How to replace a power supply

The power supply is the component that powers your devices in your computer. It powers things like the hard drive, CDROM and CPU. There may come a time when you have to replace it. Symptoms of a power supply going bad can include random reboots, random crashes the computer not starting at all. When replacing your power supply there are a couple of thing to take into consideration. The most important thing to do is to get the right one for your computer. Your computer will most likely use the ATX form factor. You also need to make sure you get a power supply with enough power for your computer's hardware. 300-400 watts is sufficient for most computers. Make sure the power supply has enough power connections and the right types of connections. Replacing the power supply is a pretty easy job. Make sure you unplug the power cord first! Then you can open the case and take the power connections off of the devices and motherboard. Then you can take out the four screws on the outside back of the case and pull the power supply out from the inside. To install the new one just do the opposite.

Choosing your web hosting package

General rule of thumb is not to sign up for yearly web hosting plans. Instead, get monthly plan where you can unsubscribe from on the second month when you are not happy with the service. That is, if you ended up with an unreliable web hosting company in the first place. Here is a simple guide that can be easily applied to typical web sites: --Web Space-- Expect a small website to take up 10 and 100 MB. Considering that you may want to expand your website in the near future, it is advisable to get a web hosting plan with ample web space. Make sure that you know your needs before you start looking for your web host. Not every web hosting plan can be upgraded or customised. More than often, webmasters do not get the features they need and are not able to customise their web hosting features. --Monthly Traffic-- Data transfer per month are typically referred to as bandwidth. It is the amount of data transfer that occurs between your website and visitors. A small or medium web site will consume between 1 and 5GB of data transfer per month. Larger, commercial or popular websites often consume more than 5GB of monthly data transfer and sometimes, exceeding 100GB of monthly data transfer. Before you decide on a web hosting plan, be sure to check this: What is the monthly data transfer/ bandwidth allowed? Will you be charged if your website exceeds its limit? Are you able to upgrade/add on your bandwidth? --Connection Speed-- Visitors to your web site will often connect via 56K modems or ADSL modems but your web host provider should have a much faster connection. Your website should have high web site connections that are approximately 1000 high speed (56 Kilobytes per second) modems combined - T3 fiber optic connections. In the early days of the Internet, T1- connections was considered a fast connection. The fastest connections available are T3 connections that are used by Internet Service Providers and major corps.

Choosing your web hosting package

General rule of thumb is not to sign up for yearly web hosting plans. Instead, get monthly plan where you can unsubscribe from on the second month when you are not happy with the service. That is, if you ended up with an unreliable web hosting company in the first place. Here is a simple guide that can be easily applied to typical web sites: --Web Space-- Expect a small website to take up 10 and 100 MB. Considering that you may want to expand your website in the near future, it is advisable to get a web hosting plan with ample web space. Make sure that you know your needs before you start looking for your web host. Not every web hosting plan can be upgraded or customised. More than often, webmasters do not get the features they need and are not able to customise their web hosting features. --Monthly Traffic-- Data transfer per month are typically referred to as bandwidth. It is the amount of data transfer that occurs between your website and visitors. A small or medium web site will consume between 1 and 5GB of data transfer per month. Larger, commercial or popular websites often consume more than 5GB of monthly data transfer and sometimes, exceeding 100GB of monthly data transfer. Before you decide on a web hosting plan, be sure to check this: What is the monthly data transfer/ bandwidth allowed? Will you be charged if your website exceeds its limit? Are you able to upgrade/add on your bandwidth? --Connection Speed-- Visitors to your web site will often connect via 56K modems or ADSL modems but your web host provider should have a much faster connection. Your website should have high web site connections that are approximately 1000 high speed (56 Kilobytes per second) modems combined - T3 fiber optic connections. In the early days of the Internet, T1- connections was considered a fast connection. The fastest connections available are T3 connections that are used by Internet Service Providers and major corps.

A close look at dvi cables

We all have many times heard about DVI, but what does it really means and what it does? What is the main function of this tiny white port on a video card? How it can benefit you and your personal computer? Do you know which DVI is suitable to meet your requirements? Digital Video Interface is created by Digital Display Working Group to solve the problem of accommodation analog and digital interfaces just by using single connector. It was developed because of insufficiency of standardization in digital interfacing. Three types of standards can be seen in DVI cables. It is very important to know how each type looks like before buying to upgrade your DVI. So it is very important to know how DVI cable works and which one will be most beneficial for you. However, DVI cables are still in the phase of development. Hence there is no specific standard for the DVI cable. In ideal circumstances, DVI home theater cable is capable to create ' digital to digital' connection between the data or video sources and home theater projectors. The standard rule for DVI cables is that it should have maximum length of 5 m for trouble free operation. It is very typical to decide a DVI cable first time. There are two types of DVI connector and each has its own characteristics. The flat pin denotes whether the cable is analog or digital. A flat pin with four surrounding pins denotes either DVI-A or DVI-1. A single flat pin denotes DVI-D. The pin sets depends upon whether the cable is single link or dual link or analog. To choose a perfect Digital video interface cable you should remember these tips: 1.Check both female DVI plugs to make sure what type of signals they compatible with. 2.One or both connections should be DVI-D if you are choosing a DVI-D cable. 3.One or both connections should be DVI-A if you are choosing a DVI-a cable. 4.If one of the connections is DVI and other is VGA, and if the DVI is analog compatible, then you must buy a DVI/VGA adaptor or a DVI to VGA cable. 5.when both connections are DVI-1, you are advised to use any of DVI cable, but better if you use DVI-1 cable. 6. If one connection is digital and the other is analog then there is no possibility of connection between them.

How to succeed without a degree

While having a formal education is certainly a good way to break into some industries, don’t fret if you didn’t earn a college degree. There’s still hope! Let’s look at three qualities you must possess in order to get the job you want without a degree. Soft Skills: These are skills not obtained by getting a degree. Some of these skills deemed most important by employers include the following: Enthusiasm Friendly personality Punctuality Ability to get along well with others Professional appearance and mannerism Genuine interest in the job at hand Making Connections: Great jobs are handed out every day to so-and-so’s cousin or the head honcho’s friend’s grandson. If you want to meet with the same success, you will have to make and tap your connections effectively. When you’re trying to make connections, you have to step outside of your comfort zone and come to life when you meet others. Sometimes you simply have to strike up conversations in coffee shops or grocery store lines. Make a proactive effort to find out a little more about the people who surround you in your daily life. You never know who might be standing next to you in line for a movie or sitting next to you on a train! And don’t neglect those contacts you already have. Take the time to analyze people you know and whom you have recently met. Who can potentially help you in your job goal search? Who have you forgotten to ask about job opportunities? If you feel at all embarrassed about networking, remember that it’s never begging if you go in to speak to someone full of confidence, high energy, and optimism. In fact, you may be doing them a favor if they can put you in touch with somebody who actually ends up hiring you—this makes your friend look good! The bottom line is that you’ll never know whether your connections can work for you until you try. Market Research: Employers appreciate applicants who “do their homework.” Market research can also help clear up any confusion. When you discover how the industry you’re interested in works with other industries, you may find that some of unlikeliest contacts are the ones who can help you the most. So don’t wait around for a job to find you. Go out and do you research, talk to your contacts, and bring the job to you! Your ability to successfully tap and utilize the three qualities above depends on how well developed your job market skills are over all. So start off by analyzing your competency level by taking this FREE Job Market Performance Assessment.

3 tips to fix unreliable wireless connections

Generally speaking, wireless computer connections are reliable. However, nothing is perfect, and sometimes you may lose your connection or experience a weak signal. There are many factors that impact the reliability of your wireless connection. For example, if your wireless adapter is too close to a 2.4 GHz wireless telephone, you may notice a decrease in your computer’s wireless single strength. Why? Because the phone and the computer reside on the same frequency and can interfere with each other’s performance. Handy Repair Checklist for Wireless Interruptions 1. First check to see if your cable or DSL is actually working. Usually located in your basement, most modems have four lights. You have a live Internet connection if the “data” or “status” light is on. If it’s off, or flashing, your cable is out. 2. If your cable/DSL is working, then reboot your computer. Sometimes, if your cable/DSL goes out for even 10 seconds, your computer and the wireless router may no longer be able to talk to each other. By rebooting your computer, a new IP address is assigned, allowing them to once again communicate. 3. If your desktop is wireless and you’ve moved the wireless adapter [the box that sits next to the computer with antennas], then you may need to move the adapter until you find a stronger signal.

3 tips to fix unreliable wireless connections

Generally speaking, wireless computer connections are reliable. However, nothing is perfect, and sometimes you may lose your connection or experience a weak signal. There are many factors that impact the reliability of your wireless connection. For example, if your wireless adapter is too close to a 2.4 GHz wireless telephone, you may notice a decrease in your computer’s wireless single strength. Why? Because the phone and the computer reside on the same frequency and can interfere with each other’s performance. Handy Repair Checklist for Wireless Interruptions 1. First check to see if your cable or DSL is actually working. Usually located in your basement, most modems have four lights. You have a live Internet connection if the “data” or “status” light is on. If it’s off, or flashing, your cable is out. 2. If your cable/DSL is working, then reboot your computer. Sometimes, if your cable/DSL goes out for even 10 seconds, your computer and the wireless router may no longer be able to talk to each other. By rebooting your computer, a new IP address is assigned, allowing them to once again communicate. 3. If your desktop is wireless and you’ve moved the wireless adapter [the box that sits next to the computer with antennas], then you may need to move the adapter until you find a stronger signal.

Intro to voice over internet protocol save money with every phone call

You've probably heard about Voice over Internet Protoco (abbreviated VoIP or VOIP). It is one of the hottest computer technologies today. VoIP was developed to provide voice communication between computer users at different locations. Although still used in this manner, it's been developed much further -- into a full-fledged telephone network that allows us to place telephone calls through the Internet. People who use VoIP can place calls to any telephone anywhere in the world.

The calls are received on telephone sets connected to the Internet or Local Area Network (LAN). VoIP is already replacing some telephone networks with people and businesses canceling their traditional phone lines in favor of the cost savings of VoIP. Background Israeli computer enthusiasts were the first to make computer-to-computer voice connections back in 1995. That same year, the technology was further developed into a software package called Internet Phone Software. All you needed to speak with another computer user then was a modem, sound card, speakers, and microphone. The software digitized and compressed audio signals before sending them over the Internet. These voice connections only occurred between computers equipped with the software. The original sound quality was very poor. Technology progressed. By 1998 gateways had been established allowing PC-to-phone connections. Later that year phone-to-phone connections using the Internet for voice transmission were in place. Phone-to-phone connections still required a computer to initiate the call, but once the connection was established, callers could use a standard phone set. That Was Then -- This Is Now There are now a variety of VoIP services available, for both residential and commercial use. Some continue to rely on PC-to-PC connections, but may also offer PC-to-phone and phone-to-phone services. There are phones that plug into a sound card or USB port of a computer. These phones may have number pads and ringers that allow you to use them just like conventional telephones. The computer can even be bypassed completely by connecting a phone directly to a broadband modem (either DSL or cable). How Does VoIP Work? The first step in using VoIP is converting your voice into digital data. This is done by 'sampling' your voice. The analog sound signal is divided into distinct steps that can be assigned number values. After your voice is digitized, the data can be compressed. The compressed digital data is then split into 'packets' of about 1500 bytes that can be transferred via the Internet. In addition to voice data, the packets contain information about their origin, destination, and a time-stamp that permits a reconstruction in the exact order. When the packets arrive at their destination, the data are reassembled and converted back to analog. The receiving party then -- voila -- hears your voice. A broadband Internet connection, however, is needed to speed up voice data transmission. Many households and businesses are already using broadband, either DSL or cable, which makes adding VoIP fairly simple. So, if saving money is on your To Do list for this year, check out VoIP.

Intro to voice over internet protocol save money with every phone call

You've probably heard about Voice over Internet Protoco (abbreviated VoIP or VOIP). It is one of the hottest computer technologies today. VoIP was developed to provide voice communication between computer users at different locations. Although still used in this manner, it's been developed much further -- into a full-fledged telephone network that allows us to place telephone calls through the Internet. People who use VoIP can place calls to any telephone anywhere in the world. The calls are received on telephone sets connected to the Internet or Local Area Network (LAN). VoIP is already replacing some telephone networks with people and businesses canceling their traditional phone lines in favor of the cost savings of VoIP. Background Israeli computer enthusiasts were the first to make computer-to-computer voice connections back in 1995. That same year, the technology was further developed into a software package called Internet Phone Software. All you needed to speak with another computer user then was a modem, sound card, speakers, and microphone. The software digitized and compressed audio signals before sending them over the Internet. These voice connections only occurred between computers equipped with the software. The original sound quality was very poor. Technology progressed. By 1998 gateways had been established allowing PC-to-phone connections. Later that year phone-to-phone connections using the Internet for voice transmission were in place. Phone-to-phone connections still required a computer to initiate the call, but once the connection was established, callers could use a standard phone set. That Was Then -- This Is Now There are now a variety of VoIP services available, for both residential and commercial use. Some continue to rely on PC-to-PC connections, but may also offer PC-to-phone and phone-to-phone services. There are phones that plug into a sound card or USB port of a computer. These phones may have number pads and ringers that allow you to use them just like conventional telephones. The computer can even be bypassed completely by connecting a phone directly to a broadband modem (either DSL or cable). How Does VoIP Work? The first step in using VoIP is converting your voice into digital data. This is done by 'sampling' your voice. The analog sound signal is divided into distinct steps that can be assigned number values. After your voice is digitized, the data can be compressed. The compressed digital data is then split into 'packets' of about 1500 bytes that can be transferred via the Internet. In addition to voice data, the packets contain information about their origin, destination, and a time-stamp that permits a reconstruction in the exact order. When the packets arrive at their destination, the data are reassembled and converted back to analog. The receiving party then -- voila -- hears your voice. A broadband Internet connection, however, is needed to speed up voice data transmission. Many households and businesses are already using broadband, either DSL or cable, which makes adding VoIP fairly simple. So, if saving money is on your To Do list for this year, check out VoIP.

Sharing connections

A model project seeks to spread its success (NC)-Most Canadians know Lynn Johnston as an award-winning cartoonist of the popular comic strip For Better or For Worse. But to her neighbours in North Bay, Ontario, she is the guardian angel of a locally based youth drop-in centre program called CONNECTIONS. After witnessing first-hand the profound changes that many young people in the program were experiencing, Johnston took the project under her wing in 1997, committing $600,000 of her own money over a ten year period. "The thing that really made me dedicate this amount of time, effort and money to the group was something that occurred when I attended one of the graduations," recalls Johnston. "I sat down at the table and didn't know anybody. All the kids were different: blonde, dark, Native - they were all so different. Yet they introduced each other to me as brothers and sisters, and told me they were family. That sold me." The CONNECTIONS program helps high school students to actively pursue their dreams while steering them clear of possible trouble. The program has made a demonstrable impact on these young Northbayites, which has, in turn, endeared it to the community at large. Program Director Janet Humble has watched the project grow from a small volunteer project in 1997 to a model crime prevention initiative that offers a holistic blend of services for students who have a hard time fitting in with mainstream high school culture. Some of these students have learning difficulties, some have problems at home, some are bullied, and others are simply shy and reclusive. CONNECTIONS offers these young people an environment of acceptance where they feel valued and free to share their feelings, instead of isolated and vulnerable to other risks. "When CONNECTIONS first started, it was a stay-in-school initiative put in place to respond to the enormous number of drop-outs we were having," recalls Humble. "We got kids involved by having them volunteer in the community. Through these volunteer activities, we were hooking them up with potential employers, teaching them about punctuality and other skills, and hoping that some of these skills would transfer over to school." CONNECTIONS creates a sense of family - a sense of connection - through four key activities: volunteering, recreational/physical activity (golf, curling, horseback riding, and canoe trips) mentoring (students are matched with role models and college/university students who provide career guidance and help with school work) and Fast-Break to Learning (students receive a good breakfast at school, one morning per week, during which they discuss issues such as anger management and study skills). "It's a way to get people through school, into careers, focused, and into a whole new community of peers," explains Johnston. An obvious success in North Bay, organizers now plan to expand into neighbouring communities, to test whether the project is transportable. For details on how Canadian towns and cities are working together to reduce and prevent crime, and how your community can get involved, visit crime-prevention. org.

Wireless networking do you need it

There has been so much hype about wireless networking that it is sometimes hard to get to the important question: do you need it? To determine whether your notebook computer needs to have wireless networking capabilities, you need to understand what it is first. WLAN WLAN stands for Wireless Local Area Network or Wireless LAN. Wireless network cards use the IEEE 802.11 standard of wireless transmission. There are other wireless networking standards, such as Bluetooth, but the 802.11 standard is the preferred networking solution. The Wireless Network interface was developed originally for interfacing among computers connected through a local area network, but it is now also being used for Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and internet access, just like the standard Local Area Network interface. A Wireless Networking environment has no need for complicated wiring to accommodate data sharing and internet access. The wireless network uses one or more Wireless Access Points or Wireless Routers to transmit the signal. An Access Point has an antenna and an Ethernet port, which must be connected to a broadband modem for internet connectivity. A Wireless Router adds several more Ethernet ports to allow a combination of wired and wireless connections. The Access Point or Router acts as the radio frequency transmitter and receiver (radio frequency electromagnetic waves are the medium through which data packets are sent and received). This Access Point interfaces with devices (computers, PDAs, IP Phones, and other Access Points) which use 802.11 wireless adapters. Wherever there is an 802.11 wireless access point, a wireless networking-capable device can access that network and, generally, the internet. Do You Need Wireless Networking in Your Notebook Computer? Whether you need wireless networking depends entirely on you. Wireless networking capability is always a wonderful feature to have in a notebook computer, but there are scenarios where wireless networking is definitely necessary. If you want to have a tidy office or home network, wireless networking is for you. Moreover, if there are many users in your local network or if the number of users is expected to increase, a wireless router is not limited by the number of Ethernet ports on the router. Please note, however, that a wireless network connection is not as reliable as traditional Ethernet connections, and wireless connections are susceptible to radio wave and electromagnetic interference. If you are a freelancer, a reporter, or in another position where you frequently travel, Wireless Networking is invaluable. Wireless Networking is the most widely used form of public internet access all over the world. With a wireless networking card, you are guaranteed an internet connection, as long as you can find a wireless hotspot. For interfacing with personal devices like PDAs and cellular phones, Bluetooth is a more common option, but Wireless Networking is absolutely necessary for wireless internet connections. This article may be republished freely as long as this copyright notice and box of resource links are included at the bottom. Copyright © 2007 MALIBAL, lLc

Cisco certification selecting cisco products

You must understand the business requirements of the network before buying a product. Based on the requirements, you can select the appropriate Cisco products. Today, WAN technologies most often take advantage of high-speed connections, such as T-1 and E-1. Additional WAN technologies exist, including Frame Relay, ISDN, and dial-up asynchronous connections. ISDN or dial-up is used if infrequent connection is made. If a connection is used for more than two to four hours, you should use a Frame Relay or a leased line.

Based on the different services available through the service provider, you can select Cisco products that can fulfill your office requirements. Selecting Hubs Cisco has various hub products. You can select hubs according to the type of connection required. Higher-end hubs offer network management port and console connections, middle-end hubs offer both 10 Mbps and 100 Mbps auto-sensing connections, and the lower-end hubs offer only 10 Mbps connections. Examples of fast hub series of Cisco are Cisco Fh100, Cisco Fh200, Cisco Fh300, and Cisco Fh400. Examples of micro hub series are Cisco MH1500 and Cisco MH1528. Selecting Routers Routers are the most popular Cisco products. To select a router, you must first know the port density and the interface speed required based on the LAN or WAN technologies used. In addition, you must identify the capacity and performance requirements of your business. The cost of the router varies according to the features you select. Selecting Switches A switch can be used instead of a hub in newer networks. Most switches are configured to limit collision domains, which often provides a limited security feature because users will not be able to sniff traffic as easily as in a standard hub-based network. This feature can cause confusion when using a network sniffer to analyze traffic. It is possible, however, to analyze packets on a switched network by enabling mirroring on the switch, or by using a dedicated port that allows authorized users to view all network traffic. It is important to consider whether you need 10, 100, or 1000 Mbps for each desktop or to connect between switches. To select a switch, you must consider various issues, such as business requirements, requirements for inter-switch links and trunking, port density, and type of user interface. Product Selection Criteria When selecting the right products for any network environment, keep the following considerations in mind: Will the device be used as a core device, distribution device, or access device? Does the device provide the functions that your business requires? Does the device have adequate number of ports and the right mix of interfaces as required by your business? Do you have to pay a lot for installing the device or can it be easily installed? Can the device be centrally managed from an SNMP Management station or do you have to physically access the device to manage it? Is the migration path easy? How well does the device handle redundancy requirements? Do you have to change your existing infrastructure, such as cabling or existing devices, to install the new device? You may use the Cisco website http:// cisco. com to gather more information to select products based on your requirements.

Cisco certification selecting cisco products

You must understand the business requirements of the network before buying a product. Based on the requirements, you can select the appropriate Cisco products. Today, WAN technologies most often take advantage of high-speed connections, such as T-1 and E-1. Additional WAN technologies exist, including Frame Relay, ISDN, and dial-up asynchronous connections. ISDN or dial-up is used if infrequent connection is made. If a connection is used for more than two to four hours, you should use a Frame Relay or a leased line. Based on the different services available through the service provider, you can select Cisco products that can fulfill your office requirements. Selecting Hubs Cisco has various hub products. You can select hubs according to the type of connection required. Higher-end hubs offer network management port and console connections, middle-end hubs offer both 10 Mbps and 100 Mbps auto-sensing connections, and the lower-end hubs offer only 10 Mbps connections. Examples of fast hub series of Cisco are Cisco Fh100, Cisco Fh200, Cisco Fh300, and Cisco Fh400. Examples of micro hub series are Cisco MH1500 and Cisco MH1528. Selecting Routers Routers are the most popular Cisco products. To select a router, you must first know the port density and the interface speed required based on the LAN or WAN technologies used. In addition, you must identify the capacity and performance requirements of your business. The cost of the router varies according to the features you select. Selecting Switches A switch can be used instead of a hub in newer networks. Most switches are configured to limit collision domains, which often provides a limited security feature because users will not be able to sniff traffic as easily as in a standard hub-based network. This feature can cause confusion when using a network sniffer to analyze traffic. It is possible, however, to analyze packets on a switched network by enabling mirroring on the switch, or by using a dedicated port that allows authorized users to view all network traffic. It is important to consider whether you need 10, 100, or 1000 Mbps for each desktop or to connect between switches. To select a switch, you must consider various issues, such as business requirements, requirements for inter-switch links and trunking, port density, and type of user interface. Product Selection Criteria When selecting the right products for any network environment, keep the following considerations in mind: Will the device be used as a core device, distribution device, or access device? Does the device provide the functions that your business requires? Does the device have adequate number of ports and the right mix of interfaces as required by your business? Do you have to pay a lot for installing the device or can it be easily installed? Can the device be centrally managed from an SNMP Management station or do you have to physically access the device to manage it? Is the migration path easy? How well does the device handle redundancy requirements? Do you have to change your existing infrastructure, such as cabling or existing devices, to install the new device? You may use the Cisco website http:// cisco. com to gather more information to select products based on your requirements.

Introduction to voice over ip

VoIP is probably something you have heard about if you are keen of new computer technologies. VoIP allows telephone calls over the Internet and due to the constantly improving Internet connections it is starting to replace traditional phone networks. VoIP is mainly used by businesses as they are more likely to have access to fast Internet connections, needed by this type of telephony. Although the initial use of VoIP systems was to allow communication between computer users located in different places, the idea was developed even further and is now on its way to becoming a stand alone telephone network. VoIP has made calling any phone in the world as well as receiving phone calls from users connected to Local Area Networks or the Internet possible. History The idea dates back in 1995 and it was started by an Israeli computer enthusiast who managed to establish the first phone call between two computers. Later that year a software package called Internet Phone Software was developed and released and it was essential for a VoIP connection. VoIP users needed this software, a modem, sound card, microphone and speakers in order to be able to use the Voice over Internet Protocol. The Internet Phone Software was responsible for the digitalization and compression of the audio signal prior to sending it over the Internet. It was also needed for its decompression and therefore VoIP communications were only possible between people using this software. Due to the fact that the whole system was at its beginnings, the sound quality was very poor and far from that of traditional telephony. The potential behind this idea was easily understood so the technology was developed further in the following years. Gateways that allowed PC-to-phone connections were established as well as designated VoIP connections later that year. Calls using this protocol were even possible from standard phone sets once the connection had been established from a computer. The protocol today Quite a few VoIP services are available today, suiting any type of needs. While some are still computer dependent, phone-to-phone and PC-to-phone services are also available. Although special USB compatible Internet phones were developed, the computer can be completely bypassed by Internet phones that link directly to a cable or DSL broadband connection via a modem. The principles behind VoIP In order to be able to send your voice over the Internet, it has to be transformed into digital data. The digitalization process is called 'sampling' and involves 'breaking' the sound into very small pieces that can be characterized by a number value. After this process has ended, the digital result is compressed and divided into small 1500 bytes packets that will be send over the Internet. Packets contain not only the voice but also data regarding their order needed for a correct reconstruction and data about their origin. Once the packets have reached the destination they will be reconstructed and the resulting digital data will be transformed back into analogue sound and played by the speakers. A broadband connection is required due to the large amount of data that has to be transmitted over the Internet in a short time to avoid noticeable delays. This is the reason why the system is more popular among companies that already use and can easier afford such connections. Copyright 2006 Dave Markel

Introduction to voice over ip

VoIP is probably something you have heard about if you are keen of new computer technologies. VoIP allows telephone calls over the Internet and due to the constantly improving Internet connections it is starting to replace traditional phone networks. VoIP is mainly used by businesses as they are more likely to have access to fast Internet connections, needed by this type of telephony. Although the initial use of VoIP systems was to allow communication between computer users located in different places, the idea was developed even further and is now on its way to becoming a stand alone telephone network. VoIP has made calling any phone in the world as well as receiving phone calls from users connected to Local Area Networks or the Internet possible. History The idea dates back in 1995 and it was started by an Israeli computer enthusiast who managed to establish the first phone call between two computers. Later that year a software package called Internet Phone Software was developed and released and it was essential for a VoIP connection. VoIP users needed this software, a modem, sound card, microphone and speakers in order to be able to use the Voice over Internet Protocol. The Internet Phone Software was responsible for the digitalization and compression of the audio signal prior to sending it over the Internet. It was also needed for its decompression and therefore VoIP communications were only possible between people using this software. Due to the fact that the whole system was at its beginnings, the sound quality was very poor and far from that of traditional telephony. The potential behind this idea was easily understood so the technology was developed further in the following years. Gateways that allowed PC-to-phone connections were established as well as designated VoIP connections later that year. Calls using this protocol were even possible from standard phone sets once the connection had been established from a computer. The protocol today Quite a few VoIP services are available today, suiting any type of needs. While some are still computer dependent, phone-to-phone and PC-to-phone services are also available. Although special USB compatible Internet phones were developed, the computer can be completely bypassed by Internet phones that link directly to a cable or DSL broadband connection via a modem. The principles behind VoIP In order to be able to send your voice over the Internet, it has to be transformed into digital data. The digitalization process is called 'sampling' and involves 'breaking' the sound into very small pieces that can be characterized by a number value. After this process has ended, the digital result is compressed and divided into small 1500 bytes packets that will be send over the Internet. Packets contain not only the voice but also data regarding their order needed for a correct reconstruction and data about their origin. Once the packets have reached the destination they will be reconstructed and the resulting digital data will be transformed back into analogue sound and played by the speakers. A broadband connection is required due to the large amount of data that has to be transmitted over the Internet in a short time to avoid noticeable delays. This is the reason why the system is more popular among companies that already use and can easier afford such connections. Copyright 2006 Dave Markel