Where to find perfect saab parts and accessories

Born from jets – this is the tagline that Saab automobiles are famous for. Saab is proud of this unique heritage. This is what makes Saab different from the rest of the automakers of the world. Saab was predominantly an aircraft company when it was founded in 1937 by sixteen aircraft engineers in Sweden. The name Saab is an acronym for Svenska Aeroplan Aktiebolag or The Swedish Aeroplane Company. In the late 1940s, Saab ventured into the automobile industry.

Because of Saab’s origins in the world of aircrafts, subsequent Saab automobile models had the most aerodynamic profiles in the industry. To this day, most Saab models still offer superior aerodynamics. Today, Saab Automobile AB is now owned by General Motors. Saab is known in the American automotive industry for its luxury vehicles with a distinct European touch. Some of Saab’s more popular models include 9-2X AWD, the 9-3 Sport Sedan, the 9-3 Convertible, the 9-3 SportCombi, 9-5 sedan, 9-5 SportWagon and the 9-7 SUV. All these models offered distinctive Scandinavian design elements and superior automotive engineering. Saab vehicle owners enjoy luxury car features and renowned European automotive technology. Every Saab model is built to serve its owner reliably for years to come. Otherwise, Saab owners can also purchase replacement parts if ever time and constant use has taken its toll on their Saabs. Damages incurred during operation such as minor bumps and collisions can be easily remedied using high quality Saab replacement parts.

Fortunately, excellent quality Saab parts are readily available from various sources. Saab owners who want excellent value for their money can opt to buy aftermarket Saab parts instead of more expensive OEM parts. Saab aftermarket parts from stores such as Auto Parts Online, a leading auto parts and accessories supplier in the US, are equal in quality to those direct-from-the-factory parts but are relatively cheaper in price. http:// partstrain. com has a very comprehensive array of Saab parts and accessories to meet the demands of Saab vehicle owners across the country.



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Vehicle and collision repair services are tricky who do i use

Getting your vehicle repaired after it has been involved in an accident or it just isn’t operating correctly is important. In many instances the vehicle can’t be driven until the necessary repairs have been completed. Yet many people are wary about this type of service because you don’t really know the quality of the work that you are getting. If you need to get your vehicle repaired it is important to do some checking before you take your vehicle to anyone. If the vehicle is drivable you should attempt to get at least three written estimates. Body shops and repair shops will do this for you free of charge. They will give you an itemized list of the necessary repairs and the cost of them. Make sure you ask about the length of time it will take for them to complete the work as well. Once you get home carefully review all of the estimates. You should see the same items on there in the category of materials and likely some price differences for the labor.

If you notice that one of the estimates for vehicle repairs is much more than the others you may want to ask them why. It could be that they offer better quality products and your car will look nicer or run better when they are done then if you let one of the other businesses do the work. However, it is also possible that they are attempting to scam you and the estimate contains pricing for work that really doesn’t have to be done. Find out how long a particular shop has been in business. Longevity generally means they have a good reputation for doing quality work. Ask about the experience of their employees so you can get a good idea of what their level of expertise is. You can check online with the Better Business Bureau as well to find out if the repair service has any complaints filed against them. Most quality vehicle repair service centers will stand behind the quality of their work. You want to choose a shop that has a policy in place that they will guarantee the work for a specific amount of time. This way if you aren’t happy with it or the repairs don’t hold up you won’t have to pay for them again.

Even if the cost of the initial repairs were covered by an insurance company you don’t want to have to deal with poor quality work on your vehicle. Ask your friends, family, and co-workers for recommendations as well. Chances are some of them have had to use a vehicle repair or collision service at some point. They can tell you who they went to and the quality of the work. Ask them if they would go back to that business in the future for such needs as well.

You really can’t avoid having to go to a vehicle repair or collision shop if the need arises. However, you can do your part to ensure you are getting quality service at an affordable price. Most of us rely on your vehicles too much to simply trust the work to just anyone.



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Reasons to take online surveys

I know you probably read somewhere about paid online surveys and the biggest question on your mind is: Are they legitimate? Yes, paid online surveys have been here for some time, and yes, they do pay their respondents. But like any scheme where you can get easy money, there will always be exaggeration of the rewards and possibly, scams. But despite these, there are very good reasons why you should take online surveys. Like any online job, people tend to be wary when sites offer payment for their opinions, and this is all good.

After all, scams really do happen in this internet-based world. But that isn’t enough reason to dismiss free online surveys altogether. For one, there are ways to determine if you are being hoodwinked. Consider these steps: 1. Do not rely on testimonials and reviews. Posters might not be accomplices to a scam, but still, you need to make sure that the business is legitimate. You can check with the Better Business Bureau to see if any of the sites you are intending to join have existing complaints. Remember also that because a site does not have a complaint doesn’t mean that the business is real; it could simply mean that no one has filed yet. 2. Guarantees don’t mean much if it is a really unbelievable offer. For example, a site offering to pay $1,000 per hour is most probably a fake offer. This amount is a little too much and you should be thinking as to how they’d pay you that much. While it is true you can earn a lot of money through paid online surveys, it doesn’t happen all the time and unless you meet the characteristics of a high demographic, the least you can expect are freebies, coupons and cash incentives which can be exchanged for other rewards such as free movie rentals and a year’s subscription to their product or service. 3. Legitimate market research firms offer a list of online paid surveys for free. There is no need to pay for upfront fees. Aside from this, market research firms usually target a certain demographic. This means that surveys are by invitation only. Any site sending you lots of spam might actually be fake. Now that you know how to avoid paid survey scams, let’s proceed to the question: Why should you take online surveys? First of all, you can get compensation by just offering your opinion to companies who need it. You can also receive coupons and gift certificates which you can use to claim some items from the companies who are in need of correspondents. Now say you are a single parent. Of course, you are the only earning for your family and you can be pretty hard up with cash. Paid online surveys are actually a good way to earn while staying at home and watching over your kids. Aside from this, you can complete these surveys in your own time, so the stress level is a lot lower than other home-based work.



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the secret report

I will show you how to use this Amazing System like i have with plenty of other people this year ... This is the Best of the Best to use for marketing with because you can link this Secret Report up to any website you like. You will see what i mean after you get the Report ... There's People using this Amazing System today and making Million's ... I want to Show You how i do Why?? Because the more You Make The More I make ... Do not buy anymore junk on the internet and check this Baby out >>>>> And get a Taste For The Marketing like i did few years Back. Some of the top marketer's today don't even no about this Secret Report ... Good Luck ... Vincent Furey. http:// silentprofitmachine. com/?affid=2024



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3 strategies to minimize stress when you re the boss

Recently, while visiting a friend's office, he began to tell me his business was a mess. It wasn't fun anymore. "The problem with this business," he said, "is that the manager (ME) is the worst person for the job. I have no training in management. My partner just wants to come to work, do his job and leave the management chores to me. Frankly, I don't have any great desire to be the boss, either. Personnel problems, cash problems, meeting sales quotas – I do it all. It's everyday and it's a drag." Sound familiar? You have a lot of company. In every business, however, "somebody" has to be the boss. You may not have the training, the desire or the patience but you have the job. Is there any way to make it less painful? YES! First recognize that every business is in two businesses. You do what you do -- plumb, build, sell, manufacture, etc. -- that's your first business. Your customers ultimately decide how well you practice this business by the sales they give you. If you serve their needs, you continue to get their support. If you don’t give them what they want, they won’t support you, you won't long have a business to worry about. Your second business is the business of staying in business. You may be great at what you do, but if you fail to run your business properly, you can run yourself out of business -- FAST. This is my friend's problem. He feels overwhelmed by "being in business." Being in business, though, doesn't have to be a stressful and draining. Here are three strategies you can use to help you be a better manager of your business: 1. Start by thinking through why you are in business. If you haven’t already, write down your clear business goals with a deadline for their attainment and write them in terms of results. Write down what you have to do to meet your goals. (For example: Use PostIt(TM) Notes to list each step of how your work flows, starting with getting prospects and ending with getting paid. What paperwork do you have to generate? How many sales calls have to be made? What are your production quotas? What controls are needed? Etc.) 2. Let your people know (in writing) what is expected of them in terms of results and deadlines. Agree with your partner, if you have one, what you can expect from one another. Don't leave any gaps in your expectations. Measure every action and person in the business against those goals. Do not tolerate any action inconsistent with the goals. 3. In terms of day-to-day management skills, rely on good old common sense. If an action doesn't meet a common sense test, it is probably bad management theory, as well. Always keep in mind that when the work flow flows and your policies and procedures are working and when people know what they are supposed to do and are allowed to do it, there is very little need for additional management. You will still need to be the manager -- when things don't work. But if your company's goals are clearly stated, and everybody is pulling in one direction, that won't happen often. And isn't that the kind of management you for that matter, can live with. Copyright 2006 John J Reddish



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Payroll california unique aspects of california payroll law and practice

: The California State Agency that oversees the collection and reporting of State income taxes deducted from payroll checks is: Employment Development Department 800 Capitol Mall Sacramento, CA 95814 888-745-3886 cahwnet. gov/taxind. htm California requires that you use California form “DE 4A-4, Employee’s Withholding Allowance Certificate” instead of a Federal W-4 Form for California State Income Tax Withholding. Not all states allow salary reductions made under Section 125 cafeteria plans or 401(k) to be treated in the same manner as the IRS code allows. In California cafeteria plans: are not taxable for income tax calculation; are not taxable for unemployment insurance purposes. 401(k) plan deferrals are: not taxable for income taxes; are taxable for unemployment purposes. In California supplemental wages are taxed at a 6% flat rate, 9.3% for stock options and bonuses. You are not required to file California State W-2s. The California State Unemployment Insurance Agency is: Employment Development Department P. O. Box 826880 - MIC 94 Sacramento, CA 94280-0001 888-745-3886 edd. cahwnet.

gov/ The State of California taxable wage base for unemployment purposes is wages up to $7000.00. California requires Magnetic media reporting of quarterly wage reporting if the employer has at least 250 employees that they are reporting that quarter. Unemployment records must be retained in California for a minimum period of four years. This information generally includes: name; social security number; dates of hire, rehire and termination; wages by period; payroll pay periods and pay dates; date and circumstances of termination. The California State Agency charged with enforcing the state wage and hour laws is: The Department of Industrial Relations Division of Labor Standards Enforcement P. O. Box 420603 San Francisco, CA 94142-3660 dir. ca/gov/dlse/dlse. html The provision in the law for minimum wage in the State of California is $6.75 per hour.. The general provision in California State Law covering paying overtime in a non-FLSA covered employer is one and 1/2 times regular rate after an 8 hour day, 40 hour week in most industries. Check for other overtime rules and exemptions.. California State new hire reporting requirements are that every employer must report every new hire, rehire and contract who is paid over $600.00. The employer must report the federally required elements of:

  • Employee’s name
  • Employee’s address
  • Employee’s social security number
  • Employer’s name
  • Employers address
  • Employer’s Federal Employer Identification Number (EIN)
Plus date of hire; state EIN; date, dollar amount, expiration date of contract. This information must be reported within 20 days of the hiring or rehiring; or after $600.00 minimum is met or contract is signed whichever is earlier. . The information can be sent as a W4 or equivalent DE34 by mail, fax or electronically. There is a $24.00 to $490.00 penalty for a late report in California. The California new hire reporting agency can be reached at 916-657-0529 or on the web at edd. cahwnet. gov/txner. htm . California does allow compulsory direct deposit but the employee’s choice of financial institution must meet federal Regulation E regarding choice of financial institutions. California does not allow compulsory direct deposit California requires the following information on an employee’s pay stub: Employee’s Name Pay rate Gross and net earnings Amount and purpose of deductions Hours worked or work done if piece work California State Wage and Hour Law provisions concerning pay stub information detail the following information must be on the paystub.
  • Gross and net earnings
  • Hours worked at each hourly rate for hourly workers
  • Piece rate and number of pieces
  • Deductions
  • Pay period dates
  • Employee's name and social security number
  • Employer’s name and address
In California employees must be paid at least semimonthly, monthly for FLSA exempt employees. The lag time between earned and paid is governed by statute in California. Wages earned from the 1st through the 15th of the month must be paid by the 26th. Wages earned from the 16th through the end of the month must be paid by the 10th of the following month. Exempt employees by the 26th of the month for the entire month (a safe harbor is payment within 7 days after the pay period.) California payroll law requires that involuntarily terminated employees must be paid their final pay immediately; within 72 hours for seasonal employees; within 24 hours for certain motion picture (by next payday if laid off) and certain oil drilling employees. Voluntarily terminated employees must be paid their final pay within 72 hours; immediately if 72 hours' notice of quit is given; strikers on next regular payday. Deceased employee’s wages to a maximum of $5,000.00 must be paid to the surviving spouse or conservator when an Affidavit of right and proof of identity are presented. Escheat laws in California require that unclaimed wages be paid over to the state after one year. The employer is further required in California to keep a record of the wages abandoned and turned over to the state for a period of seven years. There is no provision in California law concerning tip credits against State minimum wage. In California the payroll laws covering mandatory rest or meal breaks are a 30-minute meal break after five hours; 30 minutes after 10 hours; 10 minute rest after four hours. California law concerning record retention of wage and hour records is two years.. The California agency charged with enforcing Child Support Orders and laws is: Department of Child Support Services P. O. Box 944245 Sacramento, CA 95244-2440 916-654-1532 www, childsup, cahwnet.

gov/default. htm California has the following provisions for child support deductions:

  • When to start Withholding? 10 days after service
  • When to send Payment? Within 7 days of Payday.
  • When to send Termination Notice? When next payment is due
  • Maximum Administrative Fee? $1 per payment.
  • Withholding Limits? 50% of disposable earnings.
Please note that this article is not updated for changes that can and will happen from time to time.



Online Payroll california unique aspects of california payroll law and practice

Don t think time management think conflict resolution

David began, "I have a major time management problem. As an editor, I often get two clients calling with assignments. They call around ten AM and both want their projects completed by mid-afternoon. Then a third client calls around lunchtime with a crisis. So I have too many projects – all at once. The next day the phone is silent." David’s dilemma made me think of Jennifer, who worked for two bosses, Blue and Green. Blue would give her an assignment to be completed by noon. Green would call five minutes later with another assignment – you guessed it – to be completed by lunchtime. Jennifer was stressed and frazzled all day long. We helped her negotiate with her internal customers – her management team – to set up a service delivery schedule that would be fair to everyone. Whether your customers are internal or external, the key is to design consistent policies to avoid conflict. Here are some suggestions that worked for my clients. 1. Train your customers from the get-go. Clients typically are nice people who have no clue about what it takes to deliver your service. For example, one client sent me a project, along with a ten-page single-spaced set of "notes." When I called with a question, she asked, "Can’t you just read the notes?" I explained that I might spend an hour searching for the answer to my question -- and I would have to charge accordingly. Sometimes clients will pay the fee as long as they get to remove themselves from the fray – but sometimes they’ll prefer to become more involved. It’s up to you to give them that choice. 2. Develop a conflict resolution plan before you need it. As you face conflicting demands, develop a system so you won’t have to play referee every day. You can insist on 24 hours notice, command extra charges for rush jobs, or adhere strictly to first come, first served rules. Working for a company? Get everyone to agree on a rule for setting priorities. Match your communication style to your organization’s culture. If nobody wants to negotiate, or if you’re working late on everybody’s projects (while the folks who assigned those projects left hours ago), your challenge becomes, "how to deal with unreasonable bosses." 3. Design your promises ahead of time. When a client’s on the phone, it’s so tempting to say, "You only want to pay X dollars? No problem." Or you invite everyone in a class to send questions, which you promise to answer within 24 hours. Off the phone, you realize you’ve just committed to an hourly rate that’s a fraction of your normal fee. (We’ve all done this at least once.) Either you deliver a half-baked solution or you put in lots of unpaid overtime. And either way, you’ll find yourself resenting the client and wondering why you got into this business in the first place. Lessons learned: Conflicting demands? You’re not facing a time management challenge. You’re looking for a new strategy -- a way to mesh your preferred working style with the needs of your clients – and a set of policies to protect you from your own generosity.



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A guide to do it yourself credit repair

Having poor or bad credit can be a major burden, not only in your financial life but in other aspects of your life at large as well. Not only does it bring major problems into the act of getting a loan or credit card, but you may also be denied certain housing rentals and even employment opportunities. Unfortunately, getting your credit back into shape isn't as easy as some might have you believe… with all of the scams and overpriced services involved with credit repair, it can be hard to tell who you can trust with your financial information. Luckily, there is hope.

Though it's not always a quick process, it's entirely possible to repair your credit on your own, turning your current bad credit into good credit in the future. The information below is designed to get you started along the path to credit repair, so as to help you to get the hang of it and keep you both out of bankruptcy and away from credit repair scams. Basics of credit repair Regardless of whether you do it yourself or have some help, credit repair works in pretty much the same way. At its most basic, credit repair is simply a process of paying off older debts and letting the negative reports that they spawned expire from your credit history while creating new positive reports that will replace them. This can take some time, depending upon how recent the negative reports are… of course, once your positive reports start to outnumber the negative ones the process will begin going much faster. The first thing that you should do when attempting to repair your credit is to evaluate just how bad your credit is and check your credit history for errors; from that point on, it's simply a matter of stopping negative reports and building up positive reports. Checking your credit report for errors Many people think that there is no way to check for credit errors, or that the method of correcting these errors is exceedingly difficult or drawn out. In truth, however, all that is needed to check for errors is a copy of your personal credit report, which can be obtained from a credit reporting agency for a fee or from certain local or national programs for free depending upon where you live. Once you have a copy of your credit report, look over it for unfamiliar entries or any accounts that should be closed that are still reporting. Should you find any errors, write to the credit bureau and request that they look into the errors… they'll investigate the items, and if they find that there is some error or don't receive word back from the initiator of the item then they'll delete it and all related negative scores from your report. Eliminating older debts, establishing new credit Once you've found any potential errors in your credit history and done what you can to correct them, you'll be able to use the credit report that you have to identify any older debts that need to be paid off so as to stop them from adding negative reports to your credit history. The report that you received can be especially helpful with this if there are older debts that you'd forgotten about or lost track of. At the same time, establishing a new line of credit or two can be beneficial in getting positive reports generated for your credit history while giving you a little bit of credit to work with. With patience and diligent repayment, you'll find your credit turning around before you know it. You may freely reprint this article provided the following author's biography (including the live URL link) remains intact:



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Microsoft business solutions navision customization c side c odbc c front xbrl

Microsoft bought Navision, Denmark based software development company, along with Great Plains Software. Now Microsoft Business Solutions offers following ERP applications: Navision (former Navision Attain), Microsoft Great Plains (former Great Plains Dynamics/eEnterprise), Solomon, Axapta. Formerly Navision had strong positions in Europe. Now it is promoted in USA and Europe. Navision has pretty advanced manufacturing module. We would like to give you: programmer, software developer, database administrator the orientation in Navision customization tools C/SIDE (Client/Server Integrated Development Environment) - The core of Navision is the C/SIDE. C/SIDE is the foundation for all the business management functionality of Navision. It is made up of five building blocks, called object types, which are used to create the application. These five object types are shared throughout Navision to create every application area, and give it a unified, consistent interface. This powerful language allows for the internal construction of new business logic and sophisticated reporting. Because of the internal nature of modifications it’s highly recommended that you develop all your code in “processing only” report objects and called from the native code base. By grouping all your code in logical units, upgrades and additional modifications are easier to manage. C/ODBC and C/FRONT - Both C/ODBC and C/FRONT enable you to easily use information from Navision in familiar programs such as Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel. The Open Database Connectivity driver for Navision (C/ODBC) is an application program interface (API) that provides a way for other applications, such as the entire Microsoft Office Suite, to send and retrieve data to and from the Navision database through the ODBC interface. External Tool: Navision Developer’s Toolkit - The Navision Developer’s Toolkit enables your Microsoft Certified Business Solutions Partner to upgrade your Navision solution to the latest version. It is used to analyze and upgrade customer and vertical solutions Reporting Options - Aside from the powerful internal reporting tool which requires an in-depth knowledge of C/SIDE to make it useful the other options are: Jet Reports - Jet Reports is a complete reporting package utilizing Microsoft Excel. Using Excel you can create reports on any table of data from within any granule in Navision. C/ODBC - Using the ODBC driver, the entire Microsoft office suite and programs such as Crystal Reports can access the database. I would recommend using this tool for occasional reporting requests only. If you need to pull data out of the Navision database on a regular basis one of the other options is a better choice Business Analytics (SQL Server Required) - Using Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) from Microsoft SQL Server™ 2000, Business Analytics organizes all of your business data into information units called cubes. Using a familiar Microsoft Outlook®-style interface, Business Analytics presents this information to your desk top where easy to use analytical tools allow you to carry out targeted analysis that is tailored by you, for you XBRL - Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) for Navision enables simple and dependable distribution of all a company’s financial information and ensures smooth and accurate data transfer. XBRL is an XML-based specification that uses accepted financial reporting standards and practices to export financial reports across all software and technologies, including the Internet Good luck in customizing and reports design and if you have issues or concerns – we are here to help! If you want us to do the job - give us a call 1-866-528-0577 or 1-630-961-5918 worldwide! help@albaspectrum. com



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Get connected to wi fi

Wi-Fi, short for wireless fidelity refers to a set of wireless networking technologies more specifically referred to as any type of 802.11 network, 802.11b and 802.11a, dual band. The word Wi-Fi was built by an organization called the Wi-Fi Alliance. They overlook tests that confirm the production. A product that undergoes the alliance analyses is given the name “Wi-Fi certified”. In earlier times, the term “Wi-Fi” was used only in place of the 2.4 GHz 802.11b. standard. It rapidly gained in fame with access points across the Unites States.

These standards are generally in used around the world, and allow users that have Wifi capable device, like a laptop or PDA to connect anywhere there is available Wi-Fi access point. There are three standards referred to signify the speed of connection. Both the 802.11a and 802.11b are the ones capable of 54 MBPS with 802.11a additional capabilities. 802.11b are the most common of the three standards because it can transmit at 11 Megabits per Second even though the faster WI-Fi standards are quickly changing it. However, all these Wi-Fi standards are fast enough to generally allow a broadband connection. Wireless Fidelity is an appearing technology that will probably be as common as electric outlets and phone lines in a few years. It adds great levels of convenience and high level of production for workers whose offices have a Wi-Fi access. It is intentionally planned to be use for wireless devices but is now often used for Internet access. You can connect computers anywhere, in or out your home or office without needing wires. They are just connected to the network that uses radio signals. Even travelers can progressively equip Wi-Fi in airports, coffee shops, Internet cafes, malls, and hotels around the world. How does W-Fi work? Wi-Fi is the wireless way to handle networking. Wi-Fi allocates a worldwide Internet connection to be transmitted through radio waves. Radio waves are the ones that make Wi-Fi run and exist. They permit Wi-Fi networking occurs between many people. These waves are transmitted from antennae and Wi-Fi receivers are picking them up. The moment a device receives signal within the range of a Wi-Fi network, an Internet connection is produced without a chord and with the use of a Wi-Fi card that reads the signal. The user will be incited with login screen and password if needed once the connection is established between the user and the network. How secure is Wi-Fi? Wi-Fi maintains and continues to have numerous security issues. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is used in the physical and data link layers. It was planned to provide wireless security by protecting the data while it travels from one point to the other. Contrasting with the wired LANs, their networks are usually inside the building. Even if it is protected by wireless LANs, they are more exposed due to the fact that the data travels over radio waves which are much easier to capture. One of the reasons why WEP is vulnerable, some other corporations do not even change their shared keys for a long time. The keys are too long to be used. With that much time, the key can get into other hands and use it in a wrong motive, which could be disastrous for the corporation.



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Snowboarding isn t just for kids anymore

Pain and injury avoidance techniques for snowboarding are invaluable but not well known. If you know how, you can avoid the two biggest mistakes that first time snowboarders make. A positive experience your first few times out will make you more likely to stick out the hard times until you learn enough to really have fun! “There’s no reason that adults shouldn’t snowboard and have as much fun as kids” says self-proclaimed Snowboard Evangelist Lauren Traub Teton who admits to being “in her 40s”. “I have been riding a snowboard for four years, and am having the most fun of my life!” She feels that the only thing stopping “oldsters” (in their mid-30s and up) from embracing snowboarding in a big way are the inevitable hard falls experienced during the short steep learning curve. She says “there are easy ways to avoid the pain. They are just not well known.” The reason “snowboard pain avoidance” is not more widely discussed has to do with the history of snowboarding. To some snowboarders, pain and injury are cool. This is obvious if you the read the hundreds of war stories on snowboard websites. This viewpoint has its roots in the fact that snowboarding is stylistically a descendant of skateboarding and embraces some of the same traditions. For example, doing a grab, where the rider reaches down and grabs the board while airborne, is more of a necessity in skating than in snowboarding, because the skateboard is not attached to the feet. But grabs have morphed into a popular trick and a way to show style in snowboarding too. The other tradition that has carried over from skating is the tradition of pain. In skateboarding, injury from accidental impact with the hard ground is a common occurrence and gives a skater bragging rights (as well as bruises and breaks.). A lot of skaters are also snowboarders, and so the tradition of absorbing pain as part of “paying dues” remains. Another factor keeping some adults away from snowboarding may be the reputation for wildness on the slopes that snowboarders have. That probably comes from the fact that when the equipment was first invented, it was technologically primitive, with little ability to steer or stop. That’s how snowboarding got its image as an extreme sport and snowboarders got their reputation as outlaws of the snow. Now snowboards have evolved technologically into precision devices that can turn and stop easily, when operated under control. With older snowboarders hitting the slopes, the culture of injury and pain has outlived it’s origins. Adults don’t equate injuries with status. People who start riding as adults want to stay upright and uninjured. Some skiers switch over because it seems like more fun and less stress on the knees. Again, the goal is to stay whole! I learned by trial, error and luck how to avoid injury. In fact, a fine young gentleman working at the guest services desk on Whistler Mountain (B. C.) offered to let me borrow his Rollerblade wrist guards and knee pads, one day when I was learning, and I was hooked on safety and comfort from that moment. Don’t make the two biggest mistakes new snowboarders often make when you do decide to take up this wonderful sport. To be safe, comfortable, and happy, you MUST 1. Take a lesson given by a professional your first time out. and 2. You MUST wear padding, on your knees, butt, and wrists. Come now, why try to reinvent the wheel? If you want to learn to snowboard, then a snowboard lesson with a trained instructor will teach you IMPORTANT basic snowboarding skills that you will use every day for the rest of your riding life. So learn them right, right from the start. Forget about teaching yourself how to get on and off a lift safely on a board. This is what teachers are for. And the padding is a must because falling is an inevitable part of the learning process. You WILL fall at first. But if you are padded properly, you will not have to hurt yourself. And don’t chuck the padding once you have mastered the basics. You will need it when you progress to jumping and tricks!



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Couple s comfort book forward

A New Foreword – Ten Years Later I have been married now for 14 years. We have a daughter. She will soon be ten. We have survived the death of a parent, financial pressure, a major move, parenting, intense travel schedules – not to mention coming to terms with the startling truth – we really do marry our opposites. My parents always told me that marriage was hard work. They never told me there would be days when you hate your spouse. Days? Sometimes weeks. No one told me what a cold war marriage could be. Not that I would have listened. At 23, looking into those big green eyes of my husband, I would have said (and probably did, if I could remember), “Not us. We’ll be different.” Darby tells her version of the relationship saga. “Almost ten years ago, very early on in my partner’s and my relationship, I found The Couple’s Comfort Book at a local bookstore. Being dopey in love, I picked it up, and ended up stretching my limited grad-student budget to bring it home. Dopey in love from time to time gave way to conflict (sound familiar?), and one night I grabbed the book and scrambled to the chapter on how to have a fair fight. “We’re gonna do it this way!” I said, waving the book. “You’ll be Carlos and I’ll be Martya!” We aired our views and we really listened to each other ( see p. 285). We didn’t interrupt, snipe, or manipulate. We learned to argue ‘by the book’. Even now, when our discussions get heated, we still argue ‘by the book’, and both of us firmly believe that if we hadn’t learned how to play fair in our times of difference, we would have called it quits long ago. I really appreciate the book’s recognition that love wears many emotional hats (delight, neediness, desire, ennui, anger, etc.)—that is its greatest strength. Ten years later, we still pull this book off the shelf.” Maybe some people don’t have to learn to fight by the book. Maybe some relationships are blessed. There do seem to be couples who inhabit what I call the nirvana of relationships – married or not, parents or not, straight or gay – they have found someone with whom they are complete. Okay, yes, they fight, they may mutter petty flinty hearted things under their breaths, but somehow these couples have an I-can’t-live-without-you-connection, some extra reserve of magic patience and grace. One couple I knew could spend five minutes saying goodbye – and all they were doing were driving across town in separate cars, all of a 10 minute trip! For the rest of us, mere mortals, we must face the astonishing difficult spiritual work of being in a relationship without that magic. We must face the worst and the best in ourselves, over and over again, if we choose to stay together, if we choose to create real intimacy. Face it – the hardest spiritual path in life is being in a committed relationship. Yes, I can say parenting is a close second but the really hard years of parenting do end. You still worry, you are still connected, oh yes, but the everyday rub up against it, that ends. The children move out (hopefully). Your partner doesn’t (hopefully). I wish I could find a magic pill to make my marriage easier. The only thing I have found, which I return to over and over, is the idea that by being together, we create a third something: the relationship. This third something needs love, attention and feeding. As much as I may hate my partner at any given moment, I value and treasure this third thing with my whole being. It is very precious to me. It deserves to flourish. So most of the time, I can do something to nurture the relationship, even when I’d like to find subtle and crafty ways to torture my husband. Usually, any step I take away from our usual routine, from, “If he would only do ___, then I would be able to do ____,” away from our tangled, sour power struggles, and into serving the relationship, then the funniest thing always happens. He does something nice for me. Then I look at him across the kitchen counter, and suddenly, he’s cute again. I scoot over to his side of the bed. I say how nice it would be to go away from a weekend together, alone. We talk – about important things or mundane things – but we talk. In those moments, we are one of those couples, we are graced and living in relationship nirvana. Nurturing your relationship is certainly not mandatory. Most people don’t do it. You can certainly avoid it, keep meaning to do it, talk about doing it without actually doing it. Nobody will die. You may even stay together. Yet I wager that you will feel you are missing something, something juicer, richer, more intimate, more real, more alive. I’d never suggest taking this step toward one another is easy but I can declare the reward is what we all yearn for, in the words of the late Raymond Carver: to call myself beloved, to feel myself beloved on this earth.



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How to make millions playing video poker

: Most people will tell you that the only way to walk out of a casino a Millionaire is to walk in a Billionaire, but the fact is this is not the truth. It is only the easiest way to do it. If you are the type of person who is not afraid to risk it all for the big payoff then this may be for you. Video poker machines can be found in every casino both land based and online casinos. These machines have the best chances of making you a millionaire in any casino. All you need is a credit card with at least $20,000 and the nerve to risk it, in what can be less then 20 minutes. I recommend saving up $20,000 dollars before trying this and not just running up your credit card, but when I first tried it I did just run up my card. The game you pick is very important. There are many different types of poker games offered in video form, in some of them you play a computer player and the player with the best hand wins, in the second there is no other player, the better the hand you make the more the machine pays out. A pair pays 1:1; two pairs pay 2:1 and so on. The 2nd type of Video Poker machine is the one you want. Please keep in mind that this is not a guaranteed way to win money, and if you do not win money you can wind up twenty thousand dollars in debt, but it has made me a lot of cash, over the past 2 years I have paid all my expenses playing poker in this manner.

I usually start with at least 20,000 dollars, and making $1,000 dollar bets before the $20,000 is gone I have had at least 1 good hand where I have at least made back my money and can now start going for the big money. Do not increase your bets to more then $1,000 until you have made at least $100,000. I first discovered this method almost 2 years ago; I was spending my weekends down in Atlantic City playing poker, blackjack and roulette, and not winning any money, but during the week I would play a free video poker game from home, and I was winning millions of dollars every week. So one day I decided to give it a try and instead of spending my money at the table games I went right to the video poker game, and by the end of the weekend I was up almost $60,000. Now every few months I go down to either Atlantic City or Las Vegas, I have a bank roll of $20,000 and I make a few hundred thousand to get me till the next time. Remember there are no guarantees that this will work for you. There have been times where I went over my $20,000 bank roll before I got my first really good hand, but I also remember one time I got a full house which paid off $25,000 on my first hand.

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Facial skin care products

The skin on your face is exposed to a barrage of toxins and environmental damage on a daily basis. It must withstand pollution, ultraviolet rays, wind, and debris, as well as the harmful chemicals in 99% of all skin care products and cosmetics. The skin on your face is the most delicate skin on your body. Therefore there are many specialty products that have been developed specifically for your facial skin. It can be difficult to decipher which products perform which tasks, and which products would work the best with your skin type.

Here’s a primer on the most common facial products available. A Word About Facial Skin Before you can select the facial skin care products that would work best for you, you need to determine your skin type. Basically, facial skin is categorized as either normal, oily, dry, sensitive, or combination. If you’ve never had problems with oily skin or dry skin, it’s likely that you have “normal” skin. The pores of normal skin are small and the overall skin tone is even. Oily skin, on the other hand results in medium to large pores that are prone to blockage and breakouts. Oily skin is usually slightly too moderately greasy and is thicker and firmer than normal skin. Dry skin feels tight and itchy, especially in the winter. It is thinner than normal skin and may even be slightly rough to the touch. People with sensitive skin are usually the ones who actually know their skin type. Sensitive skin is prone to rashes and breakouts from any kind of irritants such as sun, perfumes, shaving cream, temperature extremes, and even soap. Avoid products with dyes, per! fumes, or unnecessary chemical ingredients in all skin conditions. As its name implies, combination skin has both dry and oily patches. Most commonly, combination skin exhibits an oily “T-Zone” (forehead, nose and chin) with dry skin on the cheeks and around the eyes. Facial Skin Care Products Facial Cleansers: Soap can be very drying to facial skin. So it is best to use a facial wash or cleanser that is specifically designed for the face. Skin Toners: Skin toners offer extra cleaning and help to restore the pH balance of your facial skin. However, these products can be quite drying, so if you have dry or sensitive skin, you will not need to use a skin toner. Anti Aging Creams: Facial skin care creams made of antioxidants (particularly vitamins C and E), vitamin A or alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs), are commonly used to help reduce the appearance of wrinkles and restore luster to the skin. These products may make a variety of claims regarding their efficacy and time required to see results. Use caution when reviewing a facial skin care product that claims to be a “miracle cure” to aging. Eye Creams: Eye creams are specifically made to pamper the delicate skin under and around the eyes. They help to plump and tighten under eye skin and they can reduce fine lines and wrinkles (like crows feet) that develop around the eyes. I recommend “Parfait Visage” Moisturizers: Moisturizers help to hydrate skin and reduce the effects of aging over time. Sunscreen: Sunscreen is the most important facial skin care product for the health and protection of your skin. The sun’s rays, even in small amounts can be very damaging to the skin on your face. Protect it with a natural sunscreen of at least an SPF 15 everyday. Facial Cleansers: The fragile skin on your face needs a gentle cleanser that is designed for facial skin. Facial cleansers may come in liquid, foam, gel, towelette, or bar form. AHAs: Alpah Hydroxy Acids (AHAs) work wonders at smoothing out the texture of skin and reducing the visibility of fine lines. These products work by sloughing off dead skin cells to unblock and cleanse pores, to improve oily skin or acne, and to improve skin condition in general. The extent of exfoliation that a facial skin care product is capable of depends on the type and concentration of the AHA, its pH (acidity), and other ingredients in the product. Exfoliators: These facial skin care products utilize a variety of ingredients such as nuts, alpha hydroxy acids, and microcrystals to gently remove dead skin cells and reveal the healthy, radiant skin underneath. They are best used occasionally to restore luster to dull or dry skin. Sunless Tanners: As their name implies, sunless tanners are used to tan the skin without exposure to the sun. These products vary greatly in quality, time requirements, and ease of application. They should be used with caution. A poor quality or poorly applied sunless tanner will produce unnatural results. These sunless tanners also contain harmful chemicals which can be absorbed by your skin. For more information on natural cosmetics and skin care visit: http:// skin-care-support. org or http:// make-up-cosmetics. com



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Eating the right food and maintaining good eating habits is essential to enjoying proper nutrition on the road

How many times have you been on a business trip and just been too busy to have a proper lunch? With today’s fast-paced lifestyle, it is important to follow these essential guidelines to proper nutrition and good eating habits on the road. When selecting meat, poultry, dry beans, and milk or milk products, make choices that are lean, low-fat or fat-free. Eating the right food means consuming a sufficient amount of fruits and vegetables. Select from all five vegetable subgroups (dark green, orange, legumes, starchy vegetables and other vegetables) several times a week. Consume three or more ounce-equivalents of whole-grain products per day. In general, at least half the grains should come from whole grains. As part of your good eating habits during your travels, consume three cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products.

Consume less than 10 percent of calories from saturated fatty acids and less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol, and keep trans-fatty acid consumption as low as possible. Keep total fat intake between 20 to 35 percent of calories. For those long trips, choose beverages with little added sugars or caloric sweeteners. Most importantly, eating the right food on the road should not jeopardize your safety or that of other drives. Do not drive and eat at the same time, since you lose track of the type and quantities of food you are consuming as well as distracting you from your driving.

Remember that proper nutrition can make the difference between feeling great and feeling just okay—especially when traveling. Proper nutrition is easy to maintain, even on the road. In fact, all you need to do to ensure your health and well being is to follow the simple steps, outlined above.



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Curing ibs with a change in diet

A cure for IBS has yet to be found, but its symptoms can be managed by a change in diet. A person can also manage the symptoms by reducing his or her stress and of course with medication. Each person has different trigger foods that can cause IBS symptoms. Physicians often observe that patients are relieved knowing that these symptoms are not signs of a major decease. People should be aware of diet changes that could prevent IBS from getting worse. First they should know the foods to avoid. Examples of the foods that may cause the symptoms to become worse are food high in fat like deep fried foods, milk and dairy products like cheese or yogurt, chocolates, alcohol and caffeine which is normally found in coffee and carbonated drinks. If these foods cause the symptoms of IBS, people should minimize their intake or even better refrain from eating them. For people to find out which food products are causing their symptoms they should monitor what they eat and keep a log of food intake during the day, what symptoms are experienced, what time these symptoms occurred, and what food makes you feel bad every time you eat it. Then take your notes to your physician for them to be able to know which food you should refrain from eating. There are also foods which are advisable for people with IBS to eat; these are foods that contain fiber.

Fiber reduces the symptoms of IBS especially constipation. Fiber makes the stool soft, bulky and makes the stool easy to pass. Fibers can be found in foods like bran, bread, cereals, beans, fruits, and vegetables. Bread that contains fiber is whole-grain bread; whole-grain cereal, beans fiber can be found in kidney and lima beans, the fruits that contain fiber are apples and peaches, and the vegetables that contain fiber are broccoli, raw cabbage, carrots, and raw peas. Adding these foods to your daily diet gradually helps your body adjust to them. Aside from advising people to eat more foods with fiber, physicians sometimes tell the patient to get more fiber by either taking a fiber pill mixing a high fiber powder into drinking. But, be aware that too much fiber all at once might cause gas and can actually trigger the symptoms of IBS. How much a person eats during the day also matters. Large meals can lead to cramping and diarrhea. If this happens, change your meals and eat four or five small meals a day instead. If you don’t want to do this or it won’t fit in with your schedule stick to three meals a day, reducing the quantity you eat. If you suspect you are suffering with IBS, you should first consult your primary care physician before taking other steps.



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just say no ain t enough to avoid holiday weight gain

The holiday season is coming up fast. For weeks magazines and newspapers have been printing recipes and alluring photographs of rich, mouth-watering goodies such as cookies, candies, dips, and calorie-laden drinks. Then, in the same issue, they offer guidance on how not to eat all this stuff. Pace yourself, they advise. Limit yourself to one tidbit every half-hour.

Eat a salad before going to a cocktail party, so that you wont be tempted by all the snacks. Yeah, right - like my inner brat is going to forego the fondue because I pre-loaded with lettuce. Nutrition experts tell us that on average, people gain 5-7 lb. during the holiday season. It's hard to resist all the treats, especially when we're faced with them in ads and displays, as well as on counter tops at home, at work and when visiting. Our inner brat nags at us, whining that we really do "need" that extra helping of pie. Or it rationalizes that a couple of cookies don't add up to much, and that we can exercise a little more later. Controlling your eating is difficult at this time of year. To "just say no" is a good strategy for occasional temptations, but it doesn't work when you're bombarded with images, aromas and offerings of one treat after another. Self-control is mentally draining. When you repeatedly say "no" to treats, you gradually deplete your mental energy.

That's why most people fall off their diets later in the day, when their strength to resist is at a low point. A better solution: not confronting the yes/no question in the first place. The secret is to limit your exposure to temptation. Here are some tips: 1. Store treats in the back of a cupboard or fridge. Wrap them in opaque paper or plastic, so that you don't easily notice them. 2. If there are goodies out on counters or desks at work, reroute yourself so that you don't walk by. 3. Avoid reading recipes for calorie-laden foods. When you see photos of cakes and other desserts in magazines, turn the page quickly. Less exposure is less temptation. 4. If you go to business-related holiday cocktail parties, resolve to visit the buffet table only once. If possible, stay no more than half an hour. 5. Spend some time outside every day. Nature helps clear your head, so that your cravings are less noticeable. 6. Get more sleep. Not only will you get the usual benefits of being more alert and less irritable, but research shows that people who sleep more have a better balance of the hormones that regulate hunger - and they weigh LESS than those who don't get enough sleep! Copyright Pauline Wallin, Ph. D. 2005. All rights reserved



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Reach the romantic heart with personalized valentine s gifts

While many appropriate gifts can be purchased for Valentine's Day, the most powerful romantic message to your heart's desire might be delivered with something that costs nothing or very little. What can you give of yourself this Valentine's Day, using mostly time and imagination? To help you decide, here are 10 ideas for Valentine's gifts for men or women. Present one or more of these gifts with or without purchased items and you will put an unmistakable personal imprint on this special day. 1. Is there an item belonging to your sweetheart that needs mending or repairing? Almost everyone has something that should get fixed but doesn't for the longest time, mainly because of busyness. But you can take the trouble to get it done, showing both that you noticed the need and cared enough to use your own valuable time to arrange or do the repair. 2. Schedule a telephone reunion with an old friend or relative of your beloved who has been out of touch for some time. Hearing from someone who meant a lot in days gone by provides an emotional charge. We all want to have these connections, but we get so busy with everyday living that we neglect to make them happen. So if you take the initiative and make the contact, your Valentine will be surprised and pleased. 3. What task does your Valentine least like to do? Is it washing dishes? Vacuuming? Cleaning the garage? Shopping for groceries? Excluding undergoing surgery or a visit to the dentist, there has to be something you can do in place of your sweetheart. You could do the task without mentioning it and enjoy the surprise when your work is noticed. If you're worried that your effort won't be recognized, you could include a subtle hint with your Valentine's card. 4. This is a high-end version of Number 3. A Valentine's gift that keeps on giving will be very welcome. You could promise to walk the dog every day for a month, cook meals for a week, tend the lawn or assume any duties your darling normally does for a set period. Just remember, whatever commitment you make must be honored or your gift will backfire. What could be less romantic than promising something that doesn't happen? 5. Cooking a meal is an obvious gift, but there are some ways to embellish it. Include special foods or beverages that you have enjoyed together, especially when you first met or during early dating. If you fell in love while having pizza and beer, maybe that's your menu. Tastes and smells locked in our memories evoke powerful emotions, including romantic feelings. Don't overlook the power of the right music, either. Which song have you loved to dance to? What was playing the night you met? Put the music on and relive the wonderful experience. 6. If you have been together for a while, here's a way to honor your experiences: dig out your photos from various events and display them. Whether it be your wedding, birth of a child, a trip to Hawaii or camping in the woods, special occasions that you have recorded with photographs can evoke romantic memories. Since many photos get filed away indefinitely, Valentine's Day is a great occasion to give them their due. Combine with suggestion Number 5 and you have the makings of a superb evening. 7. Is there something you have been meaning to do, and your Valentine has been urging you to do (even nagging), but you just haven't managed to achieve it? Taking a course that you need for career advancement, perhaps, or getting a tooth chip repaired, or starting an exercise program. Everyone usually has an unresolved procrastination, despite friendly encouragement. So get it done or started, then announce the achievement or action with your Valentine's card. And don't forget to say something like "just for you" or "thanks for your wonderful support." 8. For those with writing skill, composing a special poem for Valentine's Day is a natural no-cost gift. But what if you are a creative klutz with a poetic heart? Here's a solution: research romantic poetry at the library or online until you find a poem that reflects your feelings. Then copy it out in longhand, with a flourish if your penmanship is up to it, on some fancy paper. (Don't forget to give proper credit to the poet.) This can be your handmade Valentine's card, or you might include the poem with a card you purchase. 9. If your sweetheart has an extensive collection of music, books, photos or something similar, you could archive it on your computer and create a useful gift. Demonstrating your interest in the particular passion should earn you high marks. 10. The last suggestion is the deluxe treatment, but using any or all of it could enhance Valentine's Day. If there's time in the morning, offer a full breakfast with some delicacies reserved for special occasions. If possible, arrange to meet for a fancy picnic lunch, even if the weather dictates that you eat in the car. Follow up with a candlelit dinner, where you incorporate one or more of the suggestions noted above. Next, well, use your imagination. It doesn't take a lot of money for a memorable Valentine's Day. Just spend some time and devotion in letting your beloved know how you feel.



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Corporate identity theft

Stop Pretenses! Secure your Company from Corporate Identity Theft The maniacal cruelty and audacity of identity theft criminals have now reached into the corporate world of business companies. In November 2005, the corporate identity theft crime wave reached the UK businesses. According to brief reports last November, the corporate identity theft cost UK businesses up to Ј50M a year. Why? What is the modus operandi of these corporate identity thieves? Actually, it has been going on for years now. Believe it or not, there are criminals posing as company directors on certain companies! Each year, as they see how gullible some people could be, there has been increasing number of them. They order goods that they never pay for and then sell those products for profits thus ripping off suppliers. As a smokescreen to make them seem legitimate, they register through government agency handling company registrations, change company records and run up credit using company’s name. Indeed, there are rouges that claim/pretend to be the manager or other illustrious title of a company and check that company’s credit rating. When he/she see that it's good, he starts his game. By forging and filing forms at the government agency where companies are registered, he notifies the appointment of a fictitious new director. He then implies that there’s a new registered office address for the company. Since the Registrar of Companies cannot check the validity of the documents, and is not obliged by law to check them, they proceed to register them. Afterwards, the thief orders high value goods and services on credit. He/she may use false IDs and then pretend to be a company director. To countercheck, the supplier may search at Companies House. Since the accuracy of the thief’s claim has been established there already, the supplier will not see anything amiss. However, once the goods are delivered, the fictitious company directory disappears, without paying. The company he represented then suffers the set back. As of now, according to reports many companies are suffering from this kind of corporate identity theft. It has become a present problem since even smaller companies are as vulnerable as large ones. A company who has become victim of a corporate identity theft may even find out long after the rouge has taken off. Once they need a loan, they may be surprised of being denied credit and learn that they cannot obtain credit because they already have significant financial obligations. Until they can clear up that these are made by somebody else has accumulated these debts using the company’s name, their business may suffer terribly. Beware, for this may happen in your company. You must know that it's the medium sized and smaller businesses being targeted. Security and trust are very important aspects in corporate ethics code. Corporate identity theft seems to have broken the barriers of these ethical bounds. Whether your business is in UK or in any other part of the globe, avoid falling victim to corporate identity theft. There are simple precautions that you can make sure to make sure corporate identity theft does not taint your company’s good name. Here are protective measures recommended for companies to prevent other people from pretending to be you. First, make sure that the thief has not targeted your business. You need to frequently check with the government agency handling company registrations to see if your company’s registered office is accurate. You can do it online by finding out the website of the government agency mentioned. You can also sign up proof service in order to pre-empt the thief. If your business is in UK, you can file online for PROOF service. Filing for proof service means that certain changes in the information about your company should only be filed electronically. This must include the changes of company director’s name and your business address. Once you file for proof service, filing through paper forms will be rejected. There are user name, password and authentication codes used in these electronic forms wherein your documents will be protected and no one else who does not know these codes can access them. Do not let the tentacles of corporate identity theft get into your company. Stop pretensions of thieves and fight back. Aside from the preventive measures given, companies can find other means of preventing and eventually, stopping the insidious attacks of this crime.



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Military watches

: A Brief History of Military Watches Military watches, as their name suggests, were developed for use in the armed forces. The first military watches were naval pieces, chronometers that worked well for their purposes, but as other branches of the military - aviation in particular - made major technological advances around the time of the Second World War, precise seconds became critical. As the saying goes, "necessity is the mother of invention," and Navigator (also known as "Pilot") watches were born. In Navigator watch design, the seconds bezel allowed the pilot to synchronize the seconds hand with correct reference time before takeoff, and to make manual corrections to radio time signals while in flight, thus eliminating any "chronometer error" and the navigational errors that could result. Great War, Great Technological Advances Seconds continued to be of the essence in both military technology and military watches. "Center-seconds" hands, (also called a "hack seconds feature") - the feature that allowed for synchronization between two timepieces - continued to improve and advance.

The definitive Navigator "hack" watches feature a black dial and white Arabic numerals and indices, hour, minute, and center-seconds hands. Sizing is all over the board; historically, such notable companies as Elgin, Waltham, and Bulova Watches crafted watches (for the renamed Army Air Force in 1941), as small as 31mm in diameter. The German army tended toward larger faces, often in the 55mm range. These watches were worn on the outside of a flight jacket or on the navigator's thigh. The Germans also added antimagnetic protection to their chronometers. Within another major Axis power, Seiko produced a staggering number of military watches for the Japanese Imperial Army and Navy.

These watches averaged around 49mm in diameter. Navigating The Cold War As the days of WWII faded into memory and the strained peace of the "Cold War" became reality, military budgets and military technology boomed. In the era of nuclear bombs the airplane ascended to its most powerful military and political role in history. Watchmakers rose to the call by designing an instrument worthy of going into battle with humankind's most powerful weapon. Those were the Glory Days of the military watch, although no one design house can claim full credit for the strides made in the industry during that time. Cold War-era military watches were much larger in size than the average American navigators before them.

Averaging 36mm in diameter, the crafting of these timepieces was moved to Switzerland and Swiss military watch companies with centuries' old reputations for precision. Like those before them, these Navigators also featured a matte black dial marked with white Arabic numerals 1-12, and with white indices. The new designs did not have white numerals at cardinal 3, 6, 9, and 12. Another new addition was a shatterproof Perspex acrylic crystal, which protected its large 12 ligne movement from magnetic fields. These hand-wound watches were expected to be water-resistant to 20 feet, including water-resistance under low-pressure at operational altitudes. Own A Piece of History - At A Reasonable Price While several of the top-tier watchmakers are reviving this classic style, vintage quality does not have to break the bank.

Seiko watches established a reputation for the brand, recognized by watch collectors. You can buy watches from Seiko for reasonable prices, classic Navigator-style watches can be enjoyed by all.



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