Essentials To Know For A Fun-filled Deep Sea Fishing Trip If it’s your first time to go for a deep sea fishing trip, there are some essential things to know to make it a fun-filled and successful one. Here are some of the key points when having a deep sea fishing trip. Overlooked Things To Bring For sure fishing equipment, food and clothing are the ones that are always remembered by people to bring on a deep sea fishing trip. However, there’s still some other stuff that a lot of people overlook bringing with them to a trip. One good example would be a cooler. Bringing one with some ice, icepacks or even frozen water bottles are very important, since this is what you’ll use to retain the freshness of your catch and keep it cold. Another one would be spare cash. Other than being vital for emergencies, you would need this just in case you get the biggest fish and you would have to get in on the pool. You also need this for mate tipping purposes for providing you help throughout your excursion. Also seasickness medicine would be important too. Dramamine is one effective solution for that problem. For those who are already used to boats, this kind of problem may seldom be encountered. However, it would still be beneficial if you pack a small first aid kit. Try to bring band-Aids, stomach medicine, tissues, and disinfectants in the kit, just so in case minor injuries occur during the trip. Best Locations For A Deep Sea Fishing Trip Some of the best locations to have a deep sea fishing trip are: Bodega Bay and San Diego in California; Wildwood, or Cape May in New Jersey; Boston and Cape Cod in Massachusetts; Daytona Beach, Destin, Key West and Miami in Florida; Freeport, Galveston and Port Aransas in Texas; Gloucester in Maine; Ocean City in Maryland; and Point Pleasant in New Jersey. These spots can give you a variety of fish to catch. They also offer you different views and experiences with nature. Each spot can have their own pro’s and con’s, however, one thing’s for sure they are great deep sea fishing spots! General Deep Sea Fishing Overview In general, a deep-sea fishing trip could last about four to eight hours, or more depending on how long you want it to be. You can arrange trips with your charter or party boast in the morning or afternoon. In fact, if you have a special occasion, you can even schedule evening trips. You can also do this if you’re the night owl type that might not be back to shore even until wee hours of the morning. If you’re having one of these late night trips, especially during the colder months bringing a thermos that is full to the brim with steaming tea, hot chocolate or coffee would be a great way to keep yourselves alert and warm during the trip. Freebies On The Side The great thing with deep sea fishing is that sometimes you can get freebies on the side. Other than the adventure of being out in the waters, you may be graced with the appearance of some dolphins too. There are cases in which you can also have a glimpse of sea birds that are chasing each other playfully. However, the situation would not always be like this, since factors like location, weather, time of the day and how many people you are with on your boat could affect whether you’d see such blessings.
Deep Sea Fishing Guide To Miami Charters If you’re going for a deep sea fishing trip, one great destination would be Miami. This city is filled to the brim with numerous thrilling entertainment opportunities. Starting from its immaculate white sand beaches up to its world class museums, Miami would never run out of activities to cater you. Nevertheless, one of the most popular activities in Miami would be deep sea fishing. It is an exquisite spot for such an activity because of the "Gulf stream", which is a river that is part of the Atlantic Ocean originating from the Gulf of Mexico’s warm currents. The slightly warmer currents of this stream are actually utilized as a highway for different kinds of migrating fish. You can choose from a great variety of fishes, small or big. The most popular choices include: pan fishes, big game fishes, kingfish, and sailfish. These and many more are prevalent in Miami’s turquoise waters. Although there’s a lot of deep sea fishing charters that are available coming from Ft. Lauderdale going to Miami, there are those that stand out, which have credible reputations for class, comfort and catch! Reel Adventure Charters First off is Reel Adventure Charters; in which you have "Spellbound", a 56 ft charter fishing boat. It is considered to be the number 1 charter fishing boat around Miami Beach, for whatever kind of fishing activity you are into; whether it be light tackle fishing, deep sea charter to big game fishing. From the docks of Reel Adventure Charters, you’ll be in the Gulf Stream in no time! In fact it only takes about 10 minutes travel time to go to the stream. This advantage in distance makes their record for big catches quite an impressive one. Charters are very comfortable, usually with a maximum of 6 people. If you’ll be having a party of 2 or 3 only, you can then arrange for "split charters". They provide you with everything you need, except for your drinks and food. Sea Cross Sportfishing If you want a charter with the best modern gadgets and comfort, then the Sea Cross would be perfect for you. Their Custom Rigged Hatteras Sportfishing Yacht would definitely amaze you with all their amenities, such as live well, outriggers, full air conditioning, top-of-the-line tackle and rods, and state of the art electronic gadgets. In fact, they are fully specked and ready to travel anywhere starting from the Florida Keys up to the Bahamas! They can definitely make your fishing dreams true! They have specialist personnel that have the skills necessary for you to find exactly whatever it is you are looking for. They specialize in all kinds of fishing adventures, such as tarpon to sailfish. They also provide services like long range weekend trips, split charters, multi-boat charters, corporate charters, and night fishing. Free Spool Sportfishing Situated at Miami Beach's north end, Haulover Bay, you can find Free Spool. Their captain, a premiere fishing guide in Miami area, has been helping people to fish since 1986. Whether you’re interested in fishing the reef, shallows, or off-shore, He could bring you there. Keys and Bahamas trips can also be arranged. However, they do not have "split charters", meaning once you book for the boat, you would have it all for yourself; no more fishing with strangers. They can arrange full or half day charters, for a maximum of 4 people. So if you are looking for a really exquisite adventure with an expert "old school" captain, try out Free Spool!
Deep Sea Fishing: Tips On Conserving Your Catch So what is it exactly that you do with the fish you catch? For some, they abide the philosophy of keeping enough for their meal and releasing the rest. The best fish would be the freshest ones. Even though you’re not into cooking them yourselves, a lot of local restaurants can offer you preparations for a fresh catch meal. Sitting down on a meal of fish that you just caught would be the perfect ending for one great fishing day. Most consider it to be one of the most satisfying things to do that anyone can accomplish! Why Conserve? Fish is a renewable resource. Thus, proper management and techniques are needed to ensure their survival and the abundance of the resource for the future generations. In fact, overfished stocks would require years of regulatory actions and monitoring to restore its fishery level into one that is self-sufficient and self-sustaining. Additionally, for every year that passes, there seems to be more restrictions in regards to the recreational bags. Even size limits are imposed. All of these due to the occurrence of overfishing which is in consequence of improved technology. The Solution Practicing the habit of catch and release is actually one of the ways in which recreational anglers like you could help ensure the health and prosperity of the future fisheries. In this way, you can also guarantee everybody’s opportunity to have a fun day of deep sea fishing that is concluded with a scrumptious and satisfying meal. Here are some of the ways in which you can help ensure survival of the fish that you release and get some satisfaction by returning your catch to its environment. Get Your Tackle Right First off you should make sure that your tackle matches the fish you’re targeting. Although it may not seem obvious, doing this can ensure its safety once you release it back into the waters. If your tackle is too light, it would be exhausted by the moment you land it. Thus due to its exhaustion, it could be a very easy target for predators when release it back to the waters; since it couldn’t swim that fast anymore. Customize Your Hook Customizing your hook is yet another way to conserve your catch. By simply using a pair of pliers, you can mash down your hook’s barb. Doing this would enable you for an easier release of the catch and better safety on its side. Another great addition to the terminal tackle you’ll be doing would be circle hooks. When the catch swallows the hook, all you have to do is cut the line closely as you can to your hook, then release your catch as quickly as you can. Don’t Suffocate It As much as possible, while releasing your catch leave it in the water. If there is no choice but to handle it out of the water, then be sure that you wet your hands. You should do this to reduce the removal of its protective slime layer that covers it. The removal of this layer can make your catch susceptible to disease once it goes back to the waters. Hold It Right Handling the fish is important too. You should make sure that you don't grab it in its gills or eyes, since these are very sensitive areas that fish need for survival.
Things To Bring On A Deep Sea Fishing Trip In general, when you’ll be going on a deep sea fishing trip, you’ll be the one to decide on how you want the trip to go through. You can structure it with a charter, or have the trip in a party boat, which is also termed as "head boat" and leave everything else to your captain’s orders. Party Boat Plus Points However, the most relaxing and cost-effective method to plan a deep sea fishing trip may be considered to be going with a party boat. This is because usually they can already work out the details of your trip, even before you arrive at the marina. Here, your captain would already know where he would want to bring the ship. All you have to do is rent a rod, which would only take a couple of dollars; since your tackle and bait are already included with your admission fee. In fact, the mate would even come over to help you if ever your line gets tangled up with another’s! Other Necessities Other than bringing your basic equipment for fishing and lunch, there are still some items that you can bring to make sure that your trip would be successful-provided that your boat’s captain really knows how to find the catch! Here are some of the critical items that you should bring on a deep sea fishing trip. Important Items First off would be a fishing rod, tackle and bait. Most fishermen are highly encouraged to have their very own fishing supplies. However, if you are planning to rent one from the boat, then you can do so. Clothing Essentials The clothing you would be wearing is important too. It is vital that you wear appropriate clothes if you really want to enjoy the trip. It is advised that you wear an old pair of sandals or sneakers, which you don’t mind getting smelly or dirty. You mat also want to bring a rain jacket, poncho, or windbreaker, just in case the weather would be rough. Bringing a sweatshirt or pullover would be good too, if ever the wind is sharp or chilly. Food Tips For your lunch, having subs or other sandwiches that are paper wrapped would be better, because other than being healthy, they enable you to eat without having to dirty your food. Something light on the stomach is advised, just in case motion sickness problems occur. For your beverages, beer would be a good fishing companion. However, you should take note that it should be taken in moderation and make sure that you are of legal age. If not, soda or bottled water would do. Safety And Cleanliness Safety and cleanliness is also important. Bringing an antibacterial lotion or hand soap would be good, since often most boat’s bathrooms don’t have soap and in some cases even running water! You may want to bring rags or old towels. These are really helpful so you can wipe off of them after baiting your hook. Additionally, you can use them after catching a fish, as you hold on the catch and remove its hook. Protection Skin protection is also important. Sun block should be applied, especially if you’re the type that burns easily. You can also bring sunglasses or a hat, so that you can shield your face and eyes from scorching rays of the sun.
Some Tips On Deep Sea Fishing At Night Deep sea fishing is an enjoyed activity by many. The sun, sea and the adrenaline of adventure makes a perfect day for such kind of activity. However, for very experienced fishermen, they would advice you that if you really want to get a good catch, it would be best for you to start fishing 2 hours after sunset or 2 hours even before sunrise. This is why most experienced fishermen would rather have a night trip than a day trip. However, due to the difference of environment during night fishing, if you are new to this kind of setting, then there are certain things that you should know to make your night trip a successful one. Getting Started Although it may seem difficult, waking up in the wee hours of the day is still possible. Additionally, you can always get the help of an alarm clock to be your wake-up call. There are some other preparations too that should be done other than being able to wake up, like preparing your bait. It would be the best if you have already set up everything you need and have some wet-bait ready even half an hour before sun rise. It is important to remember that anchoring and cooking the bait should be finished by the time sunset arrives. This is due to the reason that cooking through your night fishing could be very dangerous. Plus, your bait should be able to cool off before you can use it. The Logic Behind It The logic behind all these waking up early and preparations is that fish usually feed shallower around times like this. Thus, they are easier to catch, since they’re only about 30 feet below the water’s surface. In fact, according to experts, twilight minutes are very productive especially if you’re fishing for a living. Where’s The Light At? If you really want to have good results at the fastest time possible, whether it be you are fishing in fresh or salt water, try fishing around piers, which have some lights. This is because fish are very attracted to light beams that pass through the water surface in different sea depths. In general, fishing excursions usually have a very happy ending when held around lights on piers or buoys. Use Something Large It is also important that you use very large dry or wet flies, nymphs, and oversized streamers, if you are really interested in getting a lot of catch of those active feeders out there. In fact, night-feeding can be easier for you when your bait is that large enough for the fish to locate. Additionally, you should remember to draw your baits gradually along the surface of the water with a jerking motion. Doing this would help attract some trout. Nevertheless, you should also bring some extra live bait and always keep the lure inside your water or boat, safely contained. See The Signs During night fishing, you should always try to be on guard for some signs that feeding fish are in the area. Take note that at this time, you’ll be able to hear them feeding themselves even before you see their splashes or swirls in the water. Don’t forget to chuck in your lure, as soon as possible and once you hear them breaking the surface, into the spot that you think they are in. Additionally, you should try making repeated casts anywhere that you think they may be circulating, since fish have some trouble in locating lures during the night.
Deep Sea Fishing: Knowing Your Tides It can sound weird but a comprehensive knowledge on tides and their effect on your fishing area can actually pay big dividends. In fact, it is considered to be one key to being successful in the realm of deep sea fishing, by the experts. A lot of fishing guides and charter-boat captains know this secret. They even make close studies on currents, tides, and how they would affect fishing on their areas. The Unknown Secret However, sad to say, that a lot of informal deep sea anglers actually pay very little attention to such important details. In fact, some anglers don’t pay attention at all! And then they would wonder how come the other guy catches all the fish and they don't. Nevertheless, there are still those who realize that somehow tides can affect their fishing. However, they do not know exactly how and why this happens. These anglers usually waste their precious hours trolling, casting and sinker bouncing even when the tide is not right. However, the deep sea angler who knows his tides could pick in advanced the most favourable fishing periods and concentrate on his efforts during those times. This simply means you can have less of those wasted days and get more fish on your deep sea fishing trips. Getting Started You don’t have to delve into tide’s science here, except to point out that tides are due to the gravitational forces that are brought about the sun and moon. Since the moon is nearer earth, it has greater influence with tides than the sun. Types Of Tides Every time the tide is up, water would move towards land, which is also known as "flood tide". On occasions that tides drop, moving its way back to sea, is called "ebb tide". The period in which it doesn’t move either way is termed as the "slack tide". It usually takes a period of 6 hours for it to rise, and 6 to get low. For every 24 hours these tides occur 50 minutes later than the last, approximately. Variations They also vary in regards to the degrees that they drop or rise. The highest tides occur when the sun and moon are situated on Earth’s same side, creating a direct line. Such kind of tide is called "spring tide", which occur during new-moon and full-moon periods. During these times, both low and high tides are higher than their usual state. However, during the last and first quarter phases of the moon, tides don’t fall or rise or fall that much. This is called as "neap tides". Which Is Which So which of theses tides are helpful and which are not? To start off, most experts believe that moving tides or currents are most of the time more productive than having no currents or tides. Thus, a "slack" tide would rarely produce good catch. Using The Tides At The Right Time You can take advantage of tides even more by knowing when to go. The period in which an incoming tide starts is considered to be one of the productive periods for fishing, especially if you are targeting for gamesters like bluefish, striped bass, channel bass, and weakfish. During the periods of slack water, the small bait fishes tend to scatter, and having a lack of strong currents they are able to swim faster and escape their predators. However, when tides start moving, such small bait fishes are at the strong rips and current’s mercy. Thus, they are easier to catch and find by stripers and other kinds of game fish. When an outgoing tide starts is yet another good time do fish, simply for the same logic. In general, the popular change of tide, whether it be low or high, is actually the best time to do your fishing.
A Deep Sea Fishing Family Guide Deep sea fishing is one great activity that a lot of families enjoy. It’s something that can give you and your family momentous experiences and priceless memories that can last for a lifetime. The family bonding experience with nature at hand is simply indescribable. If you’re new to this sport and wonderful past time, there are some things that you should know before you go on with your deep sea fishing trip. It is indeed one big adventure for you and your family. However, you should consider some things first to make your trip a successful one. Other than not forgetting to bring your camera, for those momentous snapshots, here are some things that you have to think about before even making some plans. Judgment Time: Are They Capable? First off, you should take a realistic look at your family’s abilities and age. Let’s face it, you can’t really maximize a deep sea fishing trip if you’re kids are still infants or toddlers. If you’re deciding on what kind of excursion to have, deliberating on these kinds of factors are important too. In case you’ll be getting the service of a charter boat, this would play an important factor too, since most boat companies have set age limits. Generally, age limits start at about eight years old. You should understand that companies set these kinds of rules to guarantee safety on your part. Additionally, you should consider the duration of how long you’d want to be on water. Most inexperienced fishermen would usually prefer half-day trips, so that it wouldn’t be that stressful and still be enjoyable for the whole family. On the other hand, lifelong and expert anglers would definitely want to have overnight trips. However, regardless of how long or short you have been fishing, you should still remember your family’s physical comfort would affect the trip’s overall enjoyment. Factors such as attitude and age play important roles on how can your family adjust with a temporary boat life. Be Distance Conscious Another important consideration is how far away your target fishing location is from your home. The packages that you may encounter can vary greatly, depending on the company. This means the provisions that they’ll give to you on the boat would also differ. If you will be travelling a huge distance just to fish, you might be more interested in availing packages that are all inclusive, which provides you with everything you’d need for the trip. However, packages like these are usually hard to find, and of course, they are way more expensive than those for average day trip packages. An average package usually provides you bait and tackle. But if you’ll need a license, some packages already include it, while some can charge you extra for the cost. Know The Terms Generally, boats would ask you to bring your own hats, sunglasses, clothing, sun block, medications for motion sickness and everything else that you think is important to bring. Make sure that you are clothed appropriately with a number of warm layers, since it would be colder when you’re on water than being on shore. Also, most of the day trip packages would ask you to bring your own food. If this is the case, you should plan accordingly. Try to pack items that are easy on your stomach, just in case that waters will be rough.
How To Get The Most Out Of Your Deep Sea Fishing Trip Deep Sea Fishing is one amazing experience that can be a very memorable one for you and your fishing mates. However, it is an activity that is often not maximized. What most people don’t know is that there is much more to deep sea fishing than fishing itself. It’s really sad that trips like these are often not maximized. To not commit such a common mistake, here are some of the ways that you can maximize your deep sea fishing trip to make it an even more momentous and enjoyable one! Understand The Signs Enjoying the sea itself and the wildlife around you is often overlooked by deep sea trippers. Try to be watchful of what nature around you is telling you. If you can see birds, like gulls or other sea birds that are hovering over a specific area of water, then heed on it. There is a big probability that there are smaller fishes usually used by fishermen as bait somewhere in that area. This could imply that there is yet another big probability that there would be bigger fishes beneath that area of water. Try following these simple hints and indications and for sure you’d be having a catch in no time! Be Watchful You may also want to be on the watch for snooks during your trip. Try to look under ledges since this is one of their favourite hiding places. In fact, they have a similar behaviours and habits with bass. If It’s A Full Moon, Do It The Crab Way During full moons, crabs usually shed off their skins. So if you’ll be deep sea fishing on a full moon night, you could try making use of soft crab imitations as your bait. Doing this would definitely entice the stripers from their hiding places to go look out for the crabs. Want Some Tuna? Get A Dolphin! If you’ll be fishing out for tuna, especially yellowfins, one good way to locate them is follow where the dolphins are. Tuna usually school with dolphins, which is why if ever you see dolphins there is a really big probability that some tuna school would not be that far away. However, it is vital to take note that you should be careful not to land on a dolphin even by accident, because dolphins are protected species, which should be treated with some respect. Don’t Go Solo Let’s face it, going solo with any kind of activity is not that always fun. This is just the same with deep sea fishing. So, if you really want to make something out of your trip, such as priceless memories and enjoyable moments, then you should try spending the trip with some friends or family. Battle Sea Sickness If you have sea sickness or motion sickness, then a fishing trip can be a not so enjoyable activity for you. However, you should not let this hamper you from enjoying such great experience. That is why you should battle it. If this is your problem, try looking at the horizon. It might sound ironic and silly, but you should try to stay up on deck as long as you can; doing this can make it easier for you to adjust with the boat’s motion. Additionally, staying away from fumes is advisable, since they could make you feel even worse.
Deep Sea Fishing For Yellowtail One of the most popular fish targeted when deep sea fishing is Yellowtail. The California Yellowtail along with the Southern Yellowtail, which is its cousin, are Jack family members. Both are very tough customers for reel and rod. Where To Find Them The Yellowtail is to be found in central California and down south into the tropical waters. In fact, this fish have been a staple in the Pacific fishery for a lot of years already. How To Fish Just like with most other kinds of fish, you have a variety of ways to choose from in able to fish for yellowtail. A number of lures and baits would be needed such as squids, sardines, mackerels and the most preferred one, anchovy. Jig Fishing Technique For Yellowtail Jig fishing for this fish could be very fun and is considered to be very productive by most people. The Yo-Yo jig can be done by using a four to twelve ounce candy-bar type of jig. Once you have the jig, drop it to the bottom, which is usually not any deeper than 200 feet. When you feel that you already hit the bottom, try to lift your jig off of it for four to five feet. Repeat this several times, then being followed by a very fast retrieve all the way up to the surface. It is important to remember that it doesn’t matter how fast you are cranking, since the yellowtail would always be much faster than you. Once you feel that you’re bit, then there’s no mistaking it. Once this happens, don’t set the hook and just continue reeling. Once you feel that your catch is already swimming away from you, then that’s the time that you should set the hook. Jig fishing enables you to fish using a much heavier line than your bait. A 30 to 50 lb. test usually works pretty well. When yellowtails are feeding on the surface or near it, they would sometimes take surface iron. Surface irons are jigs weighing 4 ounces or less. They are retrieved with a much slower speed than the other kinds of jigs. Using a live squid is the much preferred bait with this kind of jig. In fact, when yellowtails feed on squid, they have the tendency to ignore all the other baits. Using A Fishing Squid Using a fishing squid is quite simple. All you have to do is either tie the hook directly to the line or make use of a sliding sinker which is right on the bait. However, the size of the weight you’ll be using is usually dictated by factors and conditions like currents and depth. Find the pointed end of the squid and place the hook once through it. However, take note that when fishing with squid, even small yellowtails are able to swallow it quickly. That is why you should not let them swim far before you decide to set the hook. Using Anchovies If you’ll be using anchovy, then you should either hook through its nose or behind its gill, specifically on its bony collar. They are weak swimmers, which is why you would want to make use of smaller line and hooks. Using Sardines When you’ll be using sardines, you can make use of the same rig. However, this time around, you should put your hook through the sardine’s nose or on its bottom, just behind its vent. Your bait would tend to swim deeper, if you hook it on its bottom.
Choosing The Right Deep Sea Fishing Charter For You There are a lot of factors to take into consideration when picking out a deep sea charter. You do not only have to look for one that is professional and reputable, but you also have to find one that can meet your personal needs. Thus, before you go out to sea, you have to decide on exactly what it is that you really want from the trip. What Kind Of Experience? Your main concern must be to decide on the type of experience that you want to get. Is it wreck and reef fishing that you want? How about inshore fishing? Probably you’re interested in getting a charter which specializes on targeting specific types of specie, like billfish, tarpon, etc.? Factors like these would definitely depend on what place in the world you’ll be fishing in. For instance, if you’ll be fishing from the Gulf of Mexico, you would have different options if you’ll be looking for a deep sea charter in Northern California. What Kind Of Level? Second, you should decide on the level that you want to fish in. There’s a big difference between charters catering to novice fishermen than those designed for experienced ones. Nevertheless, the great thing about charter boat’s abundance is that they have one for any kind of level. Some specialize on catering to beginners and families, while some specialize in bringing more experienced anglers out to sea. A lot of charter services can actually offer you several options. Most likely, charter boat captains would offer trolling options, which is especially for novice anglers, families, and even kids. For instance, a lot of charter boats situated in Southern Florida can take their patrons trolling during spring and fall months, in which they are given the opportunity to have 6 hours hunting some redfish, dolphin, etc. However, high speed trolling would be a great choice if you’re an experienced one that lack some of the equipments to have your own expedition. This is best done around summer months, which is when conditions are best set to catch bigger game fish, like bull dolphin, sailfish and yahoo. Ask! Probably the best advice when looking for a charter would be directly asking the captain exactly what it is that they offer, and can offer. You would definitely don't want to be wasting money and time on an adventure that is not really tailored for your needs. A lot of charter services are actually up front regarding the different choices of service that they can offer. Thus, you have the ability to determine what type of charter would be the best for you! Money Matters After deciding on the type of experience you would want, now it’s time to settle on how much you’re willing to pay for the trip. In general, smaller boats that have the capacity of 2-4 people have a typical price of $200-$400. If you want to get a bigger boat for a whole day trip, prices usually play around $900-$1,200. Additionally, factors like the charter’s reputation play a role on how much they charge. Playing It Safe Although most charters are headed by quality, experienced individuals, there are some occasional shady characters that might try to sell their services to you. If this is the case, you should try checking their reputation by asking people around the area and getting some recommendations from the locals. Doing this could mean having visits in the local marinas and bait shops. Basically, you should visit the docks. Another choice would be asking the hotel that you're staying in. Such hotels usually have charter services that they usually use and can recommend to you. Lastly, you can directly interview your potential charter captains. This would help you see what kind of person you’ll be spending the trip with. Most of the time, this method is the one that shows whether the charter service is reputable or not.