with an illogical script. Are they concerned about the most explosive consequences? To a degree, of course. But we also suspect that their excessively life-negating belief that they’ll all be in Paradise if they do manage to self-ignite the nation is exerting its risky subliminal influence. Since distance makes the mullah’s feel more secure, what, we must ask, is the likelihood that they will provide a new script for the little guy and perhaps cancel his appearances until they do? Knowing the depth of their anxiety, we cannot be overly expectant. So we turn to the people who finally put up and have agreed to maintain the show, the Iranian people. Since they have been under the dominion of darkness for decades, and are now inspirited to feel that their pride is confounded with the puppet’s blustery bravado, what hope is there that they will demand a new script or close the show? Are we just telling ourselves a fairytale by hoping that someone in the terrifyingly mismanaged nation will take over the show before the provocative puppet provokes the audience so much they do bring the house down? If the past is prologue, of course, we are. And what a sad outcome for ourselves, for Iranians in general, and even for the ill-fated puppet and his intensely paranoid puppeteers.



Online The illogical puppet of iran any chance of getting the little guy a new script

Picture postcards from heaven with google earth

How to print real photo postcards from a satellite image of your street or neighbourhood The virtual earth simulation software “Google Earth” has become hugely popular amongst internet users across the world. The free application incorporates maps, driving directions, and satellite images. It allows users to zoom and pan over three-dimensional images of cities and landscapes, drilling down from space to overhead details. With a few steps and tricks it is even possible to produce personalised aerial postcards of a street or neighbourhood without the costs that used to be associated with aerial photography. Google Earth works on Windows 2000, XP, or Mac OS X (10.4) and can be downloaded for free from http://earth. google. com/. Once installed it is easy to navigate to an addresses in the UK using a post code or place name. The aerial image displayed can be rotated and tilted for the best view, which can be saved as a jpeg. The application allows tagging places and buildings, e-mailing images or creating so called place marks, which work like a link which can be shared with other Google Earth users. Another convenient way to extract image data from Google Earth, is using one of the many screen shot applications available for free on the net. One such application is greenstreet SnapShot. Greenstreet software Limited, a 20 year old British developer of graphic software applications and their screen shot tools SnapShot can be downloaded for free from Electric Software (http:// electric-software. co. uk/enews/register/), a site which promotes software offers, including several greenstreet applications and games. The Google Earth Licence limits the use of the image data, but states: “You can personally use an image from the application as long as you preserve the copyrights and attributions including the Google logo attribution. However, you cannot sell these to others, provide them as part of a service, or use them in a commercial product such as a book or TV show without first getting a rights clearance from Google.” The image data, though constantly improving (a new update was released in January), is still patchy in places, but from other areas images can be extracted, which are sufficiently clear to print satisfying aerial postcards of a street or neighbourhood. Google Earth images do not produce the crispest of prints, but are unique and a great surprise and joy for friends, a gift for a housewarming party or suitable image for an invitation card. Once a suitable jpeg has been cropped and scaled to the size desired and it has been interpolated and saved this can be printed on an inkjet printer or through one of the online photo processing services like FotoInsight. com. FotoInsight claims that professional photo processing achieves a higher perceived resolution through the use of a larger number of colours and uses longer lasting inks. Personalised postcards and greeting cards from satellite images are a welcome change to the Birthday, Anniversary-, Mother’s Day, Season Greetings or Valentines Cards routine. FotoInsight picture postcards have a print area of 14 x 10 cm and the ideal resolution would be 866 x 615 pixel. Folding greetings cards have a print area of 13 x 9 cm where the ideal resolution would be a 799 x 556 pixel digital image file. For all printed cards the image jpegs should ideally exceed 100 kb in size. Once the photograph has been uploaded to http://fotoinsight. com or http://fotoinsight. co. uk the online photo service provides text tools ideal to insert a postcode, name or address details into the aerial photograph. FotoInsight’s print products, like postcards, greetings cards, photo books and photographic calendars are printed in high resolution using the long lasting indigo print process. The cards come in sets of ten cards per order and are delivered by mail. Note: „Google Earth“ is a registered Trademark of Google Inc.



Online Picture postcards from heaven with google earth