30 how diamonds are mad

РПаЎ±б>юя %'юяяя$яяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяямҐБ` рїМbjbjЛsЛs .©©Мяяяяяя¤ўўўўўўў¶ћћћћЄ¶u¶ВВВВВВВВфцццццц$+ h“’ўВВВВВўўВВ/&&&В.ўВўВф&Вф&&ўў&В¶M=Е®Жћр &фE0u&%ъ"%&&J%ўp„ВВ&ВВВВВ ВВВuВВВВ¶¶¶$ЪД¶¶¶Ъ¶¶¶ўўўўўўяяяя30 How diamonds madeDiamonds form between 75-120 miles below the earth's surface. According to geologists the first delivery of diamonds was somewhere around 2.5 billion years ago and the most recent was 45 million years ago. The carbon that makes diamonds comes from the melting of pre-existing rocks in the Earth's upper mantle. There is an abundance of carbon atoms in the mantle. Temperature changes in the upper mantle forces the carbon atoms to go deeper where it melts and finally becomes new rock, when the temperature reduces. If other conditions like pressure and chemistry is right then the carbon atoms in the melting crystal rock bond to build diamond crystals. There is no guarantee that these carbon atoms will turn into diamonds. If the temperature rises or the pressure drops then the diamond crystals may melt partially or totally dissolve. Even if they do form, it takes thousand of years for those diamonds to come anywhere near the surface. It takes millions of years to make a diamond. When you own a diamond, you own something which is a legend in the making. It has not been made in a factory just the other day. A diamond comes from the bosom of the earth. More interestingly not all the diamonds mined are made into jewelry. Only one fourth of the diamonds that are mined are made into jewelry. Every 100 tons of mud produces one carat of a diamond. And this one carat is not one stone! It could be anything from 0.005 ct to 1 ct. because much of the original stone is cut away in the process of cutting, shaping and polishing the diamond. Diamonds come in different rough shapes. The next time you look at your diamond, think about the amount of time, energy and resources have gone into making that one. «ОШвз[ { Ґ ¦ ЗПнчш¤¬°µ#2MКЛМьшьсзсзсьсьсьсьсьсЯсьсьсЯсЯьсьсьсhhЃhh6Ѓ]Ѓhhhµґh!¦ ЖЗ#$ЛМэээээшшшй$¤d¤d[$$a$gdgd Мэ,1ђh°Р/ °а=!°"°#ђ $ђ %°°Р°РђР†њ@@ся@NormalCJ_HaJmH sH tH DA@тяЎDDefault Paragraph FontRiуяіRTable Normalц4Ц l4Цaц(kфяБ(No ListB^@тBСNormal (Web)¤d¤d[$$&юOў&дValltext4U@ў4ѕG Hyperlink >*phя.X@ў!.Emphasis6Ѓ]Ѓ*W@ў1*Strong5ЃЃМяяяя¦ЖЗ#$ЛО?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂЗ$ЛОK€00K€00K€0`(љ@0ЂЂЂљ@0ЂЂЂљ0ЂЂММ М ,2389>ОО,,ъООЈт f]ІПwU%ЂxеgшeH')№(9«&RiUдVП^_1wђ{ѕGРIЊ®@• Ґµґgµ‹#ѕСUWУFxЦЧjЧЭШбaЬ™{д2yй+чя@Ђ(7•М`@яяUnknownяяяяяяяяяяяяGђ‡z ЂяTimes New Roman5ђЂSymbol3&ђ‡z ЂяArial"1€рРh‚Ѕ§‚Ѕ§ЙЙ!р ґґЃЃr4dЙЙ2ѓQрHX)ря?дяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяя™{д2яя26 Portuguese diamondGABRIELLE ROSE BENNETT Tim Erwayюяа…џтщOh«‘+'іЩ0ђђ?ёДдрь , LXdpxЂ€д26 Portuguese diamondGABRIELLE ROSE BENNETTNormalTim Erway2Microsoft Office Word@@њ=&Е®Ж@њ=&Е®ЖЙюяХНХњ.“—+,щ®0hpњ¤¬ґјДМФЬюд$COMPASS ROSE CREATIVE DIRECTIONSЙЁ26 Portuguese diamondTitle юяяяюяяяюяяя !"#юяяяэяяя&юяяяюяяяюяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяRoot Entryяяяяяяяя АFPW=Е®Ж(Ђ1TableяяяяяяяяWordDocumentяяяяяяяя.SummaryInformation(яяяяDocumentSummaryInformation8яяяяяяяяяяяяCompObjяяяяяяяяяяяяqяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяюяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяюя яяяя АFMicrosoft Office Word Document MSWordDocWord. Document.8ф9Іq

How to care for your diamond 201

How to Care for Your Diamond Caring for a diamond takes more than occasional cleanings. Diamonds are forever, but they can be damaged if you are not careful. By learning how to properly care for your diamond, you will ensure that your diamond is indeed forever. First, you should take your diamond jewelry to a jeweler once a year. Have him check the mountings and prongs that hold your diamond in place. Have him make any needed repairs. This will prevent your diamond from falling out of its setting and becoming lost. Diamond jewelry that is not being worn, or diamonds that are loose should be stored in a fabric lined jewel case, or in a jewelry box where it can be kept separate from other jewelry. Each piece should have its own compartment. This will keep diamonds from becoming scratched, and it will also keep your diamond from scratching other jewelry as well. Remove your diamond jewelry when doing physical work. Diamonds can be chipped and scratched easily. Also avoid allowing your diamond to come into contact with bleach or other household cleansers – this can damage or change the color of the settings and mountings, and it may even irreversibly change the color of the diamond! (word count 201)

49 garnet

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Today science explained to us that the proverbial luminosity of garnet is caused by its high refraction of light. Although the color red is the one which occurs most frequently, there are also garnets showing different shades of green, pale to bright yellow, fiery orange and fine earth - and umbra-shades. Only blue is a color which is not available in garnet. Garnets are gemstones which are in high demand and are often worked into pieces of jewellery - especially since today not only the traditional gemstone colors red, blue and green are cherished by the consumer, but the intermediate shades and hues are also very popular. Garnets are unusual because their tone can change depending on whether they’re seen in natural or artificial light. Some of the alternately-colored garnets are very famous. Spessartine garnets are a bright orange to orange-red. These are extremely rare. There is a type of garnet called a Mandarine garnet which is also orange.

It too is rare. There are even green garnets, even though one doesn’t associate this color with garnet. The star among green garnets is rare demantoid. It shows enormous brilliance, higher even than that of diamond. Russia’s leading court jeweler Carl Fabergй loved the brilliant green garnet from the Urals more than any other stone, and liked to use it in his creations. IJKьштьлh„]hжp4 h1Н0Jhжp4h1Н … ядJKъъъъъхgd„]gdжp4Kэ,1ђh°Р/ °а=!°"°#ђ $ђ %°°Р°РђР†њ@@ся@NormalCJ_HaJmH sH tH DA@тяЎDDefault Paragraph FontRiуяіRTable Normalц4Ц l4Цaц(kфяБ(No ListB^@тBСNormal (Web)¤d¤d[$$&юOў&дValltext4Uў4ѕG Hyperlink >*phя.Xў!.Emphasis6Ѓ]Ѓ*Wў1*Strong5ЃЃ0юўA0ЧnЊarticle_body юўQ (IлbodyKяяяя …ядJM?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ …ядJMKИ00ЂIИ00ЂI€0Ђ?0ЂЂЂKИ00Ђљ0ЂЂKK K рlрр,Rр$РЯµ…ЫЊBч_±§y4я;яяяя@сяяяЂЂЂчр’рр0р( р ррB рSрїЛя ?рKПШ8C¬µajРЧM ¬JM3JMqдH6…

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Buying diamonds online 446

Buying Diamonds Online With all of the potential for scams concerning diamonds, buying diamonds online almost seems unthinkable! However, you actually can purchase diamonds online, without any problems – as long as you are careful. First, think about your reasons for wanting to purchase the diamond online, as opposed to making a purchase from a local jewelry store. The most common reason is price. Due to low overhead costs, online jewelers and wholesalers are able to offer lower prices. However, you must be careful – sometimes a price that is too low is a sure indication of a scam. One of the best things about purchasing online is the unlimited selection. When shopping offline, you are limited to the selection in the stores in your general area. Online, there are no limits. But again, you must use a great deal of care and consideration before handing your money over to someone that you cannot see and have never met! Before shopping, learn as much as you can about diamonds – especially cut, color, clarity and carat weights. When you are knowledgeable about diamonds, it will be harder for a con artist to rip you off. Once you know more about diamonds, you will be ready to start shopping. Take your time. Don’t purchase the first diamond that you see that interests you. Instead, look for similar diamonds for sale. Do some comparison shopping to find the lowest prices. Once you have found the lowest price, start doing your investigation. You know about diamonds, you’ve found a diamond that you love, and you’ve found the lowest price – but you are still quite a ways away from actually purchasing that diamond! Ask about the seller’s credentials, such as professional jewelry associations that they belong to. View and print the seller’s return, refund, and upgrade policies. Also inquire about additional services, such as settings and mountings, sizing, and free shipping. Do a search for customer reviews on this particular company around the Internet. Also check with the BBB Online to see if there have been any complaints. Ask for a diamond grading report from an independent laboratory such as GIA, HRD, EGL or AGS. You should see this before making a purchase. Finally, use a reputable escrow service for high dollar diamonds – preferably one that will have the diamond appraised while it is in their possession. The seller sends the diamond to the escrow service, and you send the money to pay for the diamond to the escrow service. The escrow service has the diamond appraised, sends the diamond to you, and sends the money to the seller. This is the surest way to protect yourself…again, make sure that you use a reputable escrow service! (word count 446)

Diamond carat

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Document.8ф9Іq [^`ся^Normal1$95678XT9;>*B*CJH*@€OJQJmH nH >`> Heading 1 ¤р¤<5CJ OJQJ@`@ Heading 2 ¤р¤<56CJOJQJ>`> Heading 3 ¤р¤<5CJOJQJ>A`тяЎ>Default Paragraph FontData яяяяяяяяяяяяюяяя0Tableяяяя3SummaryInformation(яяяяяяяяяяяяD$яяяяяяяяяяяямҐБY фїЦ@@ T»T»k яяяяяя]ёёёёёёёМММММШМ омрффффффффффчфлфлёфффффффёёффмффффёфёффчММёёёёфффффёёМффмђщЕММффDiamond CaratWhat is Diamond Carat Weight?When shopping for a diamond, you've no doubt heard references to the 4 C's of diamonds. Diamond carat is one of those popular c's to consider when evaluating a diamond, and it's a term used to describe how much the diamond weighs. A single diamond carat is equal to the weight of 200 milligrams, or .2 grams.Diamonds are described two different ways in regards to the diamond carat. An abbreviation of ct is used to describe the weight of a single diamond stone while an abbreviation of ct TW is used when describing the total weight of an entire piece of jewelry- when it has more than one stone in place.It's important to recognize that two stones may have the exact same carats, meaning they have the same weight measurement, and yet they are completely different in size and appearance. This is due to the actual density of the gemstone. The more dense a stone is, the more weight they have, and sometimes a smaller stone will actually weigh more than a larger stone because of density.The Value of the Diamond is Effected by it's Weight.When selecting your diamond ring, you can choose between a single, solitaire style setting (a single diamond on the ring) and a setting that has multiple, smaller stones to make up the ring. The value of a solitaire one diamond carat will actually be more than if you buy a ring that has two diamonds that add up to one carat or greater. Larger sized diamonds are more rarely found when mining diamonds, making them more valuable and expensive than purchasing the same amount of diamond carats in smaller stones.Selecting Diamond CaratSo how do you determine what size diamond to buy? Do you want a diamond carat of 1, or 2, or do you want a ring with multiple, smaller stones? The answer to this will depend greatly on your budget, as well as the person who will be wearing the ring. A diamond will look larger on a slender finger, so keep that in mind if the recipient of the ring has thin hands. The actual diamond carat measurement is probably not as much of a concern as the appearance, shape, and setting of the ring. Particularly because a 1 carat diamond ring will not look half the size of a 2 diamond carat ring, it's far more important to select a ring that is pleasing to look at than it is to buy one with the most carats you can afford.Determine how much money you have to spend, and then decide on the cut of the diamond. 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When shopping for a diamond, you've no doubt heard references to the 4 C's of diamonds. Diamond carat is one of those popular ”c's” to consider when evaluating a diamond, and it's a term used to describe how much the diamond weighs. A single diamond carat is equal to the weight of 200 milligrams, or .2 grams. Diamonds are described two different ways in regards to the diamond carat. An abbreviation of “ct” is used to describe the weight of a single diamond stone while an abbreviation of “ct TW” is used when describing the total weight of an entire piece of jewelry - when it has more than one stone in place. It's important to recognize that two stones may have the exact same carats, meaning they have the same weight measurement, and yet they are completely different in size and appearance. This is due to the actual density of the gemstone. The more dense a stone is, the more weight they have, and sometimes a smaller stone will actually weigh more than a larger stone because of density. The Value of the Diamond is Effected by it's Weight. When selecting your diamond ring, you can choose between a single, solitaire style setting (a single diamond on the ring) and a setting that has multiple, smaller stones to make up the ring. The value of a solitaire one diamond carat will actually be more than if you buy a ring that has two diamonds that add up to one carat or greater. Larger sized diamonds are more rarely found when mining diamonds, making them more valuable and expensive than purchasing the same amount of diamond carats in smaller stones. Selecting Diamond CaratSo how do you determine what size diamond to buy? Do you want a diamond carat of 1, or 2, or do you want a ring with multiple, smaller stones? The answer to this will depend greatly on your budget, as well as the person who will be wearing the ring. A diamond will look larger on a slender finger, so keep that in mind if the recipient of the ring has thin hands. The actual diamond carat measurement is probably not as much of a concern as the appearance, shape, and setting of the ring. Particularly because a 1 carat diamond ring will not look half the size of a 2 diamond carat ring, it's far more important to select a ring that is pleasing to look at than it is to buy one with the most carats you can afford. Determine how much money you have to spend, and then decide on the cut of the diamond. Once you have these two pieces of information narrowed down, you can start browsing the diamonds in your price range, in the style you want, and find out what diamond carat you are in the market to buy. яяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяDJђJяяяяР ИИа юа юр<р<р<°dђ hяяЂЂ яяя

47 citrine

РПаЎ±б>юя &(юяяя%яяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяямҐБ` рїсbjbjЛsЛs .©©сяяяяяя¤ццццццц ’’’’ћ 72¶¶¶¶¶ЙЙЙ¶ёёёёёё$ihС’ЬцЙЕЙЙЙЬцц¶¶сAAAЙFц¶ц¶¶AЙ¶AAЮ цц ¶Є`Шs„Ж®Ж’ц ¶07ю c+c cц ЙЙAЙЙЙЙЙЬЬAЙЙЙ7ЙЙЙЙ DND N ццццццяяяя47 CitrineCitrine is any quartz crystal or cluster that is yellow or orange in color. Although, often cut as a gemstone, citrine is actually somewhat rare in nature. Citrine is one of the most affordable gemstones, thanks to the durability and availability of this golden quartz. Named from the French name for lemon,"citron," many citrines have a juicy lemon color, but like all gemstones, there is a range of colors that can be exhibited as citrine.Citrine colors include yellow, gold to orange brown shades of transparent quartz. It’s a cheery-looking stone, and affordable and is popular as a gemstone for jewely. In ancient times, citrine was carried as a protection against snake venom and evil thoughts.Although the darker, orange colors of citrine, sometimes called Madeira citrine after the color of the wine, has generally been the most valued color, in modern times, many people prefer the bright lemony shades which mix better with pastel colors. Citrine is generally more inexpensive than amethyst and is also available in a wide range of calibrated sizes and shapes, including very large sizes.

Sometimes you will hear citrine referred to as topaz quartz, which is incorrect. This name was used in the past in reference to the color, which is sometimes similar to the color of topaz. Since topaz is a separate mineral, this type of name can be confusing and should not be used. However, citrine is considered an alternative to topaz as the birthstone for November.Since most citrine on the market started its life as amethyst which was heated to turn its color to gold, citrine jewelry, as well as amethyst jewelry, should be kept away from prolonged exposure to strong light or heat. With this precaution, citrine jewelry will last for many generations. §n Д Ж О Ь г д m Й Л Y[МОрсьшпйгьйгйгйгйьйьйьйЬh„]hт hCT0J h¦e0JhCThCT0Jhц{`h¦eсъхgd„]gdт сэ,1ђh°Р/ °а=!°"°#ђ $ђ %°°Р°РђР†њ@@ся@NormalCJ_HaJmH sH tH DA@тяЎDDefault Paragraph FontRiуяіRTable Normalц4Ц l4Цaц(kфяБ(No ListB^@тBСNormal (Web)¤d¤d[$$&юOў&дValltext4Uў4ѕG Hyperlink >*phя.Xў!.Emphasis6Ѓ]Ѓ*Wў1*Strong5ЃЃ0юўA0ЧnЊarticle_body юўQ (Iлbodyсяяяяу?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂуK€00Ђљ0ЂЂсс с рlрр,Rр$РЯµ…ЫЊBч_±§y4я;яяяя@сяяяЂЂЂчр’рр0р( р ррB рSрїЛя ?рс§®Ї±Іµ8Eekу §у3§§уqдH6…

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Diamond scams 439

Diamond Scams When it comes to diamonds, there are numerous scams to avoid. Most scams are minor, but there are some major ones that come up from time to time concerning the buying and selling of diamonds. Scams occur simply because most people who buy diamonds – for whatever reasons – don’t know that much about diamonds. Therefore, they are easily fooled. A common scam that most jewelry stores participate in is the Carat Total Weight scam. The tag on the piece of jewelry, usually a ring, only states the total carat weight of all diamonds in the piece, instead of listing the total weights separately for each diamond. This leads consumers to believe that the main diamond in the piece is actually bigger than it is. Ask what the total carat weight of the center stone is. Also beware of fractions. Jewelry stores are allowed to round off diamond weights. This means that if the jeweler tells you that it is a ѕ carat diamond, it is probably between Ѕ and ѕ carat – but closer to ѕ. Jewelry stores often run ‘fluorescence’ scams to varying degrees. Referring to a diamond as a blue-white diamond is such a scam. A blue-white diamond sounds very unique and special, but in fact, this type of diamond is of lesser quality – even though the jeweler will try to make you think you are getting something special. Jewelry stores also like to show their diamonds in bright lights. Lights make diamonds shine. Ask to see the diamond in a different, darker type of lighting as well. Some truly unscrupulous jewelers target those who want appraisals on diamonds that were given to them as gifts or that were purchased elsewhere. They will try to tell you that the diamond is worthless, or worth less than it actually is worth – and offer to take it off your hands or trade it for a much better diamond, along with the cash to make up the difference. This is called low balling. Get a second, third, and even a forth opinion before taking any action. Another common dirty trick is to switch the diamond you have chosen and paid for with one of lesser quality and value when you leave it to be set in a piece of jewelry, or leave a diamond ring to be sized. The only way to avoid this is to do business with one trustworthy jeweler. Avoid jewelers that you have not done business with in the past. There are many more scams that jewelry stores commonly pull on unsuspecting consumers. Just use your best judgment, and purchase your diamonds with the utmost care and consideration. (word count 439)

Diamond history

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ЁыЕММффDiamond HistoryDiamond history varies greatly depending on your source of documentation, as diamond history is as rich in myths and folklore as it is in physical facts and records. Diamond history is one filled with mythical stories, such as one where snakes guarded a land full of diamonds, and the history has fascinated people with the romance and beauty that surrounds our most precious gemstones; diamonds.Early Diamond HistoryAround 3,000 years ago, in the country of India, the first ever diamond history was recorded. If diamonds had been found prior to this period of time, we have no written record of it Diamonds in this day and age were used for two main purposes, and is quite different from why we still love diamonds today. Diamonds stood as a talisman in order to fend off evil spirits, and to provide protection during battles, and they were also valued because of their ability to reflect the light.Dark Ages of Diamond HistoryIt is during the dark ages that the diamond history moved into having some sort of medical purpose. St Hildegarde was said to have written an anecdote to heal wounds and cure illnesses that instructed the sick to hold a diamond in their hand and make the sign of the cross. Some people in diamond history went as far as swallowing diamonds, hoping it would cure their illnesses magically.Middle Ages of Diamond HistoryIt was during the middle ages that diamonds began to gain popularity. It is this point in diamond history that many of the famous diamonds were discovered, including the Blue Hope, and the mountain of light, both found in India. In our current times, India remains the worlds finest polishers of diamonds.The middle ages also saw a shift in diamond history- where previously diamonds were valued based on their mythical powers, they began to be valued more for their overall worth. As more people learned of the incredible value of diamonds, mine owners began circulating stories that diamonds were poisonous, to prevent the workers from swallowing diamonds as a means to smuggle them out of the mines undetected.Also during this period of diamond history, people wanted diamonds more than any other time period previously, mostly because they recognized their power and worth. India's diamond supply was dwindling and was unable to meet demands of diamond buyers. South Africa's find of diamonds near the Orange River began the world's largest diamond rush of diamond history, and helped satisfy the demands of those wanting diamonds for themselves.More RecentlyDiamond history began to spread into eastern Australia sometime during the middle of the nineteenth century. During the late 1970's, Australia as a diamond producer became validated. Also in the late 1970's, 1979 to be exact, the Argyle pipe near Lake Argyle was discovered by geologists. Since that day, Argyle has become the absolute largest producer of diamonds in all the world and throughout diamond history, and produces over one third of the diamond volume each year. ">@lnBDFЂ‚ђ’”ТФ<>rtвджАВДэыщчхуспнлйзегбЯЭЫ6Ѓ6Ѓ6Ѓ6Ѓ6Ѓ6Ѓ6Ѓ6Ѓ6Ѓ6Ѓ6Ѓ6Ѓ6Ѓ6Ѓ6Ѓ5Ѓ5Ѓ5Ѓ ">@lnBDFЂ‚ђ’”ТФ<>rtджэыщчхуспнлйзегбЯЭЫЩЧХУСПАВДэыщ!° "° 0%°°°Root Entryяяяяяяяя АFuј? ЁыЕЂCompObjяяяяяяяяjObjectPoolяяяя`„ў? ЁыЕ`„ў? 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Diamond history is one filled with lV:OAes:As:ґsAsV:lss:HsAzAsOe:lV:AA:AV:As:sssVAelA:HleAV:lss:OeesOsV:::­Alґsss:sAVAsOs:AV:sse:HAAAes:¦AAs:—2 ™ `mythical stories, such as one where snakes guarded a land full of diamonds, and the history has ґsAsAelA:VAsOAeV::Vzes:lV:sse:¦seOe:VslzeV:szlOses:l:Alss:HzAA:sH:sAlґsssV::lss:Ase:sAVAsOs:slV:Ћ2 Ј Zfascinated people with the romance and beauty that surrounds our most precious gemstones; HlVeAslAes:sessAe:¦AAs:Ase:Osґlsee:lss:selzAs:AslA:VzOOszssV:szO:ґsVA:sOeeAszV:seґVAsseVA:2 ­ diamonds. ђsAlґsssV:-ыђTimes New Roman[ФфwdФфw0-'2 И Early Diamond History6ђz^Al:­Az­zzz:­A^Az^l-љ2 е bAround 3,000 years ago, in the country of India, the first ever diamond history was recorded. 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Diamonds stood as a talisman in order to fend off evil spirits, and to provide sAlґsssV:Assls:::­AlґsssV:VAsss:lV:l:AlAAVґls:As:sOseO:As:Hess:sHH:esAA:VsAOAAV::lss:As:sOssAse:њ2 cprotection during battles, and they were also valued because of their ability to reflect the light. sOsAeeAAss:szOAss:slAAAeV::lss:Ases:¦eOe:lAVs:slAzes:seelzVe:sH:AseAO:lsAAAAs:As:OeHAeeA:Ase:AAssA:-12 B Dark Ages of Diamond History­z^l:ђzl^:zA:­Az­zzz:­A^Az^l-џ2 _ eIt is during the dark ages that the diamond history moved into having some sort of medical purpose. OA:AV:szOAss:Ase:slOz:lseV:AslA:Ase:sAlґsss:sAVAsOs:ґsses:AsAs:slsAss:Vsґe:VsOA:sH:ґesAelA:szOssVe:::џ2 i eSt Hildegarde was said to have written an anecdote to heal wounds and cure illnesses that instructed ‚A:­AAseslOse:¦lV:VlAs:As:slse:¦OAAAes:ls:lseessAe:As:selA:¦szssV:lss:ezOe:AAAseVVeV:AslA:AsVAOzeAes:™2 s athe sick to hold a diamond in their hand and make the sign of the cross. Some people in diamond Ase:VAez:As:ssAs:l:sAlґsss:As:AseAO:slss:lss:ґlze:Ase:VAss:sH:Ase:eOsVV:::‚sґe:sessAe:As:sAlґsss:ђ2 } [history went as far as swallowing diamonds, hoping it would cure their illnesses magically. sAVAsOs:¦esA:lV:HlO:lV:V¦lAAs¦Ass:sAlґsssV::sssAss:AA:¦szAs:ezOe:AseAO:AAAseVVeV:ґlsAelAAs:-42 І Middle Ages of Diamond HistoryВAzzAl:ђzl^:zA:­Az­zzz:­A^Az^l-њ2 П" cIt was during the middle ages that diamonds began to gain popularity. It is this point in diamond dOA:¦lV:szOAss:Ase:ґAssAe:lseV:AslA:sAlґsssV:sesls:As:slAs:ssszAlOAAs:::OA:AV:AsAV:ssAsA:As:sAlґsss:ђ2 Щ# [history that many of the famous diamonds were discovered, including the Blue Hope, and the sAVAsOs:AslA:ґlss:sH:Ase:HlґszV:sAlґsssV:¦eOe:sAVesseOes::AseAzsAss:Ase:ћAze:­sse::lss:Ase:–2 г$ _mountain of light, both found in India. In our current times, India remains the worlds finest ґszsAlAs:sH:AAssA::ssAs:Hszss:As:OssAl:::Os:szO:ezOOesA:AAґeV::OssAl:OeґlAsV:Ase:¦sOAsV:HAseVA:(2 н% polishers of diamonds. ssAAVseOV:sH:sAlґsssV:™2 ( aThe middle ages also saw a shift in diamond history - where previously diamonds were valued based —se:ґAssAe:lseV:lAVs:Vl¦:l:VsAHA:As:sAlґsss:sAVAsOsH:¦seOe:sOesAszVAs:sAlґsssV:¦eOe:slAzes:slVes:—2 ) `on their mythical powers, they began to be valued more for their overall worth. As more people ss:AseAO:ґsAsAelA:ss¦eOV::Ases:sesls:As:se:slAzes:ґsOe:HsO:AseAO:sseOlAA:¦sOAs:::¦V:ґsOe:sessAe:™2 * alearned of the incredible value of diamonds, mine owners began circulating stories that diamonds AelOses:sH:Ase:AseOesAsAe:slAze:sH:sAlґsssV::ґAse:s¦seOV:sesls:eAOezAlAAss:VAsOAeV:AslA:sAlґsssV:–2 + _were poisonous, to prevent the workers from swallowing diamonds as a means to smuggle them out ¦eOe:ssAVssszV::As:sOesesA:Ase:¦sOzeOV:HOsґ:V¦lAAs¦Ass:sAlґsssV:lV:l:ґelsV:As:VґzssAe:Aseґ:szA:+2 ), of the mines undetected. sH:Ase:ґAseV:zsseAeeAes:‘2 =. Also during this period of diamond history, people wanted diamonds more than any other time ¦AVs:szOAss:AsAV:seOAss:sH:sAlґsss:sAVAsOs::sessAe:¦lsAes:sAlґsssV:ґsOe:Asls:lss:sAseO:AAґe:™2 G/ aperiod previously, mostly because they recognized their power and worth. India's diamond supply seOAss:sOesAszVAs::ґsVAAs:seelzVe:Ases:OeesssAees:AseAO:ss¦eO:lss:¦sOAs:::OssAl$V:sAlґsss:VzssAs:‹2 Q0 Xwas dwindling and was unable to meet demands of diamond buyers. South Africa's find of ¦lV:s¦AssAAss:lss:¦lV:zslsAe:As:ґeeA:seґlssV:sH:sAlґsss:szseOV:::‚szAs:¦HOAel$V:HAss:sH:”2 [1 ^diamonds near the Orange River began the world's largest diamond rush of diamond history, and sAlґsssV:selO:Ase:­Olsse:ћAseO:sesls:Ase:¦sOAs$V:AlOseVA:sAlґsss:OzVs:sH:sAlґsss:sAVAsOs::lss:l2 e2 Chelped satisfy the demands of those wanting diamonds for themselvesseAses:VlAAVHs:Ase:seґlssV:sH:AssVe:¦lsAAss:sAlґsssV:HsO:AseґVeAseV 2 e2ѕ.:-2 €4 More RecentlyВz^l:ђlllzAAl-Ќ2 Ґ6 YDiamond history began to spread into eastern Australia sometime during the middle of the ­Alґsss:sAVAsOs:sesls:As:VsOels:AsAs:elVAeOs:¦zVAOlAAl:VsґeAAґe:szOAss:Ase:ґAssAe:sH:Ase:—2 Ї7 `nineteenth century. During the late 1970's, Australia as a diamond producer became validated. sAseAeesAs:eesAzOs:::­zOAss:Ase:AlAe:zzzz$V::¦zVAOlAAl:lV:l:sAlґsss:sOsszeeO:seelґe:slAAslAes:::602Text 20016 [^`ся^Normal1$95678XT9;>*B*CJH*@€OJQJmH nH >`> Heading 1 ¤р¤<5CJ OJQJ@`@ Heading 2 ¤р¤<56CJOJQJ>`> Heading 3 ¤р¤<5CJOJQJ>A`тяЎ>Default Paragraph Font”юo”Bulleted Listh & Fя>ЖTяа·„а„ ю”юo”Numbered Listh &Fя>ЖTа„а„ юв"яяяяДДвввGђTimes New Roman3ђArial5ђSymbol7ђVerdana"ЊРh!0[ъWT602_WINTEXT_DOCUMENT0юkSoftware6025803-S500-0E17”ґlTКBke0ю”ґldК‚~e0””¤ґАБЙХЭейw“_…‰ЎХхOЏЛa•`ёь„ а=Р/ Times New RomanArial0SymbolVerdanaяяяя 'Jяя яяяяяяяяяяѓЂ<‡ЂѓЂДяя яяяяяя яяяя ю яяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяя$$||ТlNormalТl Heading 3Тl Heading 2Тl Heading 18ТlH „я­ц„я­цInLink 0w. c8Тl( dя­цdя­цonds/history. htmlТl$HBulleted ListТl$%sТl$Numbered Listяяяя<яяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяияяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяДяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяя}и|яяяяяяя ѓ‡я а юа юр<р<р<°dђ hяяЂ яяя яя#яяяяяяяя Gчяяяядяяяl°яяяфpяя ІJяяhяя іJяядяяя„яя (@яяяL8яя °яяяђяяяь ІJяяИяяяяя ±Jяядяяя0яя ИFяяяяя†ђяяядяяяяя 8bяяядяяяяя XJяяядяяяшяя иBяяяЊ”юFчяя°яяя”юяяяяряяяяяя и@яяядяяяЊяя 8_яяяTяя ђяяядяяяtяяяяя PяяяTяяяяа©Jяя¬яяяяяЭ8^яяяtяяядяяяяя 0яяя¬яяяяяяя™`­JяяадяяяяяяяЁBяяяиюяяяяЁAяяядяяя?эяяяяЌ ІJяяґэяяяяйh? яяя|эяядяяяяя h>яяяРэяямэяяяя а­Jяяиюяяэяяяяяя¶?Dяяяюяяяя ­ Jяядяяя яяяяя3Fяяяяяяяяяяяяяа·яяаияяЗDiamond HistoryDiamond history varies greatly depending on your source of documentation, as diamond history is as rich in myths and folklore as it is in physical facts and records. Diamond history is one filled with mythical stories, such as one where snakes guarded a land full of diamonds, and the history has fascinated people with the romance and beauty that surrounds our most precious gemstones; diamonds. Early Diamond HistoryAround 3,000 years ago, in the country of India, the first ever diamond history was recorded. If diamonds had been found prior to this period of time, we have no written record of it Diamonds in this day and age were used for two main purposes, and is quite different from why we still love diamonds today. Diamonds stood as a talisman in order to fend off evil spirits, and to provide protection during battles, and they were also valued because of their ability to reflect the light. Dark Ages of Diamond HistoryIt is during the dark ages that the diamond history moved into having some sort of medical purpose. St Hildegarde was said to have written an anecdote to heal wounds and cure illnesses that instructed the sick to hold a diamond in their hand and make the sign of the cross. Some people in diamond history went as far as swallowing diamonds, hoping it would cure their illnesses magically. Middle Ages of Diamond HistoryIt was during the middle ages that diamonds began to gain popularity. It is this point in diamond history that many of the famous diamonds were discovered, including the Blue Hope, and the mountain of light, both found in India. In our current times, India remains the worlds finest polishers of diamonds. The middle ages also saw a shift in diamond history - where previously diamonds were valued based on their mythical powers, they began to be valued more for their overall worth. As more people learned of the incredible value of diamonds, mine owners began circulating stories that diamonds were poisonous, to prevent the workers from swallowing diamonds as a means to smuggle them out of the mines undetected. Also during this period of diamond history, people wanted diamonds more than any other time period previously, mostly because they recognized their power and worth. India's diamond supply was dwindling and was unable to meet demands of diamond buyers. South Africa's find of diamonds near the Orange River began the world's largest diamond rush of diamond history, and helped satisfy the demands of those wanting diamonds for themselves. More RecentlyDiamond history began to spread into eastern Australia sometime during the middle of the nineteenth century. During the late 1970's, Australia as a diamond producer became validated. Also in the late 1970's, 1979 to be exact, the Argyle pipe near Lake Argyle was discovered by geologists. Since that day, Argyle has become the absolute largest producer of diamonds in all the world and throughout diamond history, and produces over one third of the diamond volume each year. яяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяD}яяяяР а юа юр<р<р<°dђ hяяЂ яяя

Jewelry lab certificates and appraisals

РПаЎ±б>юя юяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяэяяяюяяяюяяяюяяя яяяяяяяя- !"#$%&'()*+,юяяя./012юяяя456789:юяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяRoot Entryяяяяяяяя АF3 ѓTыЕЂCompObjяяяяяяяяяяяяjObjectPoolяяяярх‚TыЕрх‚TыЕWordDocumentяяяяяяяя0юяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяюя яяяя АFdokument Microsoft Word MSWordDocWord. Document.8ф9Іq [^`ся^Normal1$95678XT9;>*B*CJH*@€OJQJmH nH >`> Heading 1 ¤р¤<5CJ OJQJ@`@ Heading 2 ¤р¤<56CJOJQJ>`> Heading 3 ¤р¤<5CJOJQJЌ яяяяЌЌЌData яяяяяяяяяяяяюяяя0Tableяяяя3SummaryInformation(яяяяяяяяяяяям'яяяяяяяяяяяямҐБY фї@@ T»T»Ќяяяяяя]6666666JJJJJVJЂbfjjjjjjjjjjяфуjу6jjjjjjj66jjbjjjj6j6jjяJJ6666jjjjj66Jjjb жу‚TыЕJJjjJewelry Lab Certificates and AppraisalsThe Difference Between Jewelry Lab Certificates and AppraisalsMost people have both jewelry lab certificates and appraisals for their valuable jewelry, but the two documents are not one in the same. They serve different purposes and contain a different set of information that is helpful to jewelry owners, as well as to people who are looking for new jewelry to purchase.Jewelry lab certificates and appraisals often go hand in hand, but the lab certificate is a document that describes information about an unmounted gem stone, like a diamond that has not been set into any piece of jewelry, while the appraisal provides detailed information on the market value of a piece of jewelry, whether it is unmounted or already set as a ring, earrings, or necklace for example.Choosing Labs and AppraisalsWhen selecting jewelry lab certificates and appraisals on jewelry that you are considering to purchase, it is best to select an independent company that provides these documents rather than rely on the documents created by the company that you are planning to buy your jewelry from. Otherwise, you face the potential for the lab or appraiser to be biased, since they will benefit from the sale of jewelry.If you already have jewelry lab certificates and appraisals on your existing jewelry, but are unsure of their accuracy, it may be worthwhile to have your items appraised again to see what their current market value is.Jewelry Lab CertificatesJewelry lab certificates are written reports that detail unmounted gemstones rather than completed pieces of jewelry. The certificates include information about the diamonds (or other gemstone) cut and shape, as well as the stone's color and clarity grades as decided by the Gemological Institute of America (GIA). Lab certificates contain specifics about the carat weight as well as the dimensions of the diamond, taking into account the stone's angles. Once the lab certificate is drawn up, it should not change unless the stone is physically altered or it is found at a later date that the gem stone was evaluated incorrectly the first time.Jewelry AppraisalsThe entire reason people obtain jewelry lab certificates and appraisals is to document the dollar value of the diamond, whether it is for personal investment purposes, or in order to have a physical record of the gem stone for insurance purposes. It is also great documentation to have if you ever decide to sell your jewelry at a future date, or pass it down to family members. It is wise to have your existing valuable jewelry appraised in case it is stolen, or in the event you go through a divorce or estate settlement. Before purchasing a new piece of jewelry you can also get it appraised to get a good idea what the market value is on the piece before shelling out large amounts of money to pay for it if it isn't worth the amount of money they are asking for the piece.PRРТBDd f ў РТ€ЉјѕTVТФъьшъэыщчхуспнлйзег6Ѓ6Ѓ6Ѓ6Ѓ6Ѓ6Ѓ6Ѓ6Ѓ6Ѓ6Ѓ6Ѓ6Ѓ5Ѓ5ЃPRРТBDd f ў РТ€ЉјѕTVТФъьшэыщчхуспнлйзегбЯЭЫЩЧХУСП!° "° 0%°°°Root Entryяяяяяяяя АF°№ ѓTыЕЂCompObjяяяяяяяяjObjectPoolяяяярх‚TыЕрх‚TыЕWordDocumentяяяяяяяя0яяяяяяяяюяяяюяяяяяяя ;эяяя- !"#$%&'()*+,юяяя./012юяяя456789:юяяяюяяя=>?@ABCDEFGюяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяя@ E>:ЈъЕ@p‘еыЕфtGд%яяяяVTLYюяа…џтщOh«‘+'іЩа…џтщOh«‘+'іЩ0ј'ИРЬиь 4 @LXdpxЂ€t'ђ'?'¤'¬'ґ'дUSERUSER2@@@ E>:ЈъЕ@p‘еыЕфtGд%яяяяVTLY кЁ 2Р/. ы јTimes New Roman[ФфwdФфw0- B2 x 'Jewelry Lab Certificates and AppraisalsmzlћlAls:ћs‚:­llOAOAlsOl^:s‚‚:¦‚‚lsA^sA^ыђTimes New Roman[ФфwdФфw0-d2 Њ >The Difference Between Jewelry Lab Certificates and Appraisals‚zl:­AAAl^lzll:ђlA—llz:ll—lA^l:‚zz:ћl^AAAAlzAl^:zzz:ђzz^zA^zA^ы ђTimes New Roman[ФфwdФфw0- 2 © fMost people have both jewelry lab certificates and appraisals for their valuable jewelry, but the two СsVA:sessAe:slse:ssAs:Ae¦eAOs:Als:eeOAAHAelAeV:lss:lssOlAVlAV:HsO:AseAO:slAzlsAe:Ae¦eAOs::szA:Ase:A¦s:™2 і adocuments are not one in the same. They serve different purposes and contain a different set of ssezґesAV:lOe:ssA:sse:As:Ase:Vlґe:::—ses:VeOse:sAHHeOesA:szOssVeV:lss:essAlAs:l:sAHHeOesA:VeA:sH:ќ2 Ѕ dinformation that is helpful to jewelry owners, as well as to people who are looking for new jewelry AsHsOґlAAss:AslA:AV:seAsHzA:As:Ae¦eAOs:s¦seOV::lV:¦eAA:lV:As:sessAe:¦ss:lOe:AsszAss:HsO:se¦:Ae¦eAOs:2 З to purchase. As:szOeslVe:--џ2 г eJewelry lab certificates and appraisals often go hand in hand, but the lab certificate is a document ^e¦eAOs:Als:eeOAAHAelAeV:lss:lssOlAVlAV:sHAes:ss:slss:As:slss::szA:Ase:Als:eeOAAHAelAe:AV:l:ssezґesA:њ2 н cthat describes information about an unmounted gem stone, like a diamond that has not been set into tAslA:seVeOAseV:AsHsOґlAAss:lsszA:ls:zsґszsAes:seґ:VAsse::AAze:l:sAlґsss:AslA:slV:ssA:sees:VeA:AsAs:™2 ч aany piece of jewelry, while the appraisal provides detailed information on the market value of a lss:sAeee:sH:Ae¦eAOs::¦sAAe:Ase:lssOlAVlA:sOssAseV:seAlAAes:AsHsOґlAAss:ss:Ase:ґlOzeA:slAze:sH:l:s2 Hpiece of jewelry, whether it is unmounted or already set as a ring, earrsAeee:sH:Ae¦eAOs::¦seAseO:AA:AV:zsґszsAes:sO:lAOelss:VeA:lV:l:OAss::elOO42 хings, or necklace for example. AssV::sO:seezAlee:HsO:eslґsAe:-12 $ Choosing Labs and Appraisalsћzzz^Azz:‚zz^:zzz:ђzz^zA^zA^-”2 A ^When selecting jewelry lab certificates and appraisals on jewelry that you are considering to Яses:VeAeeAAss:Ae¦eAOs:Als:eeOAAHAelAeV:lss:lssOlAVlAV:ss:Ae¦eAOs:AslA:ssz:lOe:essVAseOAss:As:џ2 K epurchase, it is best to select an independent company that provides these documents rather than rely szOeslVe::AA:AV:seVA:As:VeAeeA:ls:AssesessesA:esґslss:AslA:sOssAseV:AseVe:ssezґesAV:OlAseO:Asls:OeAs:Ќ2 U Yon the documents created by the company that you are planning to buy your jewelry from. ss:Ase:ssezґesAV:eOelAes:ss:Ase:esґslss:AslA:ssz:lOe:sAlssAss:As:szs:sszO:Ae¦eAOs:HOsґ::: 2 _ fOtherwise, you face the potential for the lab or appraiser to be biased, since they will benefit from ­AseO¦AVe::ssz:Hlee:Ase:ssAesAAlA:HsO:Ase:Als:sO:lssOlAVeO:As:se:sAlVes::VAsee:Ases:¦AAA:seseHAA:HOsґ:%2 i the sale of jewelry. Ase:VlAe:sH:Ae¦eAOs:џ2 } eIf you already have jewelry lab certificates and appraisals on your existing jewelry, but are unsure OH:ssz:lAOelss:slse:Ae¦eAOs:Als:eeOAAHAelAeV:lss:lssOlAVlAV:ss:sszO:esAVAAss:Ae¦eAOs::szA:lOe:zsVzOe:џ2 ‡ eof their accuracy, it may be worthwhile to have your items appraised again to see what their current sH:AseAO:leezOles::AA:ґls:se:¦sOAs¦sAAe:As:slse:sszO:AAeґV:lssOlAVes:lslAs:As:Vee:¦slA:AseAO:ezOOesA:2 ‘ market value is. ґlOzeA:slAze:AV:-+2 ґ! Jewelry Lab Certificatesll—lA^l:‚zz:ћl^AAAAlzAl^-њ2 С# cJewelry lab certificates are written reports that detail unmounted gemstones rather than completed t^e¦eAOs:Als:eeOAAHAelAeV:lOe:¦OAAAes:OessOAV:AslA:seAlAA:zsґszsAes:seґVAsseV:OlAseO:Asls:esґsAeAes:ќ2 Ы$ dpieces of jewelry. The certificates include information about the diamonds (or other gemstone) cut sAeeeV:sH:Ae¦eAOs:::—se:eeOAAHAelAeV:AseAzse:AsHsOґlAAss:lsszA:Ase:sAlґsssV:OsO:sAseO:seґVAsseO:ezA: 2 е% fand shape, as well as the stone's color and clarity grades as decided by the Gemological Institute of lss:Vslse::lV:¦eAA:lV:Ase:VAsse$V:esAsO:lss:eAlOAAs:sOlseV:lV:seeAses:ss:Ase:­eґsAssAelA:OsVAAAzAe:sH:ќ2 п& dAmerica (GIA). Lab certificates contain specifics about the carat weight as well as the dimensions ¦ґeOAel:O­O¦O:::ђls:eeOAAHAelAeV:essAlAs:VseeAHAeV:lsszA:Ase:elOlA:¦eAssA:lV:¦eAA:lV:Ase:sAґesVAssV:]2 щ' 9of the diamond, taking into account the stone's angles. sH:Ase:sAlґsss::AlzAss:AsAs:leeszsA:Ase:VAsse$V:lssAeV:::Ё2 * kOnce the lab certificate is drawn up, it should not change unless the stone is physically altered or it is ­see:Ase:Als:eeOAAHAelAe:AV:sOl¦s:zs::AA:VsszAs:ssA:eslsse:zsAeVV:Ase:VAsse:AV:sssVAelAAs:lAAeOes:sO:AA:AV:‚2 + Rfound at a later date that the gem stone was evaluated incorrectly the first time. Hszss:lA:l:AlAeO:slAe:AslA:Ase:seґ:VAsse:¦lV:eslAzlAes:AsesOOeeAAs:Ase:HAOVA:AAґe:-"2 :- Jewelry Appraisalsll—lA^l:ђzz^zA^zA^-љ2 W/ bThe entire reason people obtain jewelry lab certificates and appraisals is to document the dollar —se:esAAOe:OelVss:sessAe:ssAlAs:Ae¦eAOs:Als:eeOAAHAelAeV:lss:lssOlAVlAV:AV:As:ssezґesA:Ase:ssAAlO:џ2 a0 evalue of the diamond, whether it is for personal investment purposes, or in order to have a physical slAze:sH:Ase:sAlґsss::¦seAseO:AA:AV:HsO:seOVsslA:AsseVAґesA:szOssVeV::sO:As:sOseO:As:slse:l:sssVAelA:ќ2 k1 drecord of the gem stone for insurance purposes. It is also great documentation to have if you ever OeesOs:sH:Ase:seґ:VAsse:HsO:AsVzOlsee:szOssVeV:::OA:AV:lAVs:sOelA:ssezґesAlAAss:As:slse:AH:ssz:eseO:‚2 u2 Rdecide to sell your jewelry at a future date, or pass it down to family members. seeAse:As:VeAA:sszO:Ae¦eAOs:lA:l:HzAzOe:slAe::sO:slVV:AA:ss¦s:As:HlґAAs:ґeґseOV:::Ґ2 ‰4 iIt is wise to have your existing valuable jewelry appraised in case it is stolen, or in the event you go OA:AV:¦AVe:As:slse:sszO:esAVAAss:slAzlsAe:Ae¦eAOs:lssOlAVes:As:elVe:AA:AV:VAsAes::sO:As:Ase:esesA:ssz:ss: 2 “5 fthrough a divorce or estate settlement. Before purchasing a new piece of jewelry you can also get it AsOszss:l:sAssOee:sO:eVAlAe:VeAAAeґesA:::ћeHsOe:szOeslVAss:l:se¦:sAeee:sH:Ae¦eAOs:ssz:els:lAVs:seA:AA:џ2 ќ6 eappraised to get a good idea what the market value is on the piece before shelling out large amounts lssOlAVes:As:seA:l:ssss:Asel:¦slA:Ase:ґlOzeA:slAze:AV:ss:Ase:sAeee:seHsOe:VseAAAss:szA:AlOse:lґszsAV:Ћ2 §7 Zof money to pay for it if it isn't worth the amount of money they are asking for the piecesH:ґsses:As:sls:HsO:AA:AH:AA:AVs$A:¦sOAs:Ase:lґszsA:sH:ґsses:Ases:lOe:lVzAss:HsO:Ase:sAeee 2 §7_%.я:602Text 20010 [^`ся^Normal1$95678XT9;>*B*CJH*@€OJQJmH nH >`> Heading 1 ¤р¤<5CJ OJQJ@`@ Heading 2 ¤р¤<56CJOJQJ>`> Heading 3 ¤р¤<5CJOJQJЌ яяяяЌЌЌGђTimes New Roman3ђArial"ЊРh!0[Data яяяяяяяяяяяяюяяя0Tableяяяя3SummaryInformation(яяяяяяяяяяяям'CONTENTSяяяяяяяяяяяя<ЙЙWT602_WINTEXT_DOCUMENT0юkSoftware6025803-S500-0E17”ґlTКBke0ю”ґldК‚~e0””¤ґАБЙХЭей3OЫҐЕУхПу5 ­IS а=Р/ Times New RomanArial0яяяя8УJяя яяяяяяяяяяѓЂ<‡ЂяяѓЂяя ю яяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяя| яяяяяяяяТlNormalТl Heading 3Тl Heading 2Тl Heading 1яяяя<яяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяярЏJи|яяяяяя ѓ‡я р<р<р<°dђ hяяЂяяяяяяя#яяяя"чяяяядяяяШ «JяяјяяаЁJяядяяяяя > ©Jяяяя ±Jяядяяяяяq ІJяяаяя ЄJяядяяяаяя `ЄJяяшяя `іJяядяяяяя аіJяядяяяДяя ґJяяаяя `¬Jяядяяяаяя ¬JяяаTяяяя`®Jяя яяяяя ІJяя яяяяя– ЄJяя¬яяяPяяяяЋа¬Jяя<яяяяяКа©Jяядяяяяяяя ¬Jяядяяя яяяяяяяЅ ґJяя яяяяя `­Jяядяяя яяяяя} ­ Jяямэяяяя ±Jяядяяямэяяяя7`±JяямэяяиюяяяяаІJяяиюяяяяяяаЇJяядяяяюяяяяяяЪ іJяя(эяяDэяяяя' µJяя°юяярь! чяя`µJяяяяяяяяяяtJewelry Lab Certificates and AppraisalsThe Difference Between Jewelry Lab Certificates and AppraisalsMost people have both jewelry lab certificates and appraisals for their valuable jewelry, but the two documents are not one in the same. They serve different purposes and contain a different set of information that is helpful to jewelry owners, as well as to people who are looking for new jewelry to purchase. Jewelry lab certificates and appraisals often go hand in hand, but the lab certificate is a document that describes information about an unmounted gem stone, like a diamond that has not been set into any piece of jewelry, while the appraisal provides detailed information on the market value of a piece of jewelry, whether it is unmounted or already set as a ring, earrings, or necklace for example. Choosing Labs and AppraisalsWhen selecting jewelry lab certificates and appraisals on jewelry that you are considering to purchase, it is best to select an independent company that provides these documents rather than rely on the documents created by the company that you are planning to buy your jewelry from. Otherwise, you face the potential for the lab or appraiser to be biased, since they will benefit from the sale of jewelry. If you already have jewelry lab certificates and appraisals on your existing jewelry, but are unsure of their accuracy, it may be worthwhile to have your items appraised again to see what their current market value is. Jewelry Lab CertificatesJewelry lab certificates are written reports that detail unmounted gemstones rather than completed pieces of jewelry. The certificates include information about the diamonds (or other gemstone) cut and shape, as well as the stone's color and clarity grades as decided by the Gemological Institute of America (GIA). Lab certificates contain specifics about the carat weight as well as the dimensions of the diamond, taking into account the stone's angles. Once the lab certificate is drawn up, it should not change unless the stone is physically altered or it is found at a later date that the gem stone was evaluated incorrectly the first time. Jewelry AppraisalsThe entire reason people obtain jewelry lab certificates and appraisals is to document the dollar value of the diamond, whether it is for personal investment purposes, or in order to have a physical record of the gem stone for insurance purposes. It is also great documentation to have if you ever decide to sell your jewelry at a future date, or pass it down to family members. It is wise to have your existing valuable jewelry appraised in case it is stolen, or in the event you go through a divorce or estate settlement. Before purchasing a new piece of jewelry you can also get it appraised to get a good idea what the market value is on the piece before shelling out large amounts of money to pay for it if it isn't worth the amount of money they are asking for the piece. яяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяDJяяђJяяяяРр<р<р<°dђ hяяЂяяя

16 certified

РПаЎ±б>юя %'юяяя$яяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяямҐБ` рї}bjbjЛsЛs .©©}яяяяяя¤???????¬4444@¬Т ¶XXXXXkkkQ S S S S S S $€ hр–w ?kgkkkw ??XXЊ щщщk:?X?XQ щkQ щщ??щXL@8ь6Д®Ж4ҐщQ ў 0Т щ†»†щщ†?Dkkщkkkkkw w Л.kkkТ kkkk¬¬¬дђ¤¬¬¬ђ¬¬¬??????яяяя16 Certified diamond Diamond certification is essential when you're buying a diamond and is different from a jeweler’s appraisal, although the certification is part of any appraisal. Many diamonds look the same, but not all of them are going to be of the quality you might like. Diamond certification is the written proof of a diamond's attributes. Without it, you have no assurance that the diamond you are buying is of the quality you're paying for. With it, you know the precise grading for each of the 4Cs – color, cut, clarity and carat weight, and, therefore, the diamond value. Certification gives you the information you need to assess a diamond's value compared to other diamonds. It also allows you to make an intelligent comparison with other diamonds either in the same jewelry store or in another. Diamond certificates are issued by independent gemological laboratories, not your jeweler. There are several grading laboratories, the most prominent being: the International Gemological Institute (IGI); the Gemological Institute of America (GIA); the American Gem Society (AGS); the European Gemological Laboratories (EGL) and GemEx Systems.

When you buy a diamond, be sure to question the sales associate first about the characteristics or attributes of the stone. Ask to see the diamond certification that will accompany the diamond when you purchase it. If you do some comparison shopping, you will note that the quality of the diamonds each jeweler carries varies depending on the store. A diamond certification will also give you indicators about other diamond qualities, such as fire, brilliance and scintillation, also called Return of Light. These qualities refer to how light is refracted back to the viewer when held stationary or when in motion.

The certification will also give you a measure of the stones fluorescence. These factors also impact the beauty and brilliance of your diamond.6·ё№ХЩ ; H € — і П э U‡Чч„@{|}ьхокококововоШьоШококоькоФh|hЛVШhЛVШ0J5ЃhЛVШhЛVШЃhЁ?^hЛVШhЛVШhЛVШhMlЦhЛVШK -…г|}ъхххххъgdЛVШgd9`}э,1ђh°Р/ °а=!°"°#ђ $ђ %°°Р°РђР†њ@@ся@NormalCJ_HaJmH sH tH N2NЛVШ Heading 3¤d¤d@&[$$5ЃCJЃaJDA@тяЎDDefault Paragraph FontRiуяіRTable Normalц4Ц l4Цaц(kфяБ(No List*W@ўс*ЛVШStrong5ЃЃB^@BЛVШNormal (Web)¤d¤d[$$4Uў4ЛVШ Hyperlink >*phя}яяяяK-…г|?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂK-…

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7 gem cutting

РПаЎ±б>юя %'юяяя$яяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяямҐБ` рїЫbjbjЛsЛs .©©Ыяяяяяя¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤ёььььёю¶ 333}$ґh–Ј¤3/333Ј¤¤ ёННН3"¤ ¤ }Н3}НН¤¤Н @d/VГ®ЖьUН}О0юНІk4ІНІ¤Н°33Н33333ЈЈџ.333ю3333ёёёDьёёёьёёё¤¤¤¤¤¤яяяя7 Gem cutting – how it has changed over the years (50% of the original rough diamond is lost during the cutting of a round brilliant gem)How does a lump of mineral or crystal become a dazzling diamond, ruby or sapphire? It’s an amazing process called gem cutting or lapidary and makes all the difference in the final value of the stone. It was developed first in Venice in the early 1300’s and was seen in Paris and Bruges in the mid-1400s. Good cutting is a precise art that catches the light just so, and captures the beauty of the gem. Poor cutting destroys it. Most gems start out actually being sawed with a special lapidary saw into a rough shape, such as square, round, pear or marquise.

It’s then ground with a diamond-infused wheel to further refine the shape. The gem cutter uses a series of finer and finer abrasives to get closer to the clear heart of the gem. Cabochon gems are polished to a smooth overall surface, sometimes held by hand, but more often fixed or “dopped” with wax or adhesive to a dowel to hold it while the lapidarist polishes the stone. Transparent stones are most often faceted, a process where flat planes of the stone are cut and polished over the surface in a precise, symmetrical pattern. It’s critical that the planes match up perfectly, or the beauty of how the light is captured by the facets will be lost. If a stone is cut to flat or not polished, the brilliance of the gem will also be lost. When a stone is properly faceted, it captures the light so it bounces around inside the stone, giving it the sparkle we love and that helps determine the value of the gem. If the stone is cut too flat, or the facets don’t meet precisely, the light doesn’t bounce off the angles in the facets to maximum effect. ЉS є ЎШЩЪЫьшфшршмиh”1]h™hпdљh™Wэhњjкh Љ‹7 8 12IЩЪЫъъъъъъъъххgd9`gd Ыэ,1ђh°Р/ °а=!°"°#ђ $ђ %°°Р°РђР†њ@@ся@NormalCJ_HaJmH sH tH DAтяЎDDefault Paragraph FontRiуяіRTable Normalц4Ц l4Цaц(kфяБ(No ListЫяяяяЉ‹7812IЩЪЭ?0ЂЂ?@0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?@0ЂЂ?@0ЂЂ?@0ЂЂ?@0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂЫЫ Ы рlрр,bр$И¶їд ›ЪашЯ»е‘яXяяяя@сяяяЂЂЂчр’рр0р( р ррB рSрїЛя ?рЫХЫЭMЪЭSєШЪЪЭ‹7ЎШЪЪЭ&е%<9`w і ЇK ЏQшeH')7V,Л8DК3Q«&Rz+[u[”1]П^wrђ{AW…™пdљС4ҐA*±`t±R6ё‹БUWУFxЦ¬ЧЧjЧlЯ2yйњjкЏс~ц™Wэ7яя@Ђ(‡ЫP@яяUnknownяяяяяяяяяяяяGђ‡z ЂяTimes New Roman5ђЂSymbol3&ђ‡z ЂяArial"q€рРhqЅ§qЅ§ЦЦ!р ґґЃЃ4dШШ2ѓQрHX ря?дяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяя¬Ч2яя2 Minerals are crystalsGABRIELLE ROSE BENNETT Tim Erwayюяа…џтщOh«‘+'іЩ0ђђ?ёДдрь , LXdpxЂ€д2 Minerals are crystalsGABRIELLE ROSE BENNETTNormalTim Erway2Microsoft Office Word@FГ#@SUГ®Ж@SUГ®ЖЦюяХНХњ.“—+,щ®0 hpњ¤¬ґјДМФЬд$COMPASS ROSE CREATIVE DIRECTIONSШЁ2 Minerals are crystalsTitle юяяяюяяяюяяя !"#юяяяэяяя&юяяяюяяяюяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяRoot Entryяяяяяяяя АF :VГ®Ж(Ђ1TableяяяяяяяяWordDocumentяяяяяяяя.SummaryInformation(яяяяDocumentSummaryInformation8яяяяяяяяяяяяCompObjяяяяяяяяяяяяqяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяюяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяюя яяяя АFMicrosoft Office Word Document MSWordDocWord. Document.8ф9Іq

About diamond weights 204

About Diamond Weights Diamonds are measured in Carat Weight. One carat weighs 200 milligrams. If a diamond is referred to as four grains, this also means that it is a one carat diamond. The word Carat comes from the word carob. A carob is a bean that grows on a tree in the Mediterranean. In times past, if a diamond weighed the same as a carob bean, it was one carob, or one carat. However, in the far east, where Carob trees do not grow, rice was used to measure the weight of a diamond. If a diamond weighed as much as four grains of rice, it was four grains – or one carat as we know it to be now. The majority of diamond purchases are for diamonds that are 1/3 of a carat. Beware when shopping for diamonds that are already set or mounted. If more than one diamond is used in the piece, the tag on the jewelry will give the CTW or Carat Total Weight – it does not tell you the carat weight of each stone in the piece. You need to ask the jeweler for the total carat weight of the largest diamond in the piece to truly understand what you are buying. (word count 204)

15 clarity

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In most cases, there is nothing that can be done about flaws or inclusions, although in recent years lasers have been used to enhance some inclusions or fractures in diamonds by filling them in, much the way small dings in a windshield are filled in. Certainly the most highly valued diamonds are those that are flawless – FL - or internally flawless – IF. But excellent values can be obtained at the VVS and VS grades, as these are flaws not visible to the naked eye, but only to an experienced grader under magnification. ±а$ 4 5 нсъДЕЖьшфрмрфрмрмрмрhMlЦh|h@yяhЊЭh_C5 6 V W Ы Ь ¶··ёіґЖъъъъъъъъъъъъъъъъъgd9`Жэ,1ђh°Р/ °а=!°"°#ђ $ђ %°°Р°РђР†њ@@ся@NormalCJ_HaJmH sH tH DAтяЎDDefault Paragraph FontRiуяіRTable Normalц4Ц l4Цaц(kфяБ(No ListЖяяяя56VWЫЬ¶··ёіґИ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂЬ¶·ИK€0 (I€0I€0?0ЂЂЂI€00ЂK€00ЂЖЖ Ж рlрр,bр$И¶їд ›ЪашЯ»е‘яXяяяя@сяяяЂЂЂчр’рр0р( р ррB рSрїЛя ?рЖщэ!"+И цыИ33а$¶ЕИ5ІґнсъИGеFµEЭa<9`w і ЇK /_CЏQ|KmuIшeг`i#H')7V,ыfBЛ8DК3Q«&RzmUoUz+[u[”1]П^5dµj Gnwrђ{6‚AW…N*™™пdљCћЯџЂ:ЎС4Ґ”Z§fQ©A*±`t±»¶R6ёnTѕ‹БюyЗUWУMlЦFxЦ¬ЧЧjЧЊЭЛ7а2yйњjкДWлб>пссЏс? с~цп+э™Wэ7я@yяя@ЂHг•ЖP@яяUnknownяяяяяяяяяяяяGђ‡z ЂяTimes New Roman5ђЂSymbol3&ђ‡z ЂяArial"1€рРhwЅ§wЅ§ДД!р ґґЃЃ24dГГ2ѓQрHX ря?дяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяя¬Ч2яя2 Minerals are crystalsGABRIELLE ROSE BENNETT Tim Erwayюяа…џтщOh«‘+'іЩ0ђђ?ёДдрь , LXdpxЂ€д2 Minerals are crystalsGABRIELLE ROSE BENNETTNormalTim Erway2Microsoft Office Word@FГ#@Іж+Д®Ж@Іж+Д®ЖДюяХНХњ.“—+,щ®0 hpњ¤¬ґјДМФЬд$COMPASS ROSE CREATIVE DIRECTIONSГЁ2 Minerals are crystalsTitle юяяяюяяяюяяя !"#юяяяэяяя&юяяяюяяяюяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяRoot Entryяяяяяяяя АFАF.0Д®Ж(Ђ1TableяяяяяяяяWordDocumentяяяяяяяя.SummaryInformation(яяяяDocumentSummaryInformation8яяяяяяяяяяяяCompObjяяяяяяяяяяяяqяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяюяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяюя яяяя АFMicrosoft Office Word Document MSWordDocWord. Document.8ф9Іq

Diamond flaws and inclusions

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Document.8ф9Іq [^`ся^Normal1$95678XT9;>*B*CJH*@€OJQJmH nH >`> Heading 1 ¤р¤<5CJ OJQJ@`@ Heading 2 ¤р¤<56CJOJQJ>`> Heading 3 ¤р¤<5CJOJQJР яяяя РРРData яяяяяяяяяяяяюяяя0Tableяяяя4SummaryInformation(яяяяяяяяяяяя®(яяяяяяяяяяяямҐБY фї @@ T»T»Ряяяяяя]6666666JJJJJVJЂbfjjjjjjjjjjяфуjу6jjjjjjj66jjbjjjj6j6jjяJJ6666jjjjj66Jjjb +LъЕJJjjDiamond Flaws and InclusionsInternal Diamond FlawsWhen a diamond is considered to have a flaw, it is an imperfect gem stone. Something about the diamond did not form correctly, or there are tiny imperfections within the stone. Diamond flaws and inclusions are often not noticeable to the average person, and you need not worry about the small inclusions that occur in most diamonds. There are actually only very few diamonds which can be labeled perfect , and if they are placed in the category of no diamond flaws and inclusions, chances are the diamond will be extremely expensive!There are some minor inclusions which cause a diamond to appear slightly dull. The inclusion within the diamond can affect the stone's clarity because as light passes through the stone, it is intercepted by the inclusion. Many of these flaws and inclusions can be reduced or fixed with the various forms of treatment processes that gemologists and jewelers have learned to do over the years.Other diamond flaws and inclusions may be large enough to cause weakness within the gem stone, and the stone could shatter or break much more easily than a stone without the weakness. These are the flaws you want to be careful with, since they reduce the value of your stone.Pinpoint InclusionsWhen a diamond has speckles of dark crystals in groups or scattered throughout the stone, it is said to havea form of diamond flaws and inclusions called pinpoint inclusions. If the dark crystals are all clustered together in the stone, the clarity of the diamond is effected, and it appears to have a cloud inside the stone. These types of diamond flaws and inclusions may cause the diamond to be worth less, as it greatly effects the appearance.Problems from Laser TreatmentsWhen an imperfect diamond is treated with lasers to remove dark diamond flaws and inclusions from within the gemstone, sometimes a line is left through the diamond that looks much like a thread. The laser line begins at the outer edge of the diamond, and moves inward to the area where the dark inclusion was treated by the laser. These diamond flaws and inclusions are unsightly and easily spotted by most people, making the diamond less desirable.Mineral and Crystal InclusionsWhile most diamond flaws and inclusions are negative, there are instances when the diamond flaws and inclusions are actually an eye catching aspect of your diamond! For example, diamonds typically have smaller crystals inside the diamond, often so tiny they cannot be seen without some sort of magnifying device. The clarity of the diamond can be effected by these crystals, if there are enough of them and if they are all grouped together in one area of the diamond. There are a few rare instances when another gem stone is actually inside a diamond, and could certainly not be seen as a diamond flaw or inclusion. For example, if you had a ruby or emerald that was surrounded by a diamond, you would see that as a special piece of jewelry- not a flawed one!:?@ABCDEFGHюяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяя@9BЁ»щЕ@№G¦&яяяяVTLYюяа…џтщOh«‘+'іЩа…џтщOh«‘+'іЩ0~(ИРЬиь 4 @LXdpxЂ€6(R(Z(f(n(v(дUSERUSER1@@@9BЁ»щЕ@№G¦&яяяяVTLY KЈ 2Р/. ы јTimes New Roman[ФфwdФфw0- 12 x Diamond Flaws and Inclusions­AsВz‚‚:ђAsћ^:s‚‚:^‚lA‚^Az‚^ыђTimes New Roman[ФфwdФфw0-(2 Њ Internal Diamond FlawsOzAl^zzA:­Az­zzz:‰Az—^ы ђTimes New Roman[ФфwdФфw0-—2 © `When a diamond is considered to have a flaw, it is an imperfect gem stone. Something about the Яses:l:sAlґsss:AV:essVAseOes:As:slse:l:HAl¦::AA:AV:ls:AґseOHeeA:seґ:VAsse:::‚sґeAsAss:lsszA:Ase:џ2 і ediamond did not form correctly, or there are tiny imperfections within the stone. 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These diamond flaws and inclusions are unsightly and Ase:slOz:AseAzVAss:¦lV:AOelAes:ss:Ase:AlVeO:::—seVe:sAlґsss:HAl¦V:lss:AseAzVAssV:lOe:zsVAssAAs:lss:i2 + Aeasily spotted by most people, making the diamond less desirable.elVAAs:VssAAes:ss:ґsVA:sessAe::ґlzAss:Ase:sAlґsss:AeVV:seVAOlsAe:-42 2- Mineral and Crystal InclusionsВAzl^zA:zzz:ћ^l^AzA:OzlAz^Azz^-™2 O/ aWhile most diamond flaws and inclusions are negative, there are instances when the diamond flaws ЯsAAe:ґsVA:sAlґsss:HAl¦V:lss:AseAzVAssV:lOe:seslAAse::AseOe:lOe:AsVAlseeV:¦ses:Ase:sAlґsss:HAl¦V:ђ2 Y0 [and inclusions are actually an eye catching aspect of your diamond! For example, diamonds lss:AseAzVAssV:lOe:leAzlAAs:ls:ese:elAesAss:lVseeA:sH:sszO:sAlґsssO::‚sO:eslґsAe::sAlґsssV:њ2 c1 ctypically have smaller crystals inside the diamond, often so tiny they cannot be seen without some AssAelAAs:slse:VґlAAeO:eOsVAlAV:AsVAse:Ase:sAlґsss::sHAes:Vs:AAss:Ases:elsssA:se:Vees:¦AAsszA:Vsґe:ў2 m2 gsort of magnifying device. The clarity of the diamond can be effected by these crystals, if there are VsOA:sH:ґlssAHsAss:sesAee:::—se:eAlOAAs:sH:Ase:sAlґsss:els:se:eHHeeAes:ss:AseVe:eOsVAlAV::AH:AseOe:lOe:Ѓ2 w3 Qenough of them and if they are all grouped together in one area of the diamond. esszss:sH:Aseґ:lss:AH:Ases:lOe:lAA:sOszses:AsseAseO:As:sse:lOel:sH:Ase:sAlґsss:::”2 ‹5 ^There are a few rare instances when another gem stone is actually inside a diamond, and could —seOe:lOe:l:He¦:OlOe:AsVAlseeV:¦ses:lssAseO:seґ:VAsse:AV:leAzlAAs:AsVAse:l:sAlґsss::lss:eszAs: 2 •6 fcertainly not be seen as a diamond flaw or inclusion. 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Something about the diamond did not form correctly, or there are tiny imperfections within the stone. Diamond flaws and inclusions are often not noticeable to the average person, and you need not worry about the small inclusions that occur in most diamonds. There are actually only very few diamonds which can be labeled “perfect”, and if they are placed in the category of no diamond flaws and inclusions, chances are the diamond will be extremely expensive! There are some minor inclusions which cause a diamond to appear slightly dull. The inclusion within the diamond can affect the stone's clarity because as light passes through the stone, it is intercepted by the inclusion. Many of these flaws and inclusions can be reduced or fixed with the various forms of treatment processes that gemologists and jewelers have learned to do over the years. Other diamond flaws and inclusions may be large enough to cause weakness within the gem stone, and the stone could shatter or break much more easily than a stone without the weakness. These are the flaws you want to be careful with, since they reduce the value of your stone. Pinpoint InclusionsWhen a diamond has speckles of dark crystals in groups or scattered throughout the stone, it is said to havea form of diamond flaws and inclusions called pinpoint inclusions. If the dark crystals are all clustered together in the stone, the clarity of the diamond is effected, and it appears to have a “cloud” inside the stone. These types of diamond flaws and inclusions may cause the diamond to be worth less, as it greatly effects the appearance. Problems from Laser TreatmentsWhen an imperfect diamond is treated with lasers to remove dark diamond flaws and inclusions from within the gemstone, sometimes a line is left through the diamond that looks much like a thread. The laser line begins at the outer edge of the diamond, and moves inward to the area where the dark inclusion was treated by the laser. These diamond flaws and inclusions are unsightly and easily spotted by most people, making the diamond less desirable. Mineral and Crystal InclusionsWhile most diamond flaws and inclusions are negative, there are instances when the diamond flaws and inclusions are actually an eye catching aspect of your diamond! For example, diamonds typically have smaller crystals inside the diamond, often so tiny they cannot be seen without some sort of magnifying device. The clarity of the diamond can be effected by these crystals, if there are enough of them and if they are all grouped together in one area of the diamond. There are a few rare instances when another gem stone is actually inside a diamond, and could certainly not be seen as a diamond flaw or inclusion. For example, if you had a ruby or emerald that was surrounded by a diamond, you would see that as a special piece of jewelry - not a flawed one! яяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяDИJяяђJяяяяРр<р<р<°dђ hяяЂяяя

38 sri lanka

РПаЎ±б>юя %'юяяя$яяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяямҐБ` рїїbjbjЛsЛs .©©їяяяяяя¤ФФФФФФФи0000<ис¶TTTTTTTTprrrrrr$§ h’–ФTTTTT–ФФTT«АААTRФTФTpАTpААФФАTH0Ї@БЕ®Ж0¦ АpБ0сАЎ°ЎАА¤ЎФdTTАTTTTT––АTTTсTTTTиии¤Њ¤иииЊиииФФФФФФяяяя38 Sri LankaOne of the world’s most beautiful and exotic islands, Sri Lanka, (formerly Ceylon) lies just below the southern tip of India. This pear-shaped bit of tropical paradise, about the size of Sicily, is a tourist’s delight offering British teahouses, rubber plantations, and gem mines. Marco Polo wrote of his visit in 1292: “I want you to understand that the island of Ceylon is, for its size, the finest island in the world, and from its streams comes rubies, sapphires, topazes, amethyst and garnet.” Little has changed since Marco Polo’s time except that Sri Lanka faces overpopulation and a faltering economy. Its gemstones, however, seem to occur in endless supply. Known as the “Jewel Box of the Indian Ocean,” Sri Lanka, like possibly no other locality on earth, has yielded precious stones and fine gems in a great profusion of gem species and varieties. The island was known in the ancient world as Taprobane (copper colored in Greek). Native Veddahs, bathing in smooth flowing streams, noticed colored pebbles scattered in sandy bottoms. It was not until 500 B. C. that conquering Buddhists from northern India also discovered gems in the rivers and began to set rough stones into crude jewelry. They bartered stones with traders from abroad and eventually the treasures found their way to the marketplaces of Asia and Europe. Ancient Greek and Chinese historians referred to the beautiful gems of Ceylon, and King Solomon reportedly wooed the Queen of Sheba with Ceylonese precious stones. The crown jewels of royalty all over the world contain extraordinary spinels, sapphires, and zircons mined from Sri Lanka streams. The Imperial Treasury of the Soviet Union houses a 400-carat red spinel of great beauty which was once given to Catherine the Great. The British Imperial Crown features a giant oval-cut spinel (previously supposed to be a ruby), known as the “Black Prince.” Crowns in the Green Vaults of Dresden are covered with sapphires from Sri Lanka.% ' o r s klиѕїьтдтЦдтМЖАјhI-° h'yT0J hЧnЊ0Jh'yT0JB*ph333hЧnЊ0JB*CJaJph333h'yT0JB*CJaJph333hЧnЊ0JB*ph333hы@{' s йїъхххуgdЧnЊgd8sEїэ,1ђh°Р/ °а=!°"°#ђ $ђ %°°Р°РђР†њ@@ся@NormalCJ_HaJmH sH tH DA@тяЎDDefault Paragraph FontRiуяіRTable Normalц4Ц l4Цaц(kфяБ(No ListB^@тBСNormal (Web)¤d¤d[$$&юў&дValltext4Uў4ѕG Hyperlink >*phя.Xў!.Emphasis6Ѓ]Ѓ*Wў1*Strong5ЃЃ0юOўA0ЧnЊarticle_bodyїяяяя'sйБ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ?0ЂЂ'sйБљ@0ЂЂЂK€0?Х(I€0љ0ЂЂљ0ЂЂїї ї lopvwz™ўЕМ.5ББѕБ -Јт f]І‡ї;Г"xGv-µЕPПwU%Ђx=е

Famous diamonds

РПаЎ±б>юя юяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяэяяяюяяяюяяяюяяя яяяяяяяя* !"#$%&'()юяяя+,-.юяяя0123456юяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяRoot Entryяяяяяяяя АF`!.9¤ыЕЂCompObjяяяяяяяяяяяяjObjectPoolяяяя`·9¤ыЕ`·9¤ыЕWordDocumentяяяяяяяя0юяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяюя яяяя АFdokument Microsoft Word MSWordDocWord. Document.8ф9Іq [^`ся^Normal1$95678XT9;>*B*CJH*@€OJQJmH nH >`> Heading 1 ¤р¤<5CJ OJQJ@`@ Heading 2 ¤р¤<56CJOJQJ>`> Heading 3 ¤р¤<5CJOJQJ*"яяяяTT***Data яяяяяяяяяяяяюяяя0Tableяяяя/SummaryInformation(яяяяяяяяяяяяјяяяяяяяяяяяямҐБY фїT@@"T»T»*яяяяяя]6666666JJJJJVJ‡ёjnrrrrrrrrrr?ф3r36rrrrrrr66rrjrrrr6r6rr?JJ6666rrrrr66JrrjP39¤ыЕJJrrFamous DiamondsAround the world there are many diamonds that have been talked about or written about in various stories and official documents. Famous diamonds are part of our world's history, and have been found in various parts of the world, by all types of people. From royalty to the gods, famous diamonds are often as well known as the people who owned them.For centuries diamonds, famous diamonds or otherwise, were used in the armor of warriors and the crowns of our kings and queens as a symbol of fearlessness. The Mountain of LightOne of the few oval shaped famous diamonds, the mountain of light was first mentioned in the year 1304. It weighed an astounding 186 carats, and it is said that the diamond was set in the peacock throne of Shah Jehan as an eye of one of the peacock's. During Queen Victoria's reign, the famous diamonds shape was altered a bit and it was recut to weigh 108.93 carats. The diamond is currently one of the British Crown Jewels.The OrloffWhen the Orloff diamond was found, it was said that it weighed around 300 carats. This gemstone of the famous diamonds is held at the Diamond Treasury of the former Soviet Union located in Moscow.A story about the Orloff claims that the diamond was actually placed in the eye of a god, in the temple of Sri Rangen, which is how it became known as one of the world's famous diamonds.The RegentBefore this incredibly large diamond of the famous diamonds was cut it weighed 410 carats! Originally called The Pitt , after the English Prime Minister, William Pitt, it was cut into a rounded shape and consisted of more than 140 carats. In 1717, the diamond was sold to the Duke of Orleans, Regent of France. It was then that the diamond was renamed The Regent . When Louis XV had his coronation, the stone was set into his crown.When the French Revolution ended, The Regent was owned by Napoleon Bonaparte, and was placed into the hilt of Bonaparte's sword.Currently, the diamond is on display for all to enjoy in the Louvre.The Blue HopeThe most well known of all famous diamonds, the Blue Hope is currently in the Smithsonian Institution located in the state of Washington. It was owned by Louis XIV, and at the time was called the blue diamond of the crown . Sometime during the French Revolution, the Blue Hope diamond was stolen. It was later found in London in the year 1830, where it was later purchased by Henry Philip Hope. The blue hope diamond received it's name from this individual, as well as it's reputation for causing bad luck to those who owned it. While Henry Philip Hope owned the precious blue diamond, each of his family members died in extreme poverty. Continuing with the bad luck, a later owner of the Blue Hope, Mr. Edward McLean also lost many family members to poverty while he possessed the diamond. 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Famous diamonds are part of our world's history, and have been VAsOAeV:lss:sHHAeAlA:ssezґesAV:::‚lґszV:sAlґsssV:lOe:slOA:sH:szO:¦sOAs$V:sAVAsOs::lss:slse:sees:–2 ™ _found in various parts of the world, by all types of people. From royalty to the gods, famous Hszss:As:slOAszV:slOAV:sH:Ase:¦sOAs::ss:lAA:AsseV:sH:sessAe:::‚Osґ:OsslAAs:As:Ase:sssV::HlґszV:d2 Ј >diamonds are often as well known as the people who owned them. sAlґsssV:lOe:sHAes:lV:¦eAA:zss¦s:lV:Ase:sessAe:¦ss:s¦ses:Aseґ:™2 · aFor centuries diamonds, famous diamonds or otherwise, were used in the armor of warriors and the ‚sO:eesAzOAeV:sAlґsssV::HlґszV:sAlґsssV:sO:sAseO¦AVe::¦eOe:zVes:As:Ase:lOґsO:sH:¦lOOAsOV:lss:Ase:c2 Б =crowns of our kings and queens as a symbol of fearlessness. aeOs¦sV:sH:szO:zAssV:lss:szeesV:lV:l:VsґssA:sH:HelOAeVVseVV:::-ыђTimes New Roman[ФфwdФфw0-'2 Ь The Mountain of Light6‚zl:ВzzzAzAz:zA:‚AzzA-–2 щ _One of the few oval shaped famous diamonds, the “mountain of light” was first mentioned in the ­se:sH:Ase:He¦:sslA:Vslses:HlґszV:sAlґsssV::Ase:lґszsAlAs:sH:AAssAl:¦lV:HAOVA:ґesAAsses:As:Ase:—2 `year 1304. It weighed an astounding 186 carats, and it is said that the diamond was set in the selO:zzzz:::OA:¦eAsses:ls:lVAszssAss:zzz:elOlAV::lss:AA:AV:VlAs:AslA:Ase:sAlґsss:¦lV:VeA:As:Ase:g2 @peacock throne of Shah Jehan as an eye of one of the peacock's. selesez:AsOsse:sH:‚sls:^esls:lV:ls:ese:sH:sse:sH:Ase:selesez$V::–2 ! _During Queen Victoria's reign, the famous diamonds shape was altered a bit and it was recut to ­zOAss:­zees:¦AeAsOAl$V:OeAss::Ase:HlґszV:sAlґsssV:Vslse:¦lV:lAAeOes:l:sAA:lss:AA:¦lV:OeezA:As:~2 + Oweigh 108.93 carats. The diamond is currently one of the British Crown Jewels.¦eAss:zzz:zz:elOlAV:::—se:sAlґsss:AV:ezOOesAAs:sse:sH:Ase:ћOAAAVs:ћOs¦s:^e¦eAV:-2 N The Orloff‚zl:­^AzAA-™2 k aWhen the Orloff diamond was found, it was said that it weighed around 300 carats. This gemstone Яses:Ase:­OAsHH:sAlґsss:¦lV:Hszss::AA:¦lV:VlAs:AslA:AA:¦eAsses:lOszss:zzz:elOlAV:::—sAV:seґVAsse:“2 u ]of the famous diamonds is held at the Diamond Treasury of the former Soviet Union located in sH:Ase:HlґszV:sAlґsssV:AV:seAs:lA:Ase:­Alґsss:—OelVzOs:sH:Ase:HsOґeO:‚ssAeA:¦sAss:AselAes:As:2  Moscow.СsVes¦:™2 “ aA story about the Orloff claims that the diamond was actually placed in the eye of a god, in the ¦:VAsOs:lsszA:Ase:­OAsHH:eAlAґV:AslA:Ase:sAlґsss:¦lV:leAzlAAs:sAlees:As:Ase:ese:sH:l:sss::As:Ase:Ќ2 ќ! Ytemple of Sri Rangen, which is how it became known as one of the world's famous diamonds.AeґsAe:sH:‚OA:ћlsses::¦sAes:AV:ss¦:AA:seelґe:zss¦s:lV:sse:sH:Ase:¦sOAs$V:HlґszV:sAlґsssV:-2 А# The Regent‚zl:ђlzlzA-‘2 Э% Before this incredibly large diamond of the famous diamonds was cut it weighed 410 carats! ћeHsOe:AsAV:AseOesAsAs:AlOse:sAlґsss:sH:Ase:HlґszV:sAlґsssV:¦lV:ezA:AA:¦eAsses:zzz:elOlAVO::—2 з& `Originally called “The Pitt”, after the English Prime Minister, William Pitt, it was cut into a ­OAsAslAAs:elAAes:l—se:‚AAAl::lHAeO:Ase:ђssAAVs:‚OAґe:СAsAVAeO::ЯAAAAlґ:‚AAA::AA:¦lV:ezA:AsAs:l:X2 с' 6rounded shape and consisted of more than 140 carats. Oszsses:Vslse:lss:essVAVAes:sH:ґsOe:Asls:zzz:elOlAV:::”2 * ^In 1717, the diamond was sold to the Duke of Orleans, Regent of France. It was then that the Os:zzzz::Ase:sAlґsss:¦lV:VsAs:As:Ase:­zze:sH:­OAelsV::ћesesA:sH:‚Olsee:::OA:¦lV:Ases:AslA:Ase:—2 + `diamond was renamed “The Regent”. When Louis XV had his coronation, the stone was set into his sAlґsss:¦lV:Oeslґes:l—se:ћesesAl:::Яses:ђszAV:¦¦:sls:sAV:esOsslAAss::Ase:VAsse:¦lV:VeA:AsAs:sAV:2 , crown. eOs¦s:‹2 -. XWhen the French Revolution ended, “The Regent” was owned by Napoleon Bonaparte, and was Яses:Ase:‚Oeses:ћessAzAAss:esses::l—se:ћesesAl:¦lV:s¦ses:ss:­lssAess:ћsslslOAe::lss:¦lV:F2 7/ *placed into the hilt of Bonaparte's sword. sAlees:AsAs:Ase:sAAA:sH:ћsslslOAe$V:V¦sOs:C2 K1 (Currently, the diamond is on display forћzOOesAAs::Ase:sAlґsss:AV:ss:sAVsAls:HsO12 K1# all to enjoy in the Louvre.:lAA:As:esAss:As:Ase:ђszsOe:-2 n3 The Blue Hope‚zl:ђAzl:­zzl-Ћ2 ‹5 ZThe most well known of all famous diamonds, the Blue Hope is currently in the Smithsonian —se:ґsVA:¦eAA:zss¦s:sH:lAA:HlґszV:sAlґsssV::Ase:ћAze:­sse:AV:ezOOesAAs:As:Ase:‚ґAAsVssAls:—2 •6 `Institution located in the state of Washington. It was owned by Louis XIV, and at the time was OsVAAAzAAss:AselAes:As:Ase:VAlAe:sH:ЯlVsAssAss:::OA:¦lV:s¦ses:ss:ђszAV:¦O¦::lss:lA:Ase:AAґe:¦lV:E2 џ7 )called “the blue diamond of the crown”..elAAes:lAse:sAze:sAlґsss:sH:Ase:eOs¦sl:::602Text 20019 [^`ся^Normal1$95678XT9;>*B*CJH*@€OJQJmH nH >`> Heading 1 ¤р¤<5CJ OJQJ@`@ Heading 2 ¤р¤<56CJOJQJ>`> Heading 3 ¤р¤<5CJOJQJ*"яяяяTT***GђTimes New Roman3ђArial7ђVerdana"ЊРh!0[Data яяяяяяяяяяяяюяяя0Tableяяяя/SummaryInformation(яяяяяяяяяяяяјCONTENTSяяяяяяяяяяяя8ььWT602_WINTEXT_DOCUMENT0юkSoftware6025803-S500-0E17”ґlМЧBke0ю”ґlЬЧ‚~e0””¤ґАБЙХЭейUqэ#;Ззэa;_Ха8|† а=Р/ Times New RomanArial0Verdanaяяяя 'Jяя яяяяяяяяяяѓЂ<‡ЂяяѓЂяя ю яяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяя| яяяяяяяяТlNormalТl Heading 3Тl Heading 2Тl Heading 1яяяя<яяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяђJи|'яяяяяяМММ ѓ‡Бя р<р<р<°dђ hяяЂяяяяяяя#яяяя(bчяяяядяяя(`ґJяяњяяа­JяяФяя`ІJяядяяяфяя @·Jяя8яя `­Jяядяяя8яя АµJяяјИяяя ®JяяИяяяhяя ЂµJяя8яя `ЁJяядяяя€яя °JяяшИяяяяяяяє@¶Jяя яя `®Jяядяяяpяя ІJяя8яяяяq ІJяяЁдяяяяяяя`ЄJяяИяяя@юaчяя'ё? яяяђяяяяя ©Jяядяяя8яяга©Jяяьpяяяя‚`«JяяИяяяяяяя ±JяядяяяXяяяяяяяЈ ±Jяя€яяяя(аІJяяђяяядяяяяяяяаЁJяяxюяяяя ЁJяядяяяяят`°Jяядяяяяяяя ®JяядяяяяяяяД`¬JяядяяяяяяяяяяµJяяюяяяяяяаЄJяя?эяядяяяяяЕ¶JяяэяяTяя ґJяяDэяяяяяя® °Jяядяяяяяяя ¬Jяя¬яяядяяяяяя ЇJяяdьяя8яя^ іJяяxюяя`эяяяяЂ·JяяИяяяяяяя`іJяядяяя, ьяяяяяяћ ЄJяяШыяяфыяяяяx? яяяяяяяяяяяFamous DiamondsAround the world there are many diamonds that have been talked about or written about in various stories and official documents. Famous diamonds are part of our world's history, and have been found in various parts of the world, by all types of people. From royalty to the gods, famous diamonds are often as well known as the people who owned them. For centuries diamonds, famous diamonds or otherwise, were used in the armor of warriors and the crowns of our kings and queens as a symbol of fearlessness. The Mountain of LightOne of the few oval shaped famous diamonds, the “mountain of light” was first mentioned in the year 1304. It weighed an astounding 186 carats, and it is said that the diamond was set in the peacock throne of Shah Jehan as an eye of one of the peacock's. During Queen Victoria's reign, the famous diamonds shape was altered a bit and it was recut to weigh 108.93 carats. The diamond is currently one of the British Crown Jewels. The OrloffWhen the Orloff diamond was found, it was said that it weighed around 300 carats. This gemstone of the famous diamonds is held at the Diamond Treasury of the former Soviet Union located in Moscow. A story about the Orloff claims that the diamond was actually placed in the eye of a god, in the temple of Sri Rangen, which is how it became known as one of the world's famous diamonds. The RegentBefore this incredibly large diamond of the famous diamonds was cut it weighed 410 carats! Originally called “The Pitt”, after the English Prime Minister, William Pitt, it was cut into a rounded shape and consisted of more than 140 carats. In 1717, the diamond was sold to the Duke of Orleans, Regent of France. It was then that the diamond was renamed “The Regent”. When Louis XV had his coronation, the stone was set into his crown. When the French Revolution ended, “The Regent” was owned by Napoleon Bonaparte, and was placed into the hilt of Bonaparte's sword. Currently, the diamond is on display for all to enjoy in the Louvre. The Blue HopeThe most well known of all famous diamonds, the Blue Hope is currently in the Smithsonian Institution located in the state of Washington. It was owned by Louis XIV, and at the time was called “the blue diamond of the crown”. Sometime during the French Revolution, the Blue Hope diamond was stolen. It was later found in London in the year 1830, where it was later purchased by Henry Philip Hope. The blue hope diamond received it's name from this individual, as well as it's reputation for causing bad luck to those who owned it. While Henry Philip Hope owned the precious blue diamond, each of his family members died in extreme poverty. Continuing with the bad luck, a later owner of the Blue Hope, Mr. Edward McLean also lost many family members to poverty while he possessed the diamond. яяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяDё JђJяяяяРр<р<р<°dђ hяяЂяяя

How to buy diamond engagement rings 237

How to Buy Diamond Engagement Rings There is much to consider when purchasing a diamond – especially diamond engagement rings! The tradition of presenting a woman with a diamond engagement ring when proposing began in 1477 when Archduke Maximilian presented a diamond ring to Mary of Burgundy – and in most cases, the woman you plan to propose to will expect a ring to accompany that proposal! First, determine how much ring you can afford. Most people use the ‘two months salary’ rule. This means that the ring should cost the equivalent of two months of your current salary. Because you have other bills to pay, saving up this amount of money may take quite a bit of time. You should consider financing. Simply go to the jeweler of your choice and tell them that you plan to buy an engagement ring, and that financing will be necessary. Go ahead and get the credit check out of the way, find out what your payments will be, and how much of a down payment is required. Now, have your mother, sister, or your girlfriends best friend take your girlfriend shopping, and make sure that they gaze at the engagement rings to get an idea of what she might like. Make sure that the jewelry store you buy the ring from will allow you to return the ring, if that is required, or allow your girlfriend to exchange it for another if she isn’t happy with it! (word count 237)

Judging diamond quality

РПаЎ±б>юя +-юяяя*яяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяямҐБ7 рїыbjbjUU ""7|7|ыяяяяяяl ўўўў® '¶ЖЖЖЖЖЖЖЖ¦ЁЁЁЁЁЁ$Э эpМЖЖЖЖЖМЪЖЖбЪЪЪЖ ЖЖ¦ЪЖ¦ЪМЪ¦¦ЖєРВ*_vъЕ ‚ўР ¦¦ч0'¦m Ъm ¦Ъ ЩJudging Diamond QualityWhat to Look ForIf you want to begin judging diamond quality, you must first learn and understand the 4 C’s, which are four characteristics of diamonds that give the gem stone it’s overall value. The 4 C’s for judging diamond quality include the diamonds color, clarity, carats and cut. Judging ColorMost diamonds are considered to be ideal if they are transparent, or colorless. Diamonds that are rated as colorless are the most expensive of diamonds. The colors of diamonds are rated with an alphabet grading system that starts with “D” and ends with “Z”. Completely colorless diamonds fall in the “D” and “E” grade, while colored, fancy diamonds are at the other end of the alphabet, at “Y” and “Z”. There are two main ways that jewelers’ use when judging diamond quality based on color. They may pull out a set of reference stones, and find the closest match between the diamond and the reference stone to determine its letter grade. Alternatively, the jeweler may use a colorimeter, which can electronically measure the color of the stone and determine its grade within 1/3 of a grade. Judging ClarityThe clarity of a diamond refers to whether or not the diamond is clear all the way through, or whether it has tiny flaws and cloudy areas within the gemstone. It’s actually very rare to have a diamond with absolute perfect clarity and no flaws, but most diamond flaws are not visible to the naked eye and can only be seen with a magnifying device. The Gemological Institute of America (GIA) uses a magnification of about 10x when judging diamond quality based on the clarity. There are treatments available to make a diamond appear nicer than it actually is, and the treatments should lower the overall price of the diamond so it is important to do your research before purchasing a diamond to be sure you are not spending more money than you should. Judging Carat WeightCarat is the term we used to describe the weight of a diamond gemstone. One carat is equivalent to 200 milligrams of weight. A single diamond with a high amount of carat weight is more expensive than the equivalent amount of carats in multiple stones. This is because finding the larger diamonds is much more rare of an occurrence. So if you want a 2-carat diamond ring, for example, you may decide to go with a half-carat diamond surrounded by smaller diamonds that add up to one and a half carats to give you the total of 2 carats! Judging diamond quality by the amount of carats is difficult, since different shaped gemstones, and stones with different levels of clarity will be priced differently even if they have the same amount of carats. Judging CutOne of the most important factors in judging diamond quality is judging the cut of a diamond. It’s important because a quality cut diamond will be more brilliant and reflects light more beautifully, and yet the cut of a diamond has the least impact on the overall price of the diamond. When judging diamond quality on the cut of a diamond, look at the stone in a well lit area. If the light seems to go into the stone and bounce back, showing a sparkling reflective surface, the diamond has a good cut. The angles and shapes of a diamond are important to judging diamond quality and the overall appearance of your diamond.

Where diamonds are mined 408

Where Diamonds are Mined Argye mine located in the Kimberley region in the far north east of Western Australia. Owned by Rio Tinto, this mine is the world’s largest single producer of volume of diamonds. However, due to low proportion of gem quality diamonds it is not the value leader. It does produce 90-95% of the world’s supply of pink diamonds. Diavik is also owned by Rio Tinto, located in Canada it is a very large mine. It is located north of Yellowknife and south of the Artic Circle on an island. The island is connected by an ice road. It is also an important part of the regions economy employing more than 700 people and producing more than 8 million carats annually. Ekati diamond mine is owned by BHP Billiton and located south of the artic circle in the Northwest Territories of Canada. The Ekati is Canada’s first operational diamond mine. Diamonds mined here are sold under the Aurias trade name Authenticity is verified through Canada Mark service. CanadaMark service is also owned by BHP Billiton Diamonds, Inc. Baken diamond mine is located along the lower Orange River in South Africa. It is owned and operated by Trans Hex. The average size stone for 2004 was 1.29 carats. In 2004, this mine produced a 78.9 carat D color flawless diamond that sold for more than 1.8 million dollars (US), as well as a 27.67 pink diamond that was sold for over 1 million US dollars. Merlin is the second of only two diamond mines in Australia. No longer operating it was owned by Rio Tinto and sold to Striker Resources, who has explored the possibilities of reopening the mine. Orapa is the world’s largest diamond mine. It us located 240 Km west of Francistown. The mine is owned by “Debswana” which is a partnership between DeBeers and the government of Botswana. This mine operates 7 days a week. It maintains pre primary and primary schools for its employee’s children. There is also a 100 bed hospital and game park. This mine began production in 1971 and is the oldest mine owned by the Debswana Company. The Premier mine located in Cullinan, South Africa produced the largest gem diamond ever in 1905. The Cullinan Diamond weighed 3,106.75 carats. This mine also produced the Golden Jubilee diamond which weighed 545.67 carats. This mine is owned by the De Beers Company and was renamed The Cullinan Diamond Mine in 2003 in celebration of its centennial. (word count 408)

Choosing the cut of a diamond 210

Choosing The Cut of A Diamond There are many different cuts of diamonds to choose from. The cut essentially refers to the shape that the diamond is cut into – unless you are in the diamond or jewelry business, but this shape has a great impact on the much the diamond sparkles. The most popular cuts are heart, marquise, oval, pear, princess, round, trillion, and emerald cuts. The shape has an impact on how much the diamond sparkles, but the actual cutting itself – when the diamond cutter actually cuts the diamond into a particular shape – also matters a great deal. If the diamond is poorly cut, it will lose its sparkle. However, in the diamond industry, the cut of a diamond doesn’t refer to its shape at all. Instead, this is a reference to the stone’s depth, width, brilliance, durability, clarity, and other aspects of the diamond. Common cutting problems include a missing or off center culet, misalignment, a diamond that is too thick or too thin, cracks, or broken culets. When shopping for a diamond, you should of course choose the shape that you like the best, but then look at several different diamonds of that shape to find the one with the best cut – the one that sparkles the most, in all types of lighting. (word count 210)

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