A brief history of wedgwood china

The story of the line begins in 1730 with the birth of Josiah Wedgwood to a family who manufactured pottery. At six years old, Josiah was an apprentice and by 14 he had suffered a bout of smallpox that weakened his right knee. By 1760, Josiah had his own factory and had been experimenting with different formulas of porcelain, clays and glazes and technological advances in the art of transferring designs to the finished product. In 1765 he manufactured a complete set for Queen Charlotte, advertised himself as the “potter to the Queen” and his business took off. Josiah’s crowning achievement was his creation of Jasperware. Jasper is translucent clay that marries the basalt and Josiah’s original formulas to produce a dense, homogeneously colored stoneware. After more than 10,000 failed experiments with various clays and glazes, Jasperware was launched in 1775 to overwhelming success, especially to his customers in the new democracy of the United States of America. Josiah stated shortly thereafter, “there was no item too rich or too costly for Americans.” Wedgwood died in 1795 and the business was left to his sons, who, having been brought up wealthy, had absolutely no interest in running it. The job fell to a nephew, Tom Byerly who struggled greatly with the burden of running a business he had little love for. The next 25 years proved difficult for the company and Josiah II took over to turn things around by restoring the formulas and business standards set by his father. Needless to say, constant economic turmoil, wars and growing competition made the 1800’s very difficult and it wasn’t until the 20th Century, under the leadership of Josiah V that things began to improve. With new, streamlined production facilities, aggressive worldwide marketing especially in America, and exclusive designs, Wedgwood China products began gaining prominence in the industry. In 1966, Wedgwood’s shares were introduced into the London Stock exchange and since that time, the company has been involved in aggressive expansion. The assets of Susie Cooper, Royal Tuscan, William Adams, Franciscan, Mason’s Ironstone, Waterford, and Rosenthal have been merged with Wedgwood to form the Wedgwood group. Josiah Wedgwood I would be proud.

Four good reasons to take up golf as a sport

The Exercise Golfing is one of the best exercises that you can do. I taught this fellow about ten years ago how to play golf. He had bypass surgery done on his heart, and his doctor told him to walk for exercise. So he asked me to teach him how to golf. He was a retired carpenter. Think about it for a second. There is 1760 yards in a mile. The average golf course is anywhere from 5000 yards to 6500 yards on some of the bigger courses, depending on which tee box you are playing from. They say the shortest distance between two points is in a straight line. Can you imagine the amount of walking you can do on any given course, if you’re not a straight hitter? Some golf courses make you take a golf cart because of the steep terrain. Golfing can keep you’re heart pumping at a good pace depending on the golf terrain. So if you have not walked a country mile. Take up golf and you will have you’re fair share of walking a country mile. The Challenge A lot of people would ask the same question over and over again, and probably still do today. Why would anybody want to chase a little golf ball around? I use to think and ask myself the same question until that very first liftoff from a fairway lie. Oh yes! It is a great feeling when you finally lift it off the fairway and watch the ball fly towards the green and watch it land and roll towards the flagstick, especially if you are a long distance from the green and hitting the green in regulation. The feeling of success is amazing and the challenge to do it again brings you back time and time again. Once you catch that feeling, the challenge to come back and repeat the same golf shot makes you a better golfer in the long run. The challenge you have now sticks with you the more you play. The frustration of not being able to do it over and over again, and then finally once again there goes that beautiful golf shot again, makes you come back for more. Golfing has more than one challenge. The challenge within yourself to play better golf, and the challenge to play better than you’re competitor. A lot of times the challenge to beat your own game can be a real uphill battle. Go ahead and try the challenge. The Scenery Golf courses truly have some of the best breathtaking scenery, depending on where you reside. A lot of the golf courses have rolling fairways and trees of all colors that stretch out on both sides of the fairway, creeks that split fairways in half. Lot of golf courses have greens that are surrounded by huge trees, rock formations, and rolling mounds, and many other natural beauties. Most golf courses surround their greens with water and sand traps. The tee boxes on some courses are perched up on a hillside overlooking a valley, or body of water. Flowers and plants, and or more trees surround a lot of tee boxes. Sometimes the tee boxes and greens are in the wilderness, and or near cliffs. There is a lot of great scenery on golf courses that will want you to say. This is amazing scenery! The Peace and Tranquility The best part of golf is the relaxation you get out it, depending on how you’re game is going of course. Just imagine yourself nestled on a tee box first thing in the morning, and all you hear is the chirping of the birds and the sound of the trees blowing around you. Another good feeling is standing in the middle of the fairway with the sun beating down on you with a cool misty breeze coming from a nearby body of water. I like the late afternoon just before the sun goes down and the trees are swaying a bit more. Sometimes all you hear is a plane going by overhead and the crack of another golf ball going off a tee box. A lot of the golf courses take you away from the clubhouse and land you out in the country, and or fairly wooded areas where the peace and tranquility of mother nature truly makes you sit up and take hold of it’s natural beauty it has to offer.

Seven crucial steps for long term weight loss

1. Food Intake – How much do you need? First of all, you need to understand that in order to begin losing weight you must consume fewer calories than your body burns in a period of a day. The bottom line is, regardless of the confusion brought on by the media and industry, calories still count! Your body weight is largely a product of total daily caloric intake minus total daily energy expenditure (TDEE). So, to lose weight, your daily food consumption measured in calories must be less than TDEE. In other words a deficit in calories must be created to trigger a reduction in body weight.

Although this is a simple concept, it’s not easily accomplished. And statistics prove it: approximately 50% of Americans are obese and two thirds of Americans are borderline obese. It doesn’t have to be that way, however. People need to be educated with respect to health, nutrition and weight loss maintenance.

Knowledge is what we need. Knowledge is power, and with power comes change. One simple guideline for losing weight is to adjust your daily caloric intake to equal ten times your weight in pounds. For example if you weigh 180 lbs. your total daily food intake should equal 1800 calories. This would create a sufficient deficit in calories for gradual weight loss. This method will not work, however, for people who are extremely obese. Another efficient method of losing weight at a reasonably comfortable pace (for any person) is to reduce your total daily food intake by 500 calories. One pound equals 3500 calories and at the rate of 500 calories per day, it translates to 1 pound of weight loss per week. This is a sensible, realistic weight loss pace and more likely to succeed in the long term.

On the other hand, diet programs based on more extreme calorie restriction are very stressful physically and mentally, which is why they result in quick but temporary weight reduction. Not to mention the high cost of many weight loss plans that include pre packaged food, unnecessary meal replacements, supplements and so on. A more accurate method to figure out how many calories you actually need (to maintain your weight) is to take your body weight and multiply it by 11. Say you weigh 160 pounds and you are completely sedentary. 160 x 11 = 1760 (calories). So you would need 1760 calories if you sat around all day with very minimal movement to remain at 160 pounds. Now to go a step further, we have to determine your metabolic factor. There are 3 main categories for metabolism. Slow metabolism is when you have a very difficult time losing weight. Medium metabolism means you don’t have difficulty losing weight - if you really try. And Fast metabolism is when it seems no matter how much you eat you can’t gain weight. Don’t I wish I had that problem. See the table below. Slow Metabolism (%) Under 30 Years of Age - 30% Between 30-40 Years of Age - 25% Over 40 Years of Age - 20% Medium Metabolism (%) Under 30 Years of Age - 40% Between 30-40 Years of Age - 35% Over 40 Years of Age - 30% Fast Metabolism (%) Under 30 Years of Age - 50% Between 30-40 Years of Age – 45% Over 40 Years of Age - 40% Let’s continue with the above example (1760 cal.) and let’s say you’re 35 years old and have a slow metabolism. The corresponding metabolic rate factor would be 25%. 1760 x 25% = 440 calories – which means you would need an additional 440 calories. Your total daily calories would therefore equal 2200 (1760 + 440). In other words, you would require 2200 calories per day to maintain your present weight. Now to lose weight at a comfortable pace (as mentioned above), subtract 500 calories from this total. That would equal 1700 calories (2200 – 500). Consequently, in order to lose one pound per week you would require 1700 daily calories from food. The next step would be to keep track of all your calories. To do that you will need to know the calorie content of the foods you eat. A calorie counter or calculator is where you enter the type of food product, the amount (in grams or ounces) and it calculates the calorie content for you. You can find them at many websites online for free. One that I found to work fairly well, which also contains a huge selection of foods including items from fast food restaurant chains, is at http:// caloriesperhour. com. To increase your rate of weight loss even further you can raise your exercise level. One way to accomplish this is by participating in a program of regular physical activity or if you already are, simply increase the exercise intensity level. See tip number 6 and 7 in this article for more information on physical activity and weight loss. 2. Diet Composition Your diet must consist of foods from all food groups (e. g. meat, dairy, vegetables, fruits, whole grains, nuts/seeds, legumes). If you’re a vegetarian, you can still get sufficient amounts of protein from legumes, soy bean products and whole grains. In a French study, evidence suggested that diet variety was one of the reasons French people were less obese and had fewer occurrences of heart disease than Americans. Another important factor was the diversity in their diet. Overall, the French diet contained more foods from all food groups and consisted of more types of food and food products compared to the American diet. (1) Furthermore, the French seemed to enjoy their food more. Their meals were like special gatherings, celebrations, meant to be enjoyed by all. They typically didn’t eat very fast. They seemed to enjoy their food more; it’s as if time stood still during their meals. This method of eating accomplishes several things. For one, eating slower and being more relaxed during meals increases chewing time. In addition, by slowing down the pace of a meal and chewing more, you are more likely to get a feeling of fullness while eating less quantities of food. In contrast, North Americans, very often eat on the run. The other benefit of the French eating style is that it aids the digestive process by reducing workload and improving the efficiency of nutrient distribution throughout the body. An increase in food variety and diversity decreases the percentage of bad foods (saturated/trans fats, unrefined carbohydrates) present in your digestive system. Moreover, increased fiber content from fresh foods (fruits vegetables and whole grains) also sweeps up and pushes out bad foods quicker, leaving them less time to be absorbed by the intestines and therefore becoming less harmful. As a result risks of developing chronic diseases, such as various forms of cancer and heart related diseases are also reduced. (2) 3. Quantity and Frequency of Meals Does the size and quantity of your meals really matter? You’ve probably heard many times over that it’s best to have smaller more frequent meals throughout the day. In other words snacking is preferable to gorging. Is this fact or fiction? Well, the fact of the matter is that scientific research with respect to this area of study has been largely contradicting. There really is no overwhelming evidence to support the idea that increased frequency and decreased portion size of meals is associated with weight loss efficiency. This eating method, however, has been shown to benefit athletic performance in trained athletes. (3) A study with ice skaters suggested that meals taken throughout the day to correspond with periods of physical demand associated with training, help to maximize performance. Keep in mind that improving athletic performance in athletes is one thing, but increasing the rate of weight loss is something quite different. Although, when taken to extremes, it is probably better to eat 8-10 smaller meals per day than 1 large one for example. As it turns out, the customary three meals a day method is just fine. There just hasn’t been enough convincing evidence to prove that it has a negative effect on weight loss. Eating 5-6 meals a day is also fine. Changing to a more frequent eating style, however, may cause you to over eat, if you’re not careful, especially at the beginning. This is because, subconsciously, you’re used to having larger food portions at meal time. So, it’s important to keep track of the food quantity of every meal, until you get accustomed to the new way of eating. 4. Don’t Skip Meals Ever heard that breakfast is the most important meal of the day? Well it’s true. The one meal you should never skip is breakfast. It is the meal that sets the tone for your metabolism. When you miss breakfast your metabolism responds by slowing down. Your body receives signals of famine from the brain and switches to energy conservation mode. This means rather than burning calories the body gets stingier with them. The other thing that happens, when missing breakfast is, by the time lunch time comes around you feel starved and you almost always end up overeating. And as a result of this added pressure on your digestive system, most of your energy gets used up as your body works hard to digest and absorb all that food. Needles to say, you won’t feel very productive when you return to work, a feeling which may last for the next few hours. Another important benefit of not skipping meals is that your blood sugar level is more stable, which keeps insulin in check – reducing unnecessary fat storage and ensuring that you have adequate energy levels required to perform your daily tasks with less physical and psychological stress. 5. Water It was thought that drinking plenty of water throughout the day was a crucial part of a good weight loss strategy; the theory was that an adequate amount of water – 8 eight-ounce glasses per day – gives you a feeling of fullness which reduces periods of hunger; and the less you feel hungry the less you are going to snack – which translates to fewer calories. Recent studies have suggested, however, that choosing foods with high water content like fruits and vegetables and blending water into meals like soup has a greater effect on satiety, than simply just drinking water. And that it may result in a reduction of total daily calories. In other words, including water rich foods like watermelon and other fruits and vegetables, fruit juice, and soups in your diet, is more effective with respect to satiety than relying on just drinking water. As a result, you wouldn’t need to drink 8 glasses of water a day, if you were getting an adequate supply from your diet. In fact, drinking 8 glasses of water per day is a misconception. This number was originally reported by the National Academy of Sciences of the United States Food and Nutrition Board. They also mentioned, however, in the same report, that the majority of water people need comes from food. (4) The recommendation for a healthy individual is to drink one cup of water or juice with every meal. (ibid) It’s also important to keep in mind that the human body is made up of 60-70% water. All our organs consist of a lot of water. Blood is mainly composed of water. So it makes sense to ensure that you’re always getting an adequate supply. Here are some functions of water: - regulates your body temperature - transports nutrients to your organs - transports vital oxygen to your cells - removes waste from your body - protects all your organs and joints 6. Exercise As you know, exercise participation is an important factor in weight loss and weight loss maintenance. In addition to weight reduction here are 20 important health benefits of physical activity. 1. Increases thermogenesis (increase in body temperature to burn calories). 2. Raises basal metabolic rate increasing calorie expenditure even during periods of rest or sleep. 3. Releases natural stimulants in the body helping to improve overall psychological condition. In other words it may alter your mood to a more positive state. (5) 4. Relieves stress and reduces the risk of stress related chronic diseases. (ibid) 5. Improves sex function 6. Lowers High Blood pressure levels. 7. May increase levels of good cholesterol (HDL) 8. Lowers elevated blood cholesterol levels. 9. Improves blood circulation. 10. Increases the level of oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and improves endurance. Vo2 max varies directly with the level of physical fitness. 11. Increases lean body mass (muscle) while reducing body fat - improving body composition and therefore improving physical appearance. 12. Improves self esteem. 13. Causes a natural tendency to be more conscious about eating healthier and therefore may improve a person’s diet. 14. Strengthens the musculoskeletal system protecting the body from unexpected physical shock. 15. Strengthens the body’s immune system and therefore slows down the aging process. 16. Strengthens bones and fights against osteoporosis - especially important for post – menopausal women. (6) 17. Strengthens the body’s immune system and therefore slows down the aging process. 18. Helps to fight against chronic diseases including many forms of cancers and heart disease. (7) (8) 19. When combined with stretching it may help to reduce lower back pain. 20. Improves physical condition in pregnant women making it easier to cope with the trials of childbirth: It increases energy levels; helps to reduce back pain; improves circulation and reduces swelling and development of varicose veins; tones muscles making it easier for the body to return to pre-pregnancy condition. You should check with your doctor, however, before you begin exercising during pregnancy. (9) How Much exercise is Necessary for Weight Loss? It depends on your goals and your body condition. Here are some questions you should ask yourself: - How much weight do you want to lose? - What’s Your Age - How much do you weigh? - What is your physical condition? - What is your daily caloric intake? - Will you combine exercise with caloric restriction? If you’re overweight, by more than 20 pounds, you need to participate in a program that includes diet restriction (reduce total daily calories by 500 cal.) and regular exercise (6-7 days a week). You should exercise for at least 30 continuous minutes – for best results increase the duration (up to 60 minutes). Your target intensity should be between 65-75% of your maximum heart rate – in other words, a comfortably vigorous level of intensity. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that a good weight loss program should consist of daily caloric expenditure of 300-500 calories from exercise. (10) How do you calculate your heart rate? An easy formula for figuring out your maximum heart rate works by simply subtracting your age from 220. If you’re 40 years old, for example, your maximum heart rate is 180 beats per minute (220-40). To train at 70% of your maximum heart rate, simply multiply 180 by 70 and divide by 100, which equals 126 beats per minute. Therefore in order to train at an intensity level of 70% of maximum heart rate your training heart rate should be 126 beats per minute. How do you calculate your heart rate during exercise? Simply take your pulse by counting the number of beats over a 10 second period. Multiply that figure by 6 and you have the number of beats for a 1 minute period – that’s your training heart rate. Before you begin exercising, however, get clearance from your doctor, especially if you’re a beginner. 7. Exercise for Weight Loss Maintenance Once you reach a desirable body weight, you can switch your exercise routine to weight loss maintenance mode. That means you can reduce the frequency of your workouts to 3-4 times a week. The duration and the intensity should remain the same - 60 minutes at a comfortably vigorous level. You will notice as you reach higher levels of fitness, exercise intensity must be turned up a notch to keep the workout challenging and also to burn more calories. What types of activities should you participate in? There are many forms of exercise that are efficient in producing adequate weight loss and fitness. Some of them include aerobics, step or boxing aerobics, cycling, spinning, step-climbing, training on elliptical machines, cross country skiing (real or machine version), in line skating, ice skating, swimming, jogging, skate boarding, and sports like basketball, hockey, and soccer. There are many more. The important thing is to choose one that you’ll really enjoy. This way, your chances of sticking with it in the long run will be much higher. Have fun, get in shape, lose those extra pounds and keep them off! References: 1. http:// sciencedaily. com, “Healthy diets need fat, according to new study”, retrieved 22 June 2005 from http:// sciencedaily. com/releases/1998/04/980424031929.htm, 2. http:// ajcn. org, “Cereals, legumes, and chronic disease risk reduction: evidence from epidemiologic studies”, retrieved 15 August 2005 from http:// ajcn. org/cgi/content/abstract/70/3/451S, 3. http:// jacn. org, "Contribution of Meals and Snacks to Nutrient Intake of Male and Female Elite Figure Skaters During Peak Competitive Season", retrieved 19 May 2004 from http:// jacn. org/cgi/content/full/21/2/114, 4. http:// drmirkin. com, “HOW MUCH WATER DO YOU NEED?”, retrieved 30 August 2005 from http:// drmirkin. com/nutrition/9942.html, 5. http:// issponline. org/documents/physactstatement. pdf, “Physical Activity and Psychological Benefits – an ISSP Position Stand”, retrieved 22 August 2005 from http:// issponline. org/documents/physactstatement. pdf, 6. http:// osteoporosis. ca, “Physical Activity: An Important Factor in Preventing Osteoporosis”, retrieved 22 August 2005 from http:// osteoporosis. ca/english/About%20Osteoporosis/Physical%20Activity/default. asp? s=1, 7. http:// americanheart. org, “Physical Activity”, retrieved 25 August 2005 from http:// americanheart. org/presenter. jhtml? identifier=4563, 8. http:// cancer. gov, “Questions and Answers: Physical Activity and Cancer”, retrieved 25 August 2005 from http:// cancer. gov/newscenter/pressreleases/PhysicalActivity, 9. http://health. discovery. com, “The Benefits of Pregnancy Exercise”, retrieved 26 August 2005 from http://health. discovery. com/centers/pregnancy/americanbaby/exercisebenefits. html, 10. http:// findarticles. com, “Exercise, the cornerstone to weight loss - Tech Brief”, retrieved 27 August 2005 from http:// findarticles. com/p/articles/mi_m0675/is_5_20/ai_92840206#continue,

Seven crucial steps for long term weight loss

1. Food Intake – How much do you need? First of all, you need to understand that in order to begin losing weight you must consume fewer calories than your body burns in a period of a day. The bottom line is, regardless of the confusion brought on by the media and industry, calories still count! Your body weight is largely a product of total daily caloric intake minus total daily energy expenditure (TDEE). So, to lose weight, your daily food consumption measured in calories must be less than TDEE. In other words a deficit in calories must be created to trigger a reduction in body weight. Although this is a simple concept, it’s not easily accomplished. And statistics prove it: approximately 50% of Americans are obese and two thirds of Americans are borderline obese. It doesn’t have to be that way, however. People need to be educated with respect to health, nutrition and weight loss maintenance.

Knowledge is what we need. Knowledge is power, and with power comes change. One simple guideline for losing weight is to adjust your daily caloric intake to equal ten times your weight in pounds. For example if you weigh 180 lbs. your total daily food intake should equal 1800 calories. This would create a sufficient deficit in calories for gradual weight loss. This method will not work, however, for people who are extremely obese.

Another efficient method of losing weight at a reasonably comfortable pace (for any person) is to reduce your total daily food intake by 500 calories. One pound equals 3500 calories and at the rate of 500 calories per day, it translates to 1 pound of weight loss per week. This is a sensible, realistic weight loss pace and more likely to succeed in the long term. On the other hand, diet programs based on more extreme calorie restriction are very stressful physically and mentally, which is why they result in quick but temporary weight reduction. Not to mention the high cost of many weight loss plans that include pre packaged food, unnecessary meal replacements, supplements and so on. A more accurate method to figure out how many calories you actually need (to maintain your weight) is to take your body weight and multiply it by 11. Say you weigh 160 pounds and you are completely sedentary. 160 x 11 = 1760 (calories). So you would need 1760 calories if you sat around all day with very minimal movement to remain at 160 pounds. Now to go a step further, we have to determine your metabolic factor. There are 3 main categories for metabolism. Slow metabolism is when you have a very difficult time losing weight. Medium metabolism means you don’t have difficulty losing weight - if you really try. And Fast metabolism is when it seems no matter how much you eat you can’t gain weight. Don’t I wish I had that problem. See the table below. Slow Metabolism (%) Under 30 Years of Age - 30% Between 30-40 Years of Age - 25% Over 40 Years of Age - 20% Medium Metabolism (%) Under 30 Years of Age - 40% Between 30-40 Years of Age - 35% Over 40 Years of Age - 30% Fast Metabolism (%) Under 30 Years of Age - 50% Between 30-40 Years of Age – 45% Over 40 Years of Age - 40% Let’s continue with the above example (1760 cal.) and let’s say you’re 35 years old and have a slow metabolism. The corresponding metabolic rate factor would be 25%. 1760 x 25% = 440 calories – which means you would need an additional 440 calories. Your total daily calories would therefore equal 2200 (1760 + 440). In other words, you would require 2200 calories per day to maintain your present weight. Now to lose weight at a comfortable pace (as mentioned above), subtract 500 calories from this total. That would equal 1700 calories (2200 – 500). Consequently, in order to lose one pound per week you would require 1700 daily calories from food. The next step would be to keep track of all your calories. To do that you will need to know the calorie content of the foods you eat. A calorie counter or calculator is where you enter the type of food product, the amount (in grams or ounces) and it calculates the calorie content for you. You can find them at many websites online for free. One that I found to work fairly well, which also contains a huge selection of foods including items from fast food restaurant chains, is at http:// caloriesperhour. com. To increase your rate of weight loss even further you can raise your exercise level. One way to accomplish this is by participating in a program of regular physical activity or if you already are, simply increase the exercise intensity level. See tip number 6 and 7 in this article for more information on physical activity and weight loss. 2. Diet Composition Your diet must consist of foods from all food groups (e. g. meat, dairy, vegetables, fruits, whole grains, nuts/seeds, legumes). If you’re a vegetarian, you can still get sufficient amounts of protein from legumes, soy bean products and whole grains. In a French study, evidence suggested that diet variety was one of the reasons French people were less obese and had fewer occurrences of heart disease than Americans. Another important factor was the diversity in their diet. Overall, the French diet contained more foods from all food groups and consisted of more types of food and food products compared to the American diet. (1) Furthermore, the French seemed to enjoy their food more. Their meals were like special gatherings, celebrations, meant to be enjoyed by all. They typically didn’t eat very fast. They seemed to enjoy their food more; it’s as if time stood still during their meals. This method of eating accomplishes several things. For one, eating slower and being more relaxed during meals increases chewing time. In addition, by slowing down the pace of a meal and chewing more, you are more likely to get a feeling of fullness while eating less quantities of food. In contrast, North Americans, very often eat on the run. The other benefit of the French eating style is that it aids the digestive process by reducing workload and improving the efficiency of nutrient distribution throughout the body. An increase in food variety and diversity decreases the percentage of bad foods (saturated/trans fats, unrefined carbohydrates) present in your digestive system. Moreover, increased fiber content from fresh foods (fruits vegetables and whole grains) also sweeps up and pushes out bad foods quicker, leaving them less time to be absorbed by the intestines and therefore becoming less harmful. As a result risks of developing chronic diseases, such as various forms of cancer and heart related diseases are also reduced. (2) 3. Quantity and Frequency of Meals Does the size and quantity of your meals really matter? You’ve probably heard many times over that it’s best to have smaller more frequent meals throughout the day. In other words snacking is preferable to gorging. Is this fact or fiction? Well, the fact of the matter is that scientific research with respect to this area of study has been largely contradicting. There really is no overwhelming evidence to support the idea that increased frequency and decreased portion size of meals is associated with weight loss efficiency. This eating method, however, has been shown to benefit athletic performance in trained athletes. (3) A study with ice skaters suggested that meals taken throughout the day to correspond with periods of physical demand associated with training, help to maximize performance. Keep in mind that improving athletic performance in athletes is one thing, but increasing the rate of weight loss is something quite different. Although, when taken to extremes, it is probably better to eat 8-10 smaller meals per day than 1 large one for example. As it turns out, the customary three meals a day method is just fine. There just hasn’t been enough convincing evidence to prove that it has a negative effect on weight loss. Eating 5-6 meals a day is also fine. Changing to a more frequent eating style, however, may cause you to over eat, if you’re not careful, especially at the beginning. This is because, subconsciously, you’re used to having larger food portions at meal time. So, it’s important to keep track of the food quantity of every meal, until you get accustomed to the new way of eating. 4. Don’t Skip Meals Ever heard that breakfast is the most important meal of the day? Well it’s true. The one meal you should never skip is breakfast. It is the meal that sets the tone for your metabolism. When you miss breakfast your metabolism responds by slowing down. Your body receives signals of famine from the brain and switches to energy conservation mode. This means rather than burning calories the body gets stingier with them. The other thing that happens, when missing breakfast is, by the time lunch time comes around you feel starved and you almost always end up overeating. And as a result of this added pressure on your digestive system, most of your energy gets used up as your body works hard to digest and absorb all that food. Needles to say, you won’t feel very productive when you return to work, a feeling which may last for the next few hours. Another important benefit of not skipping meals is that your blood sugar level is more stable, which keeps insulin in check – reducing unnecessary fat storage and ensuring that you have adequate energy levels required to perform your daily tasks with less physical and psychological stress. 5. Water It was thought that drinking plenty of water throughout the day was a crucial part of a good weight loss strategy; the theory was that an adequate amount of water – 8 eight-ounce glasses per day – gives you a feeling of fullness which reduces periods of hunger; and the less you feel hungry the less you are going to snack – which translates to fewer calories. Recent studies have suggested, however, that choosing foods with high water content like fruits and vegetables and blending water into meals like soup has a greater effect on satiety, than simply just drinking water. And that it may result in a reduction of total daily calories. In other words, including water rich foods like watermelon and other fruits and vegetables, fruit juice, and soups in your diet, is more effective with respect to satiety than relying on just drinking water. As a result, you wouldn’t need to drink 8 glasses of water a day, if you were getting an adequate supply from your diet. In fact, drinking 8 glasses of water per day is a misconception. This number was originally reported by the National Academy of Sciences of the United States Food and Nutrition Board. They also mentioned, however, in the same report, that the majority of water people need comes from food. (4) The recommendation for a healthy individual is to drink one cup of water or juice with every meal. (ibid) It’s also important to keep in mind that the human body is made up of 60-70% water. All our organs consist of a lot of water. Blood is mainly composed of water. So it makes sense to ensure that you’re always getting an adequate supply. Here are some functions of water: - regulates your body temperature - transports nutrients to your organs - transports vital oxygen to your cells - removes waste from your body - protects all your organs and joints 6. Exercise As you know, exercise participation is an important factor in weight loss and weight loss maintenance. In addition to weight reduction here are 20 important health benefits of physical activity. 1. Increases thermogenesis (increase in body temperature to burn calories). 2. Raises basal metabolic rate increasing calorie expenditure even during periods of rest or sleep. 3. Releases natural stimulants in the body helping to improve overall psychological condition. In other words it may alter your mood to a more positive state. (5) 4. Relieves stress and reduces the risk of stress related chronic diseases. (ibid) 5. Improves sex function 6. Lowers High Blood pressure levels. 7. May increase levels of good cholesterol (HDL) 8. Lowers elevated blood cholesterol levels. 9. Improves blood circulation. 10. Increases the level of oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and improves endurance. Vo2 max varies directly with the level of physical fitness. 11. Increases lean body mass (muscle) while reducing body fat - improving body composition and therefore improving physical appearance. 12. Improves self esteem. 13. Causes a natural tendency to be more conscious about eating healthier and therefore may improve a person’s diet. 14. Strengthens the musculoskeletal system protecting the body from unexpected physical shock. 15. Strengthens the body’s immune system and therefore slows down the aging process. 16. Strengthens bones and fights against osteoporosis - especially important for post – menopausal women. (6) 17. Strengthens the body’s immune system and therefore slows down the aging process. 18. Helps to fight against chronic diseases including many forms of cancers and heart disease. (7) (8) 19. When combined with stretching it may help to reduce lower back pain. 20. Improves physical condition in pregnant women making it easier to cope with the trials of childbirth: It increases energy levels; helps to reduce back pain; improves circulation and reduces swelling and development of varicose veins; tones muscles making it easier for the body to return to pre-pregnancy condition. You should check with your doctor, however, before you begin exercising during pregnancy. (9) How Much exercise is Necessary for Weight Loss? It depends on your goals and your body condition. Here are some questions you should ask yourself: - How much weight do you want to lose? - What’s Your Age - How much do you weigh? - What is your physical condition? - What is your daily caloric intake? - Will you combine exercise with caloric restriction? If you’re overweight, by more than 20 pounds, you need to participate in a program that includes diet restriction (reduce total daily calories by 500 cal.) and regular exercise (6-7 days a week). You should exercise for at least 30 continuous minutes – for best results increase the duration (up to 60 minutes). Your target intensity should be between 65-75% of your maximum heart rate – in other words, a comfortably vigorous level of intensity. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that a good weight loss program should consist of daily caloric expenditure of 300-500 calories from exercise. (10) How do you calculate your heart rate? An easy formula for figuring out your maximum heart rate works by simply subtracting your age from 220. If you’re 40 years old, for example, your maximum heart rate is 180 beats per minute (220-40). To train at 70% of your maximum heart rate, simply multiply 180 by 70 and divide by 100, which equals 126 beats per minute. Therefore in order to train at an intensity level of 70% of maximum heart rate your training heart rate should be 126 beats per minute. How do you calculate your heart rate during exercise? Simply take your pulse by counting the number of beats over a 10 second period. Multiply that figure by 6 and you have the number of beats for a 1 minute period – that’s your training heart rate. Before you begin exercising, however, get clearance from your doctor, especially if you’re a beginner. 7. Exercise for Weight Loss Maintenance Once you reach a desirable body weight, you can switch your exercise routine to weight loss maintenance mode. That means you can reduce the frequency of your workouts to 3-4 times a week. The duration and the intensity should remain the same - 60 minutes at a comfortably vigorous level. You will notice as you reach higher levels of fitness, exercise intensity must be turned up a notch to keep the workout challenging and also to burn more calories. What types of activities should you participate in? There are many forms of exercise that are efficient in producing adequate weight loss and fitness. Some of them include aerobics, step or boxing aerobics, cycling, spinning, step-climbing, training on elliptical machines, cross country skiing (real or machine version), in line skating, ice skating, swimming, jogging, skate boarding, and sports like basketball, hockey, and soccer. There are many more. The important thing is to choose one that you’ll really enjoy. This way, your chances of sticking with it in the long run will be much higher. Have fun, get in shape, lose those extra pounds and keep them off! References: 1. http:// sciencedaily. com, “Healthy diets need fat, according to new study”, retrieved 22 June 2005 from http:// sciencedaily. com/releases/1998/04/980424031929.htm, 2. http:// ajcn. org, “Cereals, legumes, and chronic disease risk reduction: evidence from epidemiologic studies”, retrieved 15 August 2005 from http:// ajcn. org/cgi/content/abstract/70/3/451S, 3. http:// jacn. org, "Contribution of Meals and Snacks to Nutrient Intake of Male and Female Elite Figure Skaters During Peak Competitive Season", retrieved 19 May 2004 from http:// jacn. org/cgi/content/full/21/2/114, 4. http:// drmirkin. com, “HOW MUCH WATER DO YOU NEED?”, retrieved 30 August 2005 from http:// drmirkin. com/nutrition/9942.html, 5. http:// issponline. org/documents/physactstatement. pdf, “Physical Activity and Psychological Benefits – an ISSP Position Stand”, retrieved 22 August 2005 from http:// issponline. org/documents/physactstatement. pdf, 6. http:// osteoporosis. ca, “Physical Activity: An Important Factor in Preventing Osteoporosis”, retrieved 22 August 2005 from http:// osteoporosis. ca/english/About%20Osteoporosis/Physical%20Activity/default. asp? s=1, 7. http:// americanheart. org, “Physical Activity”, retrieved 25 August 2005 from http:// americanheart. org/presenter. jhtml? identifier=4563, 8. http:// cancer. gov, “Questions and Answers: Physical Activity and Cancer”, retrieved 25 August 2005 from http:// cancer. gov/newscenter/pressreleases/PhysicalActivity, 9. http://health. discovery. com, “The Benefits of Pregnancy Exercise”, retrieved 26 August 2005 from http://health. discovery. com/centers/pregnancy/americanbaby/exercisebenefits. html, 10. http:// findarticles. com, “Exercise, the cornerstone to weight loss - Tech Brief”, retrieved 27 August 2005 from http:// findarticles. com/p/articles/mi_m0675/is_5_20/ai_92840206#continue,

A short biography of some of europe s most loved and hated monarchs pt 2 mad king george iii

: During the last thousand years, European Monarchs have ruled Europe and the world with an iron fist and by fear, compassion and hatred. As their wealth grew from the riches of newly conquered continents and lands, they began building some of the worlds greatest castles as a sign of their status and wealth, leaving behind a legacy of beauty and splendor that has lasted well into the 21st century. These members of royalty have included tyrants, the mentally insane, drunks and the psychotic, who have murdered for pleasure and raped for enjoyment. They have imposed terrible taxes on already poor citizens. They married for financial power and traded in lives. Kinfolk were murdered so a favorable son could rise through the ranks. As their power increased so did the atrocities, bringing with it the hatred of a nation and its people. Join me as we take a trip back in time, discovering which Monarchs were tyrants, mentally unstable, drunks and psychotic, as well as those who were loved by their people. This series of articles will highlight the lives of Vlad Tepes (Dracula), King Ludwig II and King George III to name a few. King George III who suffered from porphyria, a maddening disease, was born in 1738 to Frederick, Prince of Wales and Augusta. In 1761 George married Charlotte of Mecklinburg-Strelitz and together produced fifteen children: nine sons and six daughters.

King George III came to the throne in 1760 and was determined to recover the power lost to the ministerial council by the first two Georges by systematically weakening the Whig party through bribery, coercion and patronage. Prime Minister, William Pitt the Elder was toppled by Whigs in 1763 after the signing of the Peace of Paris, and men of ordinary aptitude were then hand-picked by George as Cabinet members to become little more than yes-men. Bouts with madness and the handling of the American Revolution eroded his support and the power of the Crown was granted again to the Prime Minister. In 1763 The Peace of Paris brought an end to the Seven Years' War with France and Great Britain emerged from the conflict as the world's greatest colonial power. England thrived but King George III's ongoing commitment to taxing the American colonies to pay for military protection led to conflict in 1775. The colonists declared their independence from England in 1776, but George stubbornly continued with the war until the final American victory at Yorktown in 1781.

The signing of The Peace of Versailles in 1783 ensured British recognition of the United States of America. The stress of these events took their toll on George: his sanity was stretched to the breaking point and his political power decreased when William Pitt the Younger became Prime Minister in 1783. George clawed back some of his powers, driving Pitt from office during the years 1801 to 1804, but his condition worsened and he ceased to rule in 1811. Ten years after the ending of war with France, England joined a continental coalition against French revolutionary forces who sought total French supremacy throughout Europe. By 1797, most of Europe was under French control, with England going at it alone against the oppressive French Republic. The British Navy again proved its worth by defeating French forces at Camperdown, Cape St. Vincent and the Battle of the Nile in 1797, and finally at Copenhagen in 1801.

France sued for peace in 1802. Napoleon Bonaparte came to power and in 1803 renewed attacks against England, which lasted until 1814. Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, led the army whilst Lord Horatio Nelson, who won the decisive battle off Cape Trafalgar, commanded the British navy. In addition to the war with France, England was also at war again with the United States during the period 1812-14, over the British practice of conscripting American seamen into service in the British Navy. In 1814, both wars came to an end; Napoleon was defeated and England agreed not to press into service anymore-American sailors.

George's madness ultimately left the fate of the crown in the hands of his eldest son George, Prince Regent. Prince George was put in the unenviable position of attempting to govern according to the increasingly erratic behaviour of his father. King George III died blind, deaf and mad at Windsor Castle on January 29, 1820. I hope you have enjoyed reading about King George III. In my next article will learn about the life of King Ludwig II Unitl then, Best wishes and have a great day Stuart Bazga guide-to-castles-of-europe.

com

A mass customization revolution

A Mass Customization Revolution The Industrial Revolution The great social and economic changes due to the introduction of machine and power tools and large-scale industrial production began in 1760. Through the first 70 years of this century, the US was the industrial giant of the world. In 1960 the words "Made in Japan" was thought to be a joke. By 1980, those same words had become the standard for manufacturing. In 1985, U. S. manufacturing was in a deep depression. Products were too costly, of poor quality and not innovative enough. Now, again, America is ranked No. 1 in manufacturing (World Competitiveness Report, 1996). Mass customization America’s No. 1 standing is primarily due to the manufacturing revolution that has been under way since 1985. This quiet revolution is built on the unsurpassed innovative spirit of the American people. Innovation is one of the qualities upon which America is founded. American manufactures are the world’s leading innovators. The right combination of technology and people is a good foundation for any company. These technologies are leading to a major new phenomenon: mass customization, which is the ability to customize products literally in quantities as small as one, while producing them at mass-production speeds. Mass customization in the Information Age is replacing the mass-production model of the Industrial Age. The ultimate outcome will be simultaneous manufacturing. Here, even as the customer is giving the order, the product starts to be manufactured. It may seem like a fairy tale, but the time is fast approaching when a customer will stand at a retailers fitting room, download their personal measurements into a computer, choose the pattern and variety of material wanted for their clothing and before they leave the outlet their order is in production. Now that’s a truly empowered customer! Over the past few years, there have been a number of articles written on lasers. Each author lists applications as it relates specifically to their area of expertise. However, what EdgeWISE Tools would like to do in this article is to stimulate you to visualize all the different ways you can use a laser to produce a variety of products. Let your imagination go. Don’t fear the unknown. Those that can see the future have the greatest opportunity to succeed beyond their wildest dreams. "Carpe Diem" - seize the moment! Why use a Laser? In 1985, thermal contact cutting tools were developed for roll feed plotters. The "Hot Tip" became the first large format cutting system introduced to the sign industry. This process became the corner stone that most plotter manufactures built on. Through evolution, the cutting hardware has changed and significant strides have been achieved. We have seen progressive steps taken to where technology is today. Most old manufacturing technology uses contact cutting tools; where the tool actually contacts the surface, it is meant to cut. The cutting tools must be re-sharpened or replace often and as the tool wears out the quality is compromised. This antiquated method has become an additional source of income for the manufactures because they now get to market one or more consumable tools. Contact manufacturing with all its additional costs can now be replaced with a more economical solution. The next giant evolutionary leap in cutting manufacturing is the replacement of contact cutting tools with non-contact tools. The next logical step is to use laser technology for mass customization. The traditional high cost of laser technology has delayed the development of the Roll Feed Laser (RFL). A day is like a year in technological development terms. However, recently the cost of laser technology has been reduced to the point where today it has become an affordable means of manufacturing. Roll Feed Laser In 1988, research and development began on the first Roll Feed Laser system (RFL). This research developed more than just a new product. It developed new concepts in manufacturing and new ways to manufacture. The realization of mass customization is appearing using lasers. The combination of these two things EdgeWISE Tools calls the laser manufacturing revolution. This laser manufacturing revolution we are beginning to see is becoming bigger than anyone has yet imaged. There are literally hundreds’, if not thousands’, of markets and industries that have yet to be discovered. Can you change? As history has proven, there are always those people that lack the foresight and intuition to respond to the changing trends of time. Ten years ago, in 1986, industry scoffed at the idea of a large format, computerized, cutting system becoming the main work tool for the trade. The resistance to change at that time was severe. Seven years ago most plotter manufactures laughed at the idea of a low wattage Roll Feed Laser system and could not see the potential for manufacturing one. Look at what is happening today, Since 1990, the number and diversity of applications for low wattage CO2, Nd:YAG and Diode laser systems have exploded. The CO2 laser market has grown on average of 60% per year. More people are recognizing the benefits of using a CO2 laser over other traditional manufacturing tools. Machinery like dies, routers, hot knives, and mechanical engravers are being replaced with affordable low wattage RFL systems. Ink jet printers, in some applications, are losing ground to the advancing low wattage laser used for marking. What does this mean? In what other business can you invest in a piece of equipment to produce such a variety of different products? Products can be manufactured using plastic, woods, fabrics, rubber, and metals. Because the kerf is very narrow and the laser controlled by a computer nearly any design can be cut. It is just as easy to cut one design as it is to cut a million. Comparing this too most manufacturing equipment, you could invest $50K to $500K on an offset printing press. However, you can only use this equipment to print on a specific type of material. A silkscreener, sign maker, engraver, or for that matter most everyone in the manufacturing field, will purchase a specific piece of manufacturing equipment to accomplish a specific task. A machinist may be one of the only people that will purchase a piece of equipment and be able to work a small number of different materials. The machinists’ limitations show up in the restricted types of designs he can shape. Nevertheless, even a machinist’s tools cannot work with the variety of materials and designs that one can attain using a Roll Feed Laser. Acquiring capital equipment is usually difficult for a new or growing business. Capital investment is one of the major issues for a new or growing business. To a start-up company, or a company that is seeking to reinvest, capital investment is the one main issue that is becoming harder to justify. A piece of capital equipment that is designed for just one purpose is not cost effective when a multifunctional alternative is available. The capital investment to produce an exclusive product has become such an immense cost that these moneys are rapidly shrinking. Switching to the use of a laser for manufacturing is a contemporary new process. A process that, if not adhered to, could cost the business owner market share, and ultimately his market completely. Most of us have known someone that this has happened to in the past. Reluctance to change can cause the demise of any very good company. EdgeWISE Tools is unaware of any other process that can produce the variety of products and open up design creativity as much as what you get when you use the RFL. Nowhere else can you work with paper to plastic to wood and pretty much everything in-between and back again with one piece of equipment. The only challenge now is left up to the ingenuity of the owner or operator to produce the product. Since a laser does not come in contact with or use force on the material being manufactured spoilage can be drastically reduced. Lasers will increase a companies yield. Some surveys show a yield rate of 95% to 99%. Having owned a graphic arts manufacturing facility in the late 1980’s, on the best of days the yield was 80% to 85% and on average the yield rate would be 75% to 80%. The lack of contact with materials attributes to the higher yield rates. Because the process of using a laser is automated, the process tends to be far more repeatable than most methods. Once the process starts, it is frozen and day to day repeatability is maintained. The future is at hand! Imagine the industrial revolution...now imagine the industrial revolution with mass customization. A comparable example mass-customization is the jeans industry. Only the affluent could afford to purchase a pair of custom-made jeans from a tailor. Most consumers can only buy jeans in sizes manufactured to suit the cost of production, not body shapes. As mass-customization technology is available, manufacturers need to again provide the American people with a quality product. The jeans and roll feed laser industries are forerunners in the race to make mass-customized products accessible to consumers The industrial revolution made products affordable by mass-production. This mass-production required only one setup to produce thousands of pieces. The cost for tooling is one of the largest expenses, which controls the break-even-point. During the industrial revolution, customization was compromised to maintain low manufacturing costs. Today, however, you have the opportunity to choose to take the next step to processing power, user-friendly software, low wattage laser technology, and minimal to no setup time. As you contemplate capital investments, consider end-product quality, cost-effectiveness, and efficiency of roll feed laser technology. Written in 1996 by: Patrick J. Momany, Founder of EdgeWISE Tools, Inc. ewt-inc. com Edited by: Marty Kalberer, Laser Systems Engineer.

A mass customization revolution

A Mass Customization Revolution The Industrial Revolution The great social and economic changes due to the introduction of machine and power tools and large-scale industrial production began in 1760. Through the first 70 years of this century, the US was the industrial giant of the world. In 1960 the words "Made in Japan" was thought to be a joke. By 1980, those same words had become the standard for manufacturing. In 1985, U. S. manufacturing was in a deep depression. Products were too costly, of poor quality and not innovative enough. Now, again, America is ranked No. 1 in manufacturing (World Competitiveness Report, 1996). Mass customization America’s No. 1 standing is primarily due to the manufacturing revolution that has been under way since 1985. This quiet revolution is built on the unsurpassed innovative spirit of the American people. Innovation is one of the qualities upon which America is founded. American manufactures are the world’s leading innovators. The right combination of technology and people is a good foundation for any company. These technologies are leading to a major new phenomenon: mass customization, which is the ability to customize products literally in quantities as small as one, while producing them at mass-production speeds. Mass customization in the Information Age is replacing the mass-production model of the Industrial Age. The ultimate outcome will be simultaneous manufacturing. Here, even as the customer is giving the order, the product starts to be manufactured. It may seem like a fairy tale, but the time is fast approaching when a customer will stand at a retailers fitting room, download their personal measurements into a computer, choose the pattern and variety of material wanted for their clothing and before they leave the outlet their order is in production. Now that’s a truly empowered customer! Over the past few years, there have been a number of articles written on lasers. Each author lists applications as it relates specifically to their area of expertise. However, what EdgeWISE Tools would like to do in this article is to stimulate you to visualize all the different ways you can use a laser to produce a variety of products. Let your imagination go. Don’t fear the unknown. Those that can see the future have the greatest opportunity to succeed beyond their wildest dreams. "Carpe Diem" - seize the moment! Why use a Laser? In 1985, thermal contact cutting tools were developed for roll feed plotters. The "Hot Tip" became the first large format cutting system introduced to the sign industry. This process became the corner stone that most plotter manufactures built on. Through evolution, the cutting hardware has changed and significant strides have been achieved. We have seen progressive steps taken to where technology is today. Most old manufacturing technology uses contact cutting tools; where the tool actually contacts the surface, it is meant to cut. The cutting tools must be re-sharpened or replace often and as the tool wears out the quality is compromised. This antiquated method has become an additional source of income for the manufactures because they now get to market one or more consumable tools. Contact manufacturing with all its additional costs can now be replaced with a more economical solution. The next giant evolutionary leap in cutting manufacturing is the replacement of contact cutting tools with non-contact tools. The next logical step is to use laser technology for mass customization. The traditional high cost of laser technology has delayed the development of the Roll Feed Laser (RFL). A day is like a year in technological development terms. However, recently the cost of laser technology has been reduced to the point where today it has become an affordable means of manufacturing. Roll Feed Laser In 1988, research and development began on the first Roll Feed Laser system (RFL). This research developed more than just a new product. It developed new concepts in manufacturing and new ways to manufacture. The realization of mass customization is appearing using lasers. The combination of these two things EdgeWISE Tools calls the laser manufacturing revolution. This laser manufacturing revolution we are beginning to see is becoming bigger than anyone has yet imaged. There are literally hundreds’, if not thousands’, of markets and industries that have yet to be discovered. Can you change? As history has proven, there are always those people that lack the foresight and intuition to respond to the changing trends of time. Ten years ago, in 1986, industry scoffed at the idea of a large format, computerized, cutting system becoming the main work tool for the trade. The resistance to change at that time was severe. Seven years ago most plotter manufactures laughed at the idea of a low wattage Roll Feed Laser system and could not see the potential for manufacturing one. Look at what is happening today, Since 1990, the number and diversity of applications for low wattage CO2, Nd:YAG and Diode laser systems have exploded. The CO2 laser market has grown on average of 60% per year. More people are recognizing the benefits of using a CO2 laser over other traditional manufacturing tools. Machinery like dies, routers, hot knives, and mechanical engravers are being replaced with affordable low wattage RFL systems. Ink jet printers, in some applications, are losing ground to the advancing low wattage laser used for marking. What does this mean? In what other business can you invest in a piece of equipment to produce such a variety of different products? Products can be manufactured using plastic, woods, fabrics, rubber, and metals. Because the kerf is very narrow and the laser controlled by a computer nearly any design can be cut. It is just as easy to cut one design as it is to cut a million. Comparing this too most manufacturing equipment, you could invest $50K to $500K on an offset printing press. However, you can only use this equipment to print on a specific type of material. A silkscreener, sign maker, engraver, or for that matter most everyone in the manufacturing field, will purchase a specific piece of manufacturing equipment to accomplish a specific task. A machinist may be one of the only people that will purchase a piece of equipment and be able to work a small number of different materials. The machinists’ limitations show up in the restricted types of designs he can shape. Nevertheless, even a machinist’s tools cannot work with the variety of materials and designs that one can attain using a Roll Feed Laser. Acquiring capital equipment is usually difficult for a new or growing business. Capital investment is one of the major issues for a new or growing business. To a start-up company, or a company that is seeking to reinvest, capital investment is the one main issue that is becoming harder to justify. A piece of capital equipment that is designed for just one purpose is not cost effective when a multifunctional alternative is available. The capital investment to produce an exclusive product has become such an immense cost that these moneys are rapidly shrinking. Switching to the use of a laser for manufacturing is a contemporary new process. A process that, if not adhered to, could cost the business owner market share, and ultimately his market completely. Most of us have known someone that this has happened to in the past. Reluctance to change can cause the demise of any very good company. EdgeWISE Tools is unaware of any other process that can produce the variety of products and open up design creativity as much as what you get when you use the RFL. Nowhere else can you work with paper to plastic to wood and pretty much everything in-between and back again with one piece of equipment. The only challenge now is left up to the ingenuity of the owner or operator to produce the product. Since a laser does not come in contact with or use force on the material being manufactured spoilage can be drastically reduced. Lasers will increase a companies yield. Some surveys show a yield rate of 95% to 99%. Having owned a graphic arts manufacturing facility in the late 1980’s, on the best of days the yield was 80% to 85% and on average the yield rate would be 75% to 80%. The lack of contact with materials attributes to the higher yield rates. Because the process of using a laser is automated, the process tends to be far more repeatable than most methods. Once the process starts, it is frozen and day to day repeatability is maintained. The future is at hand! Imagine the industrial revolution...now imagine the industrial revolution with mass customization. A comparable example mass-customization is the jeans industry. Only the affluent could afford to purchase a pair of custom-made jeans from a tailor. Most consumers can only buy jeans in sizes manufactured to suit the cost of production, not body shapes. As mass-customization technology is available, manufacturers need to again provide the American people with a quality product. The jeans and roll feed laser industries are forerunners in the race to make mass-customized products accessible to consumers The industrial revolution made products affordable by mass-production. This mass-production required only one setup to produce thousands of pieces. The cost for tooling is one of the largest expenses, which controls the break-even-point. During the industrial revolution, customization was compromised to maintain low manufacturing costs. Today, however, you have the opportunity to choose to take the next step to processing power, user-friendly software, low wattage laser technology, and minimal to no setup time. As you contemplate capital investments, consider end-product quality, cost-effectiveness, and efficiency of roll feed laser technology. Written in 1996 by: Patrick J. Momany, Founder of EdgeWISE Tools, Inc. ewt-inc. com Edited by: Marty Kalberer, Laser Systems Engineer.