Rose tending in june

"O my Luve’s like a red, red rose, That’s newly sprung in June" An extract from the 1794 poem "A red, red rose" by Robert Burns, Scotland’s national bard. Which roses? Do you have any roses growing in your garden? It does not matter whether the rose is a floribunda, hybrid tea, standard, patio, climbing or rambling, all will now benefit from a plant health check up. These checks should ideally be carried out on a weekly basis from the end of March up until the end of flowering, so let me detail a few of them. Aphids and greenfly problems Check your roses for greenfly; just a few aphids can be dealt with by spraying with soapy water from an atomiser whereas a heavier infestation will require the application of a systemic insecticide or a combination systemic insecticide and fungicide such as "Rose-clear". Some people have questioned whether they have greenfly and whitefly upon discovering what looks like small white insects mixed in with the typical greenfly our roses attract; this is in fact white outer bodies that greenfly shed during their life cycle. An organic and safe black spot spray Now I have already mentioned the product "Rose-clear", this is chemical mix is also commonly used to deal with the other problem our roses encounter, which is black spot. This disease cause leaf loss, and die back. Black spot is encouraged by much the same conditions that encourage potato blight, which are warm, moist conditions. Check your rose’s leaves for black spots with yellow halos and treat with "Rose-clear" according to the manufacturers instructions paying careful heed to the safety instructions. If you wish to try to prevent black spot on your roses organically and safely, you may only have to go as far as your fridge. Mix equal parts skimmed milk and water, apply this with an atomiser or a sprayer to the upper and lower section of the roses leaves. This milky solution causes an invisible and friendly fungus to form, which will help prevent the formation of the dreaded black spot. Feeding and fertilising Apart from these treatments, there is another way to help your rose’s battle pests or diseases and that is to keep their vigour up by proper feeding. Roses benefit from mulching with well-rotted cow dung or garden compost; this will give you bigger blooms, healthier foliage and strength to survive pest and disease attack. A 5 cm (2 inch) layer of this mulch is adequate; do not allow this to touch the stem as it may in some cases lead to rotting. One final benefit of mulching your roses in this way is the reduction of water loss and the suppression of weeds, both of these are very important in a dry summer (we live in hope).

Driving on the wrong side of the road

On which side of the road do you drive? Depends if you're a Brit or an American. If we go back far enough, some two thousand years ago, to the time when the Romans occupied Britain, we'll find a clue about driving habits back then. Archaeologists have unearthed a well-preserved track leading to a Roman quarry near Swindon, England. The ruts in the road on one side are much deeper than those on the other side, as would be the case if their carts were going IN empty and coming OUT with heavy materials such as stones. The ruts suggest that, at least in Swindon, the Romans drove on the left. In fact, some believe that ancient travelers on horseback rode, for the most part, on the left side.

Why? Because since most people are right-handed, horsemen would be able to hold their reins with their left hand and keep their right hand free - to offer in friendly greeting to a passing rider or to defend themselves with a sword if that need arose. A Change to the Right In the late 1700's, a shift from left to right occurred in the United States, when teamsters started using large cargo wagons pulled by several pairs of horses. Since these wagons had no driver's seat, the driver sat on the left rear horse holding his whip with his right hand. Seated on the left, the driver naturally preferred that other wagons pass him on the left so that he could be sure to keep clear of the wheels of any oncoming traffic. That was accomplished by driving on the right side. The English, however, kept to the standard of left side driving. They had smaller wagons and the driver sat on the wagon, not on the horses as in the States, usually on the right side of the front seat. From there he could easily use his long whip in his right hand without entangling it in any cargo packed behind him. In that position, on the right side of the wagon, the driver could judge the safety margin of passing traffic by keeping to the left side. Countries that became part of the British Empire adopted the keep-left rule too, although there were some exceptions such as Canada which eventually changed from left to right to accommodate easier facilitation of border crossings to and from the United States. Political events in France had a large effect on citizens' driving habits. Before the Revolution of 1789, the aristocracy drove their carriages along the left side of the roads, forcing the peasants to move to the opposite side. But once the Revolution started, these nobles desperately tried to hide their identity by walking (or occasionally riding) on the right side like other peasants. By 1794 the French government had introduced a keep-right rule in Paris, which later spread to other regions Napoleon I conquered throughout much of continental Europe. It's no wonder Napoleon favored keep-right driving, as he was left-handed and his armies had to march on the right so he could keep his sword arm between him and any who dared approach him aggressively. In Europe, countries that resisted Napoleon kept to the left and eventually Russia and Portugal made the switch from left to the right early in the 20th century. Austria and Czechoslovakia changed also when occupied by Nazi Germany at the end of the 1930's, and Hungary followed suit. Today just four European countries still drive on the left side including Britain, Ireland, Cyprus and Malta. Japan also drives on the left, though never considered a British colony.

Driving on the wrong side of the road

On which side of the road do you drive? Depends if you're a Brit or an American. If we go back far enough, some two thousand years ago, to the time when the Romans occupied Britain, we'll find a clue about driving habits back then. Archaeologists have unearthed a well-preserved track leading to a Roman quarry near Swindon, England. The ruts in the road on one side are much deeper than those on the other side, as would be the case if their carts were going IN empty and coming OUT with heavy materials such as stones. The ruts suggest that, at least in Swindon, the Romans drove on the left. In fact, some believe that ancient travelers on horseback rode, for the most part, on the left side.

Why? Because since most people are right-handed, horsemen would be able to hold their reins with their left hand and keep their right hand free - to offer in friendly greeting to a passing rider or to defend themselves with a sword if that need arose. A Change to the Right In the late 1700's, a shift from left to right occurred in the United States, when teamsters started using large cargo wagons pulled by several pairs of horses. Since these wagons had no driver's seat, the driver sat on the left rear horse holding his whip with his right hand. Seated on the left, the driver naturally preferred that other wagons pass him on the left so that he could be sure to keep clear of the wheels of any oncoming traffic. That was accomplished by driving on the right side. The English, however, kept to the standard of left side driving. They had smaller wagons and the driver sat on the wagon, not on the horses as in the States, usually on the right side of the front seat. From there he could easily use his long whip in his right hand without entangling it in any cargo packed behind him. In that position, on the right side of the wagon, the driver could judge the safety margin of passing traffic by keeping to the left side. Countries that became part of the British Empire adopted the keep-left rule too, although there were some exceptions such as Canada which eventually changed from left to right to accommodate easier facilitation of border crossings to and from the United States. Political events in France had a large effect on citizens' driving habits. Before the Revolution of 1789, the aristocracy drove their carriages along the left side of the roads, forcing the peasants to move to the opposite side. But once the Revolution started, these nobles desperately tried to hide their identity by walking (or occasionally riding) on the right side like other peasants. By 1794 the French government had introduced a keep-right rule in Paris, which later spread to other regions Napoleon I conquered throughout much of continental Europe. It's no wonder Napoleon favored keep-right driving, as he was left-handed and his armies had to march on the right so he could keep his sword arm between him and any who dared approach him aggressively. In Europe, countries that resisted Napoleon kept to the left and eventually Russia and Portugal made the switch from left to the right early in the 20th century. Austria and Czechoslovakia changed also when occupied by Nazi Germany at the end of the 1930's, and Hungary followed suit. Today just four European countries still drive on the left side including Britain, Ireland, Cyprus and Malta. Japan also drives on the left, though never considered a British colony.

Revolutionary war 1778 1783 pensions

The American Revolutionary War began in Massachusettson April 19, 1775. The date of the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia was July 4, 177 General Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown, Virginia on October 19, 1781, with the peace treaty being signed in 1783. After the war ended, provisions for benefits to veterans were established, in 1789. Many of the first applications, however, were destroyed by fire in 1800 and again in 1814. A partial record of earlier pensioners does exist for 1792, 1794 and 1795, in Reports to Congress. Here is how the pensions went: 1. Invalid pensioners who were disabled prior to 8/26/1776 (and since 4/19/1775). The Act of 1782 extending the provisions found that there were 1500 (invalid) pensioners on the rolls. 2. Half-pay for life went to officers, and widows of those officers. This began in 1780; then in 1788 Congress granted seven years half-pay to officers who served at the end of the war. 3. 2,480 officers received Commutation Certificates, however, delayed payments existed. 4. The Law of 1818 provided that every indigent person who had served to the war's close, or for nine months or longer, would receive a pensions. When the law was rewritten in 1820, many names were removed from the pension rolls because they were not indigent. 5. In 1832 most of the benefits were stripped. By 1867 most of the pensioners on the rolls were dead, even though two names went on the rolls thereafter. The last old soldier to die was Daniel F. Bakeman, who died 4/15/1869, at the age of 109 years. In 1869, there were 887 widows on the rolls. And, believe it or not, in 1906, there was still one widow on the pension list. She was Esther S. Damon, who died 11/11/1906. Estimates are that 20,485 soldiers were granted pensions in 1818, and 1,200 in 1828, and 33,425 in 1832. In 1789 the Federal Government assumed responsibility of the State's invalid pensions for soldiers on the Continental Line, and in 1804 they assumed all S. C. Invalid pensions, Continental Line. Sources of Research at Family History Centers: Family History Centers have on microfilm "Miscellaneous Numbered Records (the Manuscript File) of the Revolutionary War. This includes 35,000 documents such as letters, pay accounts, oaths of allegiance, pensions, and enlisted papers. 125 reels of microfilm. The index is on 39 reels of microfilm. American Prisoners of the Revolution by Dandridge, film #0844970 Index to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served During the Revolutionary War in Organizations from the State of North Carolina, A-Q, film #0821595. R-Z, film #0821596 Index to the Names of the Braunschweig Corps Who Remained in America, 1776-1783, film #1036138 Index to the Papers of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789, by John P. Buter, Vol. 1-3, film #1035704. Vol. 4-5, film #1035705. Pension Books at most Archives: The Pension Index, alphabetical by surname, lists State, pension no., etc. If the soldier applied and receive a pension his pension number was prefixed by "S". If his widow received his pension, prefix was "W", and if the pension was rejected, prefix was "R". It is worthwhile reading the rejected pensions, because this provides genealogical data, as well as all the applications. Pensions are great sources of information - they contain 1. Soldier's name, rank, where enlisted, battles fought in, etc. 2. Wife's name (or widow), date and place of marriage. 3. Bible records of family members, as sometimes indigent "children" took up the pension. 4. Place of residence of soldier, when enlisting, when applying, and other family members. 5. Date of death of soldier (widow's pension). All of the Revolutionary War Pensions have been abstracted and are at most Archives. These are large books and include a number of volumes. Also, the Federal Archives have the original pensions on microfilm....reading these (as opposed to the abstracts) is quite interesting, because of details of exciting battles, and personal information. This article may be freely reprinted or distributed if you include a byline of my website http:// georgiapioneers. com

History of peach trees prunus persica

Peach trees, Prunus persica, are originally believed to have come from China to the Mideast through the trade routes known to extend to Turkey and Iran (Persia). The peach seeds could be used to plant and grow trees throughout North Africa and Europe and finally were introduced to America in the mid 1500’s. The first appearance of peaches in China may date back to 2000 BC. Historians believe that peach trees were first introduced into the colonial settlements of the United States by the French explorers in 1562 at territories along the Gulf coastal region near Mobile, Alabama, then by the Spaniards who established Saint Augustine, Florida in 1565 on the Atlantic seaboard. The peach trees were planted from peach seed imported from Europe in an effort to establish a self sustaining, agricultural. fruit tree product to feed the colonists. American Indians spread the planting of the peach trees throughout vast territories by transporting the peach seed to other tribes that lived in the interior regions. This new crop of fruit was fast growing, producing a delicious peach two or three years from planting. The trees were so productive and vigorous that sometimes, widespread impenetrable thickets became established from the peach seeds that fell to the ground from fruit unharvested. The illusion was formed by settlers after 1600 that the peach trees were native to the United States, since they were so widely spread and grew so vigorously everywhere. Captain John Smith wrote about peach trees that were growing in Jamestown, Virginia in 1629. William Penn recorded in 1683 that dense, native thickets of wild peach trees were full of fruit just north of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The first plant nursery to become established in the United States was the Prince Nursery of Flushing, New York, in 1774 that sold grafted cultivars of peach trees to customers. General George Washington visited this nursery and had previously purchased fruit from them. An extensive group of grafted peach trees was sent to the Thomas Jefferson fruit tree orchards from Prince Nursery. President Thomas Jefferson was instrumental in the importation of many new agricultural products from Europe through his influence as Minister to France before the American Revolution. The aggressiveness and monumental fruit production of peach trees impressed him to establish a “living fence,” that encircled his expansive gardens at his home at Monticello, Virginia, in 1794. Jefferson found many other uses for peach trees such as the brewing of brandy in 1782. Jefferson wrote to his granddaughter, Martha, in 1818 that a slave “is busy drying peaches for you.” These sun-dried peaches were called “peach chips” and retained a good quality for eating, even after months of storage. Peaches were juiced and mixed with tea to form a delicious drink. In December of 1795, Jefferson planted 1151, peach trees after he had experimented with planting in 1807, the “black plumb peach of Georgia,” (Indian Blood Cling Peach). This naturalized peach wonder had been planted throughout the State of Georgia by the Indians and was a dark-red velvety color with tiger-like striping. This fragrant peach was extremely desirable because of its rich coloring and taste. Also, this peach was a perfect size to peel and pickle into a Southern holiday treat. This aromatic peach was ideal to make into jams, preserves, cobblers, pies, cakes, and ice cream. Jefferson believed that this Indian cling blood peach was a cross between naturalized peach trees and a French cultivar peach, “Sanguinole.” William Bartram, the famous American botanist and explorer, wrote in his book, Travels, in 1773 several accounts of his observations of ancient peach and plum orchards growing in Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama. Bartram visited the ruins of a French plantation in 1776 near Mobile, Alabama, and recorded “I came presently to old fields, where I observed ruins of ancient habitations, there being abundance of peach and fig trees loaded with fruit.” Peach trees are grown primarily as a fruit tree; however, great interest in the non-fruiting, flowering peach tree was shown by President Thomas Jefferson who planted a double flowered tree that spectacularly bloomed at his home in Virginia in 1805. Flowering peach trees rate high, and desirable new cultivars of ornamental peach trees are available for planting and flowering with colors of white, pink, red, and peppermint (a mixture of red and white flower petals). These flowering peach trees are sterile in fruit production and bloom early in the spring, loaded with large colorful clusters of single or double flowered peach petals. Peaches are less popular as a fresh fruit than a few years ago, primarily because most commercial peach cultivars (varieties) are tailored by hybridizers to grow and ship as a firm fruit. The firmness of these peaches is important when a grower considers shipping the peach fruit long distances, but not enough attention has been given by plant hybridizers to saving the ancient qualities of aroma, juiciness, flavor, and seed separation from the pulp. Another problem damaging fresh peach sales is that the labor hired to pick the fruit from the tree is not properly trained nor personally concerned in the ultimate ripening of the peach fruit into a juicy, soft, delicious, tasty peach. The peaches are simply picked too soon and too firm to provide a fruit product that compared to a backyard orchard, tree-ripened delicacy that our older citizens often experienced in their grandfather’s back yard garden. Most of the peaches grown by commercial orchards today are fruits that are harvested while too firm with a seed that clings to the pulp called a “clingstone” peach. The best flavored peaches ripen soft and the seed easily separates from the edible portion, and these are called “freestone” peaches. Peach trees grown in the United States differ greatly from the aggressive, disease resistant, tasty, aromatic fruits grown by the early Americans. Over the centuries, the immune qualities of the peach trees to insects and diseases have been bred out by hybridizers, and these qualities have been replaced by inferior genes that make it difficult to buy a good flavorful peach at the store. The alternative to this problem is to buy tree ripened soft fruit at a fruit stand, pick-your-own orchard, or to grown your own backyard garden peaches concentrating on planting and growing old cultivars of the non-commercial home garden types. Peach trees in American have steadily declined in vigor in the past 300 years, to the point that the life expectancy is only 15-20 years or less. This factor has been explained by some fruit tree observers as due to an array of incremental factors, such as disease and insect weakening of the tree and leaves, nematodes, and improper soils and drainage; however, these problems pre-existed in the environment, when peach trees were introduced into America. The likely explanation of peach tree decline is more probably connected to the weak gene immunity that has appeared in peach tree hybridization focused toward commercial tree production that ends with an early, firm peach, clingstone, with shipping advantages to distant markets. The peach tree grows into a handsome canopy of dark-green rich foliage to a height of 6 to 10 feet. Most peach trees available in the United States are adapted and grown successfully in over 30 states. The grafted semi-dwarf peach trees are self pollinated, even before the flowers fully open, and the tree is cold hardy to negative 20 degrees Fahrenheit; however, the red to pink delicate flowers can be damaged by temperatures below 28 degrees Fahrenheit. Some orchardists like light frosts that will thin the bloom set, producing larger fruit. If extremely heavy flowering occurs, the excess flowers can be removed to 6 inch intervals, or by a chemical thinning that results in a much more marketable crop of fruit. A developing peach can grow in various sizes of individual fruits on the same tree that requires considerable grading before marketing. The peach is covered with a characteristic fuzz that some growers prefer to reduce or removed mechanically before sales. A nectarine is nothing more than a fuzzless peach, even though certain distinct cultivars of nectarines are offered. In his classic 12 volume book of botanical insight in 1921, Luther Burbank in Fruit Improvement believed that the peach had evolved from a nectarine-like ancestor with the fuzz developing as a shield of protection, unlike the fuzzless nectarine. He theorized that the fuzz shielded the fruit from sunshine, moisture, wind, insect, and disease damage. The nectarine, he felt, was repressed by evolutionary restraints, because the nectarine lacked fuzz as a protective armor. The cousin of the nectarine, the almond, was crossed by Burbank in order to create a nectarine fruit with an edible almond pit, thus two crops from one hybridization, a fruit and an edible nut. Burbank also performed many interspecific crosses of peach with nectarine. The peach is quite fragile and subject to bruising if handled roughly. Peach trees require a certain number of chilling hours in order to break dormancy properly and set a good crop of fruit. During a season most States will experience 500 chill hours in the winter; however, in many states, like central and southern Florida, the trees will not fruit properly unless cultivars are planted to fulfill low chilling requirements. It is very important to plant and grow peach trees on well drained soils. The fruit tastes better if trees are planted in the full sun, so that the early morning light will dry the dew on the peach leaves and fruit. Peach trees should be planted 12-15 feet apart in rows and will benefit by the application of lime and phosphate fertilizers around the ground beneath the branches. Weeds will be prevented in backyard orchards by heavily mulching, but otherwise the weeds should be mowed or sprayed with herbicides. Several kinds of peach varieties are usually planted to extend the availability and ripening of the fruit on the trees. Many cultivars are recommended for planting, such as: the Belle of Georgia, Elberta, Hale Haven, Harvester, Indian Blood Cling, Red Haven, Reliance, Gala, May Gold, Southern Pearl, Suwanee, Florida King, Florida Dawn, and many other low chill Florida fruiting cultivars. Peaches contain antioxidants that are important health considerations in maintaining healthy bodies. Many websites that recommend eating pits of peaches or apricots to prevent cancer should be urged to research the fact that the seeds contain a poison organic chemical, cyanogen, which produces fatal cyanide poisoning that has caused sudden death for many people, including Steve McQueen, a famous movie actor of the last century. Peach fruit has been demonstrated to contain healthy portions of Vitamin A, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, and Niacin. Peaches also contain the minerals Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, and Potassium. Peach trees may be planted in various semi-dwarf sizes and ages for backyard fruit gardens and occasionally larger trees will grow fruit the first year of planting, but small trees usually begin bearing in the third year.