Exploring Criminology Theory When it comes to the science of exploring how crime and society interacts, there are number of different theories that have been developed with the attempt to explain what causes such reactions in individuals. Over time, there have been many different theories that have been established and in most cases these theories have been developed as a reaction to the social or judicial challenges or changes that have been created. Criminology theory is important. While there are many theories that cannot be proven beyond a shadow of a doubt in every single society and cultural setting, it is very important for individuals to keep looking and keep developing different theories. By understanding past theories that have failed or not be able to be applied successfully to different crime settings, it is more likely that individuals will be able to work up to theories that can be applied in these different settings. Criminology is a very broad science. It covers many different types of crimes and cultures or societies in which the crimes take place. Another area that is covered by the scientific study would be the laws that are created by society in response to the various crimes that have been committed in the area. While criminology itself as a science was not created and defined as a term until the end half of the 1800’s, there were many theories that were almost instantaneously created in order to promote the science. Some of the theories were based around the individual and their role in crimes, but others were more interested by taking the role of society into consideration as the cause for certain crimes in different areas. Over time, these theories were elaborated on and re-defined in order to make sense in the time period which would be applying the theory to their studies of the social setting in a set time frame. It is very important for individuals to understand that criminology is a theoretical science. In effect, this means that criminology will likely not be able to have a set definition of cause and effect when it comes to crime and the society in which the criminal is brought up. At the very most, we have these theories that are constantly being improved upon in order to try to understand crime in a specific society for a specific period of time. Some of the most popular theories that have come forth so far include the conflict theories, in which the individual criminal alone is held responsible for their reactions, as well as the rational choice theory in which it is maintained that the criminal is able to come up with the pros and cons of an action or crime before they perform the action, and that they ultimately decide that there are more pros than cons when it comes to that criminal decision. Certain theories cannot be applied across the board. For example, these theories may be applied to both females and males, but the feminist theories in relation to criminology will maintain that this approach cannot be used and that females need their own theories when it comes to criminology and what motivates women to commit crimes.
What is Criminology? When people look into criminology, they may initially be surprised by how expansive the field is. Anyone that is at all associated with the scientific study of crime, the relationship between the criminal and his or her environment, and society’s reaction to crime would have some sort of placement within the scene of Criminology. In some instances, criminologists are researchers that are trying to find the common links between deviant behavior and the environment, in order to try to pinpoint what it is that causes or perpetuates crime. There are currently a number of different theories that attempt to explain, through the process of science, what it is that causes a crime to take place. These theories began to emerge in earnest in the middle of the 1800’s. Over the course of the next 200 or so years, new theories began to spring up and eventually they began to involve genetics, hormones and biological makeup. Previously, theories of criminology rested heavily on society and the environment’s effect on the individual as a source to either push an individual into crime or away from crime. There are three distinct schools of thought when it comes to criminology. One of the first schools of thought, the Classical school believes that utilitarian philosophy is the supporting notion of criminology. They argue that individuals have free will and can decide for themselves what is right and what is wrong.
The hedonistic, or self-indulgent, side of the body must be balanced against the rational of the individual. When the hedonistic side wins, crime may ensue. Rational is the side of the individual that would consider the penalty of the crime and, if the punishment is severe enough, is believed to be the piece of the individual that would keep them from crime by looking at the costs. Positivists are those who believe that the factors that contribute to the criminal’s propensity to go against the law do not rest within their own control. Rather, elements such as society or the person’s chemical makeup do. These are things that are considered to be outside the control of the individual, but are still things that may play what Positivists claim as the biggest part of the responsibility when a criminal has committed a crime. In the Chicago school of thought, individuals believe that criminals are a result of the disorganized environments from which they come. Later, this definition was extended to include the belief that older generations taught younger generations about the role of crime. It is then fair to say that these individuals believe that crime is a social occurrence only where the social makeup of the area is broken down and unequal. Crime is often considered to be a blemish when it comes to the society of an area. It causes people to fear when they should not have to. Criminologists are, in their own way, attempting to determine what causes a crime or instigates that type of behavior in a person in order to limit the amount of crime that takes place.
Exploring the Many Available Jobs in Criminology With a criminology degree, there are a number of career paths available for the individual. Individuals that have just graduated are likely to get involved in these particular careers. These are some of the more flexible career fields when it comes to individuals who are educated by whom may not have the experience that some other employment offices may desire. In addition, these jobs are interesting and allow the individual to learn and explore aspects that they were not able to while in school. The hands on experience will help the graduate in many ways later on in their careers as well as at the time of their employment. One of these exciting careers is in the field of crime intelligence analysis. This is a very interesting field for individuals that are looking to have experience when it comes to deciphering the foundation of crimes. Some other creative careers when it comes to criminology employment opportunities would go on to include consumer advocates, who work with laws and regulations that would either benefit or protect the average consumer from the manufacturers or corporations, environment protection analysts, who help to formulate different regulations when it comes to the environment and the protection that it can receive from the public and community members at large, and a regional crime prevention coordinator, who would be in charge of coming up with different methods in which to protect the residents in a region of the state. This is a position that would also help to come up with ways in which the community crime prevention members would be organized and structured in order to provide a more effective and efficient crime task force within the region. As a result, this career is very important when it comes to preventing crime within the region by understanding some of the underlying pressures and structures of the criminal element within the society or culture. One of the most obvious career opportunities that exists for individuals that graduate with a criminology degree would be that of those who go on to become police officers. This can extend into other fields of the police department including detectives and criminal psychologists on the payroll of the police department. In this area, many people are able to come together in order to look at how society and crime interacts on an intimate level. The crimes that take place are not looked at and analyzed in order to come up with ways to prevent the crime in the area, rather the police force is able to catch the criminals and hopefully take them out of the society in which they were raised or committing the crimes. In some cases, the police officers are able to work and interact with the regional crime coordinator, in order to create a more solidified union of crime prevention within the region, city or town. There are some other cases in which the police officers will interact with community correction officers, either because they are employed in jails where the criminals are required to serve their time or as parole or probation officers who are able to readjust the criminal to the society in which they live or to make sure that they are not violating any rules or restrictions that have been placed on them.
Exploring the British Journal of Criminology There are a number of studies and journals that are involved in the discussion of criminology. One of the most widely read and well reputed journals that study and examine criminology would be the British Journal of Criminology. Quality pieces and articles that are contributed from sources from around the world are gathered in issues of the British Journal of Criminology. It is very easy for individuals, either from a scholarly or academic perspective or even those from a researcher’s perspective, to use the British Journal of Criminology as a reference source because of the reputation that the Journal has. However, it does not just expose the work of different academics, but also publishes articles that peers write and have reviewed, as well as a book review segment within the Journal. The British Journal of Criminology has its publishing basis within the United Kingdom, but its shipment range is much more expansive and in fact spans the entire globe. Regardless of their place of residency in the world, individuals can subscribe to the British Journal of Criminology. Even if an individual does not wish to subscribe to the British Journal of Criminology, it is also fairly easy to locate the Journal at libraries. Many back issues are supported in the libraries because of the notoriety that it receives in the literary world as well as in the world of the criminologist. Regardless of whether or not an individual is able or willing to secure a subscription to the British Journal of Criminology, the many different articles that are featured can have a profound effect on the individuals that read them. There are a number of different topics that are explored with each issue, and this allows the reader to learn about various aspects of the human mind when it is exposed to crime, and crime’s effect on the community. Some of the perspectives that the articles deal with include criminology’s relationship with sociology, anthropology, law, social fields and social work, and economics. By exploring the different ways in which these varying and equally important aspects play out in crime and within the criminal mind, individuals are able to broaden the ways in which they relate to and experience crime and the individual criminal, at least on an intellectual level. Many instances exist in which an individual would want to reference the different thoughts and feelings expressed within the British Journal of Criminology. Sometimes a student will need to cite different sources in order to back up a particular thesis or type of thought which can be improved by some of the articles that have been published in the Journal. In other instances, the thoughts and ideas of others can be built upon in order to further define an individual’s belief of crime and the criminal element. By establishing a theory with supporting elements, it is possible for an individual that was published in the journal to be contacted and asked to help in a criminal case. In many instances, this is done on the part of the author by elaborating on the conclusions that they have come to in their article or journal pieces.
Criminology Views on Crime Exposed Criminology is a theoretical science that is used in order to try to explain not only the relationship between the criminal and society, but also the relation of judiciary committee in the social setting and the criminal element in the social setting as well. By looking at different pieces of the scientific puzzle, it is possible for many people to come up with theories to explain how society functions with crime, in response to it and as a means to perpetuate the crimes. Through these specific theories, it is possible for individuals to understand some different stances on how crime is created in a society and how a society may influence an individual’s decision to commit a particular crime. In some cases, it is also used in order to determine how time and the general implications on moral and immoral behavior in a society. This can be one of the biggest considerations that are taken when a government is thinking about making an amendment to their laws. For example, homosexuality was considered, for a long time, to be illegal within the United Kingdom, including England. However, what ended up happening in 1967 was that a law was passed that allowed individuals to act in homosexual ways if they chose to, but only if the individual was over the age of 21. This helps to expose that there was likely nothing wrong with the specific act, but the people of the time that viewed the act. This is how criminology approaches crime. They look at the specific crime, and then look to determine how society or laws may have affected the crime at that period of time. As a result, criminologists are able to use these crimes and examples in order to understand more fully how individuals react in a society when it comes to laws and regulations. Criminology does not study crimes and specific laws. Rather, they simply study the reactions between individuals that are exposed to this type of situation. This helps them to be able to accurately understand how society functions. Crime seems to be an inevitable part of society. If we can one day understand why this is so, we stand a better chance of being able to one day eliminate crime from different societies. Criminology is a unique field because it does not try to eliminate crime conclusively right now. They understand that first it is necessary to research and understand how society and crime are interrelated in different societies. Once this is clearly understood, we can begin to eliminate the criminal elements within a society. Because there are so many different societies, and crime does not relate the same way in all of them, it is very important to make sure that blanket theories are not created in order to try to attack crime on all points within the world. Rather, there are different rules and structures that play within different areas and may affect crime. Criminology views crime as something that cannot be avoided at the current time, but perhaps could be at some point when we understand more about interactions between the community and the individual.
How to Understand Criminology Theories When it comes to understanding the theories behind connections between crimes and individuals or the community, many people may not realize that the beliefs that differentiate the theories are not as complex as they may seem at first. By simplifying the core of the theories, individuals are able to more properly understand the different theories that can help individuals to identify the theory that they most identify with when considering the interactions of crime and society. Once the foundation of the theories are understood, it is much easier to build upon the theory by including some of the more complex ideas supported by the theory. A number of theories exist, and many are being created daily on the part of individuals. However, there are a few theories that are more common and widely held as beliefs than other theories may be. There are social structure theories, or those theories that the status and construction of the social setting will define the likelihood and amount of crime in the area. Individuals that are exposed to poverty and other signs of social deterioration are believed to be more prone to crimes and acts of violence. There are other specific social theories that believe crime is perpetuated by the inequality that exists within the social structure that is established. When people are unable to achieve that which society expects of them, such as the “American Dream”, these individuals turn to crime to try to realize this dream. Individual theories exist in order to explain criminology within a society. Trait theories are those based on scientific knowledge of the human body and how chemicals and genetic material will determine or alter how an individual responds to stimuli. Aggressive behavior and antisocial tendencies are just some of the many personality traits of individuals that are involved in crime, and the links to genetics, hormones and other biological factors are currently being studied. Some theories stop looking at what encourages an individual to become corrupt, and instead focus on the effects of society to explain how and why some people are able to lead productive and admirable lives. These theories are commonly referred to as control or social control theories. In an example, it is illustrated that an individual that has a greater degree of self control will be able to wait patiently while attaining their dream or goal instead of using possibly degenerate means in order to gain immediate access to their desire. Symbolic interaction as a theory examines the relationship of the powerful, ruling class and those that are less powerful. By integrating themselves into the belief that they were less powerful, youths that were looked down on played up to the role designated to them. It represents a self-fulfilling prophecy of sorts since the youths are taking the more powerful group at their word and transferring the definition onto themselves as criminals. Of the last main theories that surround criminology, rational choice theory maintains that criminals weigh the pros and cons of an outcome just like anyone else. When the costs and benefits are dissected, the criminal will make a decision. They may also consider the time and place for the crime as well in order to find the situation with the lowest crime risk.
Overview of Criminology When investigators are examining and studying crime from a scientific perspective, this is referred to as criminology. This includes the parallels between crime and different forms of phenomenon such as the development of particular types of laws. Criminology also works to identify how to address the criminal behavior of criminals and how to eventually control the criminal element. Drawing on psychological and sociological research, criminologists are able to look at the different ways in which a criminal’s environment will affect them. It can also help when it comes to profiling criminals in order to understand them and have a better chance of catching a criminal that is on the loose. By using criminology, individuals are able to not only profile a potential perpetrator, but they are also able to take a more intellectual look at how crime is perpetuated in our world and what steps can be taken in order to limit crime. There are different schools of thought when it comes to how individuals approach the concept of criminology. Some of the most popular schools include those that are known as the Classical school, the Positivist school and the Chicago school. These schools were developed over a period of time, ranging from the middle of the 19th century and continuing well into the 20th century with the Chicago school of thought. One of the main factors that differentiate the schools of thought would be how the criminologists view environment in the life of the criminal. Some believe that the criminals have to take responsibility for their actions regardless of what is happening in the environment at the time, in line with the Classical movement, while others believe that criminals may be predisposed to crime, as is proposed by the Positivists. The Chicago school of thought poses the possibility that criminals are able to learn deviant behaviors from others and that when social organizations, such as schools and neighborhoods, are not organized they will not be able to control the criminal element that occurs. By identifying how an individual feels that crime is either created or continued, it can provide the basis for the school of thought that the individual falls under when it comes to criminology. Criminology experts look at crime in a variety of different manners. By defining the distinctions between the different types of crimes, it is easier to come up with theories as to how and why the crime took place. One type of crime would be those that go against core values. These seemingly natural laws are ones that are common among many different cultures, separated by time and space. Natural laws are those that are considered to be able to protect individuals and their property from abuse by others. Some of the more controversial laws include statutes which are put into place by legal institutions. The relationship between state and citizen is explored in these laws, which is what causes the conflict in some instances. As a result of looking at the different construction foundations behind laws, it is possible to understand the many different ways in which crimes are categorized. Organized crime, state crime, blue or white collar crimes and organized crime are some of the most popular types of crime that exist.
What is the American Society of Criminology? The American Society of Criminology is one of the best references and sources of information regardless of where an individual lives and what country is maintained as their place of residence. Contrary to the implication in the name of the organization, the American Society of Criminology is actually an international organization that is open to many people. Annually, the organization hosts a general meeting, and topics are discussed that seem appropriate in which everyone can take part. The themes are generally vague, but still give way to important topics. Recently, the meeting has had the theme of “Criminology, Justice and Public Policy in the 21st Century”. Since this type of conversation topic does not limit itself geographically, anyone is free to express their concerns or issues when it comes to these matters, as they feel the public will be affected by them in this coming century.
In addition to offering annual talks for professors, legal minded individuals and other academics interested in the various aspects of criminology, the law and sociological effects as a result of crime, the American Society of Criminology is also geared towards helping these people. There are employment opportunities at the meetings as well, and on their website the American Society of Criminology actively updates their position and employment posting boards. As a result, individuals that are going to be graduating from college with a Criminology degree can find on their website a wealth of information pertaining not only to available jobs and markets, but also a resource in the form of networking with likeminded individuals. Members of the American Society of Criminology are able to enjoy different criminology journals and a newsletter. The reading materials are helpful for all interested parties because they transmit the information that is changing and being expanded on in the legal and criminology arenas, and will often feature segments on various countries around the world. There are some specialized regiments within the Society, and members sometimes interact with each other on these specialized levels.
This is again helpful for students looking to break into a specific niche after graduating and those who are particularly interested in specific areas of criminology. One of the main functions of the Society is to educate people and investigate the many ways in which crime, the criminal element and society are related and dependent upon one another in various manners. They are open to all willing individuals and encourage interested parties to join or investigate their organization at any point in time. Within the Society there is an Executive Board. This is made up of the President, the President Elect, the Immediate past President, as well as the Vice President and the Vice President Elect. Those positions are elected.
There are also appointed officers, and these positions are made up of the executive secretary, as well as the treasurer and the editor for one of the Criminology Journals, known as Criminology: An Interdisciplinary Journal. Six Executive Counselors are also added to the board. These are the individuals that run the society on the whole; those who form policies, determine the specifics of the Annual Meeting, and ratify the Society’s budget.
How to come Up with Successful Thesis Ideas Papers on Criminology Throughout the course of the pursuit of criminology degrees, there are many times during which students will be required to write a thesis paper in their criminology classes, and they will not be given a list of options from their professors. When faced with this challenge, some students may not be aware of how to approach the paper with a concrete and effective thesis idea. If this happens, it can be helpful to approach the theoretical study of criminology from a new perspective and see if a thesis can be created in this manner. By outlining the theories that build themselves within the structure of criminology an individual can more clearly see how the theories and the science are connected. In the end, this will help many people to understand the specifics of successful and intelligent thesis ideas. Even within certain categories and theories there are different segments of individuals. For example, within the feminist theorists that involve criminology there are radical feminists and libertarian feminists. Some effective thesis ideas for criminology could focus on either breaking down the structural supports of these theories, or in support of the theories. By exploring the flaws and strengths of theories, we can come closer to accurately understanding the relationship between crime and the individual. As we get closer to this point, it will be possible to eventually try to change criminology from being a theoretical science to a more concrete form of science in relation to individuals and the societies in which they live. Another way in which an individual can come up with ideas for their criminology papers would be to examine the history of criminology and how it evolved rapidly once it was created. However, the term itself was not put in place until the 1800’s, which could cause some to speculate as to why this was the case. There are some instances in which a student can explore the reality of whether or not these beginning criminology experts were really the individuals to herald in this concept to the world. History is full of examples throughout which criminology aspects and ideas may be implied. Criminology papers, unlike papers for some other classes that the student may need to write, will likely not be able to scientifically prove a point. This is why it is so important for the student to support their thesis and idea. Even if an idea is farfetched, if there is compelling evidence to support the ideas then it can be considered to be a success. Support is the most important aspect of papers that attempt to dissect or discuss criminology. Without material to back up one’s own ideas when it comes to theories and criminology beliefs, then there is nothing to support what the individual is saying and it cannot be believed since there is no proof of the idea. However, with a substantial amount of information that would help to support the thesis of the paper it will be taken much more seriously when it is read by critics and supporters as well.
How to Use Criminology and Forensic Science to Effectively Solve Crimes There are a number of ways in which an individual is able to couple criminology and the practices of forensic science in order to catch a criminal. In some cases, the individual is profiled through criminology and matched up to the forensic evidence left at the scene of the crime. However, there are a number of other ways in which the two genres are used together in order to bring about justice within the penal system. Criminology is the study of how science and environment affects the criminal mind, as well as the interaction between individuals or communities and the criminal element. Forensic science is the area of study in which individuals are able to transform one small piece of information into something of substance. In many cases, forensic scientists are able to use pieces of forensic evidence and what they learn from this piece in order to effectively illustrate either a link between and individual and the crime or an alibi for the individual wrongly accused of a crime. A few major career focus areas for forensic scientists exist. Criminology areas of expertise range as well, although they are all trained by learning similar material in school. Forensic science fields are especially diverse and offer unique benefits within each one. Together, the members of the forensic science and criminology teams are able to work together in order to piece together their separate information to come up with one solution near completion, based on the facts they have all gathered. For example, a police officer working as a criminology expert may be able to psychologically profile a suspect, but they would require the help of a forensic scientist in order to match carpet fibers from the crime scene to carpet fibers in the suspect’s home or vehicle. By linking together all the separate notions that each individual is able to learn, a complete or near complete timeline of the suspect and crime can be composed. With enough evidence, this can be taken before a court and the trial will begin against the alleged suspect. Some of the categories that exist for individuals involved in forensic work include medical examiners that inspect corpses, crime laboratory analysts that are able to look at the chemical and biological makeup of pieces of evidence, crime scene examiners, and those that assist in a technical or academic capacity. Through the combination of these different branches, coupled with the work of criminologists, crimes can be pieced together in a more logical and straightforward way, in order to illustrate to juries and judges the events of the crime and suspected individual. This is especially important because in serious cases the jury has to be in agreement that there is no reasonable doubt on the part of the individual defendant’s role in the crime. In other cases, the defense will use the forensic evidence in order to clear their defendant of the charge or charges against them. By using virtually irrefutable evidence of a scientific nature, the jury and the judge are able to clearly see how crimes are or are not linked to the suspect.
Why Consult the Canadian Journal of Criminology Undergraduates are required to take a number of different courses during their schooling. Before the students can graduate with a degree in Criminology, certain criteria needs to be met. While the specific criteria can vary from school to school, there are some minimum requirements that the students need to meet regardless of where the go to school in order to receive their degree. Many people may end up being surprised by the number of different fields in which the Criminology major must spend time, but this is all part of the learning process that will eventually allow the individual to become well rounded in many areas, perfectly suited for the many roles in which criminologists function by combining insights about different categories in order to piece together a puzzle. Criminal elements are unique a fair amount of the time, and it is through the schooling process involving the individual in fields that extend past comfortable boundaries in which the student will be able to learn the most. In addition to taking classes about law, government, politics, sociology, anthropology and psychiatry, many students will also need to take classes in chemistry or some other science. Over the course of their studies, students will come to realize that there are a number of papers that they will need to write and turn in to their professors. This will require them to come up with a compelling thesis and have enough evidence to support the thesis. As a method of support, many professors encourage or demand the use of outside sources. For over a decade, the internet has been a very popular choice as a resource for material to use when students have papers due. In college and graduate programs, however, many professors will allow some internet sources, but not all. There are a number of journals that an individual can use in order to expertly back up their thesis. The Canadian Journal of Criminology is one such effective journal. It is widely available in most libraries due to the fact that it is a particularly useful source for articles and documents outlining the theories, concerns and solution ideas of the authors that contribute to the journal. There are a number of articles that focus on Canada and the crime element in the specific county, but there are some more far reaching articles as well. Looking at different environments and results helps individuals to look at the scenarios objectively in order to come up with ideas as to why crime exists in certain geographical locations and what contributes to the criminal element within the individual mind. By enabling many people to contribute to the Canadian Journal of Criminology, the publishers are able to enjoy their journal being used as a reference source much more. It expands the environment to which the journal is describing, effective expanding their target audience. By using such journals as the Canadian Journal of Criminology, students can be assured that they are using a reputable source as a supplier of information for their term papers. Unfortunately in too many cases, sources on the internet do not have the same kind of reputable backing as the Canadian Journal of Criminology has.
Who is Qualified to Receive a Criminology Online Degree On the Internet, there are a number of schools that will offer courses and educational material as a basis for individuals to receive various online degrees. One of the many degrees that can be attained by individuals wishing to study on the internet would include Criminology. There are a number of different career paths that are open to individuals with a Criminology degree. Because of this, it is a very popular and eagerly sought degree by individuals that would like to go back to school in order to earn a degree, but who may feel that they do not have the time or financial means to dedicate to a full time pursuit of the degree. Convenience and efficiency are offered to the individual would-be student and they are able to graduate after meeting the requirements of their chosen online schooling establishment. There are some criteria that individuals will need to meet before they are able to receive a valid degree in Criminology from an online institution. First of all, individuals will only qualify if they are prepared to do the work that is mandated by the school. It is still important for the student to be willing and able to learn about the different studies and courses that will be taught. Without committing to this responsibility, an individual will not be able to meet the standards that are set for them and they will likely lose the money that they have invested in the venture. When a person is prepared for the dedication that they need to have in order to graduate with a Criminology online degree, they will be able to attend the school and succeed in the courses that they will be required to take in order to graduate. In many cases, this will also include the ability to purchase the necessary course work packets, books and journals. Just like in typical and traditional classroom settings, reading and response work will need to be completed in order to make sure that the individual understands and comprehends the course work that is being taught. One of the supplements of classroom time is work outside the classroom. Traditionally, this will include the reading or certain texts or articles, which will sometimes need to be purchased by the individual students. Those who qualify to receive a Criminology online degree will also need to be financially able to afford the courses. For students that are not able to individually pay for their education, there are often different financial aid offices at schools, even online. By utilizing the help of the financial aid department, a student can typically work out a payment plan with the school. This allows the school to make the money that they need to have from the students in order to pay the salaries of professors and other educational needs, and the student is able to begin their journey to graduation. A Criminology degree that is received online is respectable, but it is the amount of time that the individual puts into the learning process that will determine how much they will personally get out of the experience.
Experiencing the Parallels between Victimology and Criminology All too often, society is inclined to allow criminals to receive leniency for their crimes as a result of the environment in which a person may have existed. Even if the criminal was not influenced by their environment to commit the crime, the criminal is liable to adopt the persona of the victim in order to gain sympathy. This is often successful because when more well-off individuals are in the presence of those that are considered to be less fortunate, they may feel guilt. In many cases, this guilt is not necessary. However, if an individual begins to express their opinion that by adopting the role of a victim the criminal is dodging the responsibility of the crime, they will likely be criticized greatly for their thoughts. Victimology, even if it is sincere, is often a way in which individuals justify a crime to themselves and to others. For example, one of the most commonly held beliefs within the United States of America is that of the great American dream, in which everyone is happy, living in a nice house and the parents have stable occupations making a comfortable living for their families. This does not at all reflect the reality of inner city slums and poor rural areas. By clinging to the belief that no matter what, even without trying in some cases, individuals deserve to experience the American dream, they may be inclined to take what they feel they deserve rather than try to work for it. Some people will rationalize that they have no means to work for this dream, and they had no choice but to act out in the way that they did. However, this blaming of society does not change the reality of the situations. By allowing one person to get away with a crime because of a victim mentality would be a slap in the face to the people that do work to succeed. Herein lays the most important parallel between victimology and Criminology. While it is simple to blame society for one’s troubles, this does not begin to solve the problem. Individuals from all sides need to think about how the society may impact the role of the criminal and to take steps in order to change things. This way, when an individual tries to adopt a victim mentality, we can state as a society that there were other options. By outlining the different options in such a setting, even more people can be exposed to the ways in which society is working to stabilize equality between different categories of individuals and work to reduce crime as a product of environment or surroundings. Criminology works to examine how society and the criminal interact, and this needs to be looked at under extreme scrutiny in order to find the causes of problems and work towards successful solutions. There are also instances in which those who are perceived to be in a seat of power will become corrupt. It is important to look at this too. Individuals may attempt to adopt a victim role in this scene as well in order to appeal to the sympathetic public. Aside from sociopaths, individuals have moral standards that will tell them what is wrong and what is right. For anyone to adopt the role of the victim in order to gain sympathy is a ploy against the considerate nature of others. When it comes to crime, the people that should be playing the role of the victim are those who were victimized during the act of the crime. For individuals that live, they are many times much stronger than people may have believed them to be, and it is nauseating that the criminal will then try to adopt a role that the person they violated will not even take on in the court room.
A Look at Recent Paradigms in Criminology In the Oxford Handbook of Criminology, there is a chapter in the book that was written by Jock Young. This chapter is entitled “Recent Paradigms in Criminology”. This piece of work is used by many people in order to take a critical look at criminology and the ways in which crime is affected by society and other influences. There is a particular influence that is placed on the society in which a crime takes place. In some areas the structure and organization which supports crime and the criminals, while in other areas there is more of an emphasis that is placed on the disorganization of society as a major factor in the perpetuation of crime in the area. In order to limit crime, it is important that individuals within a society put forth the effort to understand what it is that causes crime and the release of the criminal element into the culture or society. Jock Young’s chapter is a very important piece of the Oxford Handbook of Criminology. In many ways the entire books is an fundamental theory compellation for the United Kingdom, but Young’s chapter of recent paradigms in criminology helps readers and academics understand the new ways in which crime has changed or evolved over time. In addition, there are a number of ways in which differences in society and culture have shaped the ways in which individuals view the criminal elements in their society and the types of crimes that may take place within the region. Many things may help to bring forth a deviant behavior from a particular individual, but many people are interested in learning how these elements may incite one person to commit a crime, while another person may experience those same elements and have no inclination to act out with deviant behavior against the society in which they are located. In addition, it can be very helpful and effective for individuals to look at different individualizing factors. Some of these factors include the gender of a person, their age and their social class. These things may not initially seem to have an effect on criminology and the crimes that take place in an area, but the science of criminology has roots that incorporate these differences in important ways. Some people believe that there are a number of instances in which the gender of a person is ignored when it comes to crimes and criminology. There are a number of instances in which the male perspective in applied to all accounts of crime, regardless of whether or not the crime was committed by a male or a female criminal. Because of this, it is important for us to step back and look at the aspects to consider in order to accurately formulate theories in the field of criminology that are better and more complete. Jock Young is able to show many different ways in which this can be done by looking at new paradigms in Criminology that can be used by individuals who are interested in developing new theories and ideas.
Exploring the History of Criminology To many people interested in the roots and origin of Criminology, Lombroso is considered to be the father of the science, meaning that he explored it and examined it from many angles in order to expose it. It was first used by a law professor in Italy, Raffaele Garofalo, who actually used the Italian term for the word, criminologia. A French anthropologist also used the term around the same time as Garofalo, who referred to the term as criminology. There are some who believe that it is possible that the study of bumps on an individual’s skull, referred to as Phrenology, is a better mark of representation when it comes to the scientific origins of the term. Lombroso is considered to be the father of criminology because of the many advances that he attempted to make in the field. If not for him, criminology might not be as developed as it is today. Over time, many different theories were composed as to what caused criminal behavior. These theories have their roots in biology, psychology, and society, to name a few. Over time, by using these foundations for new theories, different schools of thought began to emerge. Through these different schools of thought, the theoretical science of the criminal element could be rationalized. Individuals often debate in order to attempt to define the reason for crime, so that it may then be eliminated by solving the problem of what causes crime. By identifying and responding to the motivator for crime and deviant behavior, more effective measures of social control could be put into action. Currently, we are able to take care of the symptoms of crime. For example, we have police officers who catch criminals. When found guilty by a panel of their own peers, the criminal will go to jail. That takes the criminal out of society. However, there are new criminals emerging every day. We have learned to treat the symptoms, the individual criminals, but we have not yet been able to determine the instigating factor in these developments. Throughout the history of criminology, this is the main goal of the science. Since it is a theoretical science, all of the theories that correspond to the topic cannot immediately be proven as accurate or inaccurate, merely theoretical. However, the continuous effort of individuals to idealize the workings of the individual and society have been transformed and re-defined since the beginning use of the term. If the history of criminology shows us anything, it is that the human nature to establish right from wrong and the differences between individuals distinguishing the difference is virtually a timeless theme, at least since its birth. By continuously researching and documenting the variables and changes within society and crime, people who are interested in criminology can line up the theories with the established facts. After this is done, it is possible to sit down and analyze the coinciding factors in order to determine the best course of action when it comes to evolving society so as to limit crime and intolerance as much as possible.
What is the Definition of Criminology? When thinking about what criminology is, an individual needs to first consider what aspects and fields are affected by the criminal element. Some of these fields will also either perpetuate or deter crime, depending on how they are used. Anthropology, sociology, law, research positions and others all tie into criminology. Criminology could then be defined as how any of these many multitudes of society’s development and creation are able to affect how individuals interact, specifically when it comes to the degenerate element.
Using science to approach the evolution of crime within an area or timeframe allows individuals to learn how an environment may respond to and otherwise affect crime. Certain things can be analyzed in order to come to a conclusion about crime and the criminal element within a particular area, such as any hereditary elements that may have had a factor or psychological issues that would have instigated the crime. In addition, many criminologists are also interested in studying how the punishment of criminals affects the likelihood of the same crimes being performed. When people’s actions or movements deviate from the normal status of things in a way which is excessively harmful or dangerous to themselves or others, criminologists may become involved in the situation. By studying both crime and the law, an academic person can come up with possible motivations for an individual’s actions. These theoretical explanations are often helpful when profiling a person who has yet to be caught by the police, as well as when statistics are needed in order to illustrate a trend or issue for a community. However, it is not just crimes that are studied and analyzed by the criminologist. In addition, they also look at the criminal justice system on a whole in order to make sure that it is functioning in a sufficient manner that benefits the lives of citizens. The definition of criminology is broad in order to encompass all of the different fields that fall under the term.
However, by being more specific in the type of criminology that is being investigated, an individual is able to focus more on the individuals cornerstones of the different types of criminology that exist. For example, psychological criminology was a part of criminology for a long time but did not begin to be looked at on its own until the 20th century. This field looks at the abnormalities and mental diseases that may feed criminal behaviors. It is specialized in the way that proponents of this type of criminology believe that the personality of the individual is the breeding ground for the levels and types of crime that the individual will be capable of committing. Emotions and behavior patterns are often able to remain relatively stable and predictable regardless of what type of environment the individual is placed into, which helps academics to formulate the idea that this is what defines a person. Criminologists are able to look at crime and other related fields from different perspectives in order to analyze the cause and effect relationship of the crime, the individual and the environment in which they are immersed.
ReThinking Criminology Jock Young Jock Young is a very important theorist when it comes to criminology. He has been able to contribute in a variety of different ways when it comes to how we are able to define crime as a society and what the sociological elements may be when it comes to the criminal element in a region. Many of his papers have been published in different books and journals. From there, his work has been able to influence the thinking and direction of other criminologists’ theories and ideas. For the most part, his work has always been about pushing forward with ideas and theories in order to determine the roots of crime and how to eliminate the criminal element from societies. This is important because it would lead to the general well-being of a particular area, while individuals would be able to relax and not worry or stress about the level of crime or violence in the area. Criminology, and Jock Young, revolves around the study of how crime is created and how it interacts with society. So far, we have not been able to determine a direct cause of crime. In order to make sure that we do, criminology constantly needs to be re-addressed and thought about from different angles in order to ensure that we are one day able to come to the correct and proper conclusions that would allow our societies to operate in a more effective and efficient manner, free of violent crime. Different perspectives need to be used when viewing criminology in order to keep the approached to the science fresh and always evolving. In many cases, there are a number of approaches that need to be redefined in order to make them more applicable to different societies. It is also important that individuals who study criminology do not neglect cultural or societal differences between cultures and the crime that takes place in the area that is being studied. While one theory may work in a specific geographical area, there are different cultural and societal aspects that may make the theory null and void in another geographic location, even if the crimes are similar in both areas. Criminology needs to be rethought when looking at different societies in order to make sure that there are the proper distinctions placed on the culture of the crime scene. Some other factors that may be important when looking at the ways in which the criminal element and the culture or society interacts would be in regards to gender, age and the type of crime that is being committed. These may seem like variables in the science of studying crime and society, but there are many reasons to believe that these differences may formulate completely different outcomes as a result. In addition, there are some people that believe it would be more applicable to look at how a person maintains a non-deviant lifestyle as opposed to how a person might become a criminal. These are just some of the ways in which it can help to readdress criminology and crime in order to come to different conclusions about how we interact and function within the world when it comes to morals and non-deviant living.
Where to Use the Course Text Criminology Explaining Crime and Context 5th Edition In undergraduate school, it is very important for individuals to be able to understand the material that they need to learn in order to graduate. This is why it is so critical for many teachers and professors to make sure that the text books they assign to their classes are able to understand the material that is written inside of the book. Because criminology is a theoretical science, it can be difficult to understand in all instances since there are no set or guaranteed facts, only theories that can be followed by the individual. As a result, it can be challenging for some students to succinctly understand the many different theories that are and have been used by individuals that illustrate criminology in a particular time or place. The course text Criminology Explaining Crime and Context 5th edition is one of the best books that will explain these theories and the contexts in which they have been used over time to the student. This is important because many career opportunities after college will require the individual to understand different key elements of the theories and approaches that are used when it comes to criminology. By learning this information prior to graduating, students are able to have a better chance of being successful in the field of criminology after graduation. This is a book that is used in many instances to be the core text of the course. It is very effective and covers a lot of the necessary material that individual interested in studying criminology will need to learn. Some professors will implement this course text as a book to be used to help introduce individuals to the different concepts and theories that relate to criminology. Others will wait a little longer to introduce the students to criminology in order to ensure that the students are properly prepared for what they will have to learn and cover when it comes to being able to graduate with enough information. Most courses will need a specific amount of time in order to properly cover the necessary information within the course text book. However, in the class room is not the only place where individuals can benefit from reading this material. There are many individuals that have an outside interest in the world of criminology. If a person is not interested in going to school in order to get a degree in criminology, but they still have a desire to know more about the science, then it can be very helpful for them to get this book in order to learn many of the similar things that they would learn if they had been going to classes on the matter. By allowing individuals to access pertinent information in a manner that is straightforward, more people are able to understand and learn about the complex theoretical science known as criminology. Like most text books in colleges, the text reader is fairly expensive, but the material inside the book is very beneficial and advantageous to the individual that is using it as a learning device, for personal or professional gain.
Exploring the Basics of Postmodern Criminology One of the most current theories to be designed within the science of criminology would be those that adhere to the postmodern perspective. When it comes to postmodern criminology, one of the most basic beliefs and supposititious is that not only is crime the result of the social interactions in an area, which is the foundation of most conflict theories in criminology, but also that the social context will play a part on the outcome of a situation as well. This extends on the conflict theories that were created, which suggest that the criminal is responsible for his or her own actions, and that the deviant behavior of the individual is what caused them to go against the social norms that have been established by the ruling government. By expanding upon theories that have already been created, it is possible for individuals to evolve the beliefs more and hopefully get closer to the truth of identifying how a criminal is created and what effects this has on individuals and the society at large. Postmodern criminology supporters will look at a crime or criminal action and will go on to ask a very important question. Was the crime a result of the environment that exists in the society where the crime was committed? By identifying whether or not the culture was responsible for the crime or not, it is possible to learn more concretely how different instances in an individual’s life will affect them. In some cases, individuals are forced to go against the normal responses to particular situations. There are many times in which an individual may have to kill another person, and while this type of violence is rarely enjoyed, it can be a last resort for certain people. A good example of this having occurred would be to look at an instance in which a policeman had to shoot a suspect in order to save the lives of many innocent people in the immediate area. The individual policeman cannot be said to be inherently criminal or deviant, because if the shooting is justified than he had no other reaction. Even if another reaction could have occurred, it may not have been as successful, beneficial or helpful to the individuals that were also involved in the situation. In making the decision to stop the shooter in the illustrated situation, the policeman stepped beyond the ordinarily imposed social norms that would define murder. Instead, he is more likely to be seen as providing a service to the individuals that were being threatened in the situation. By building and rebuilding social contexts and responses, as a whole we can work together to create a better society. Within a better society, there will be less criminal elements to distract the public. This is because the responses that we develop will be more likely to benefit others in addition to ourselves in an honest form. When the society is more stable and healthy the criminal element will not be as prevalent, which is one of the important building blocks of postmodern criminology theories.
How to Notice the Difference between Criminology and Psychology Psychology is the scientific study of an individual’s behaviors and thoughts as a basis for their personality and reactionary processes. There are many reasons that a person may be studied by a psychologist. Sometimes, the people who are being studied are simply trying to find ways to move past a particular feeling or longing that they cannot seem to let go of on their own. By using psychology and investing in the help that they can receive from a psychologist, a person can be shown the different ways in which they approach situations and learn to react differently and redefine their approaches to problems or stressors. In learning different habits as reaction processes, a person can learn to overcome different problems or feelings that they may have not been able to do at an earlier time, before being studied in the psychology field. Psychologists tend to amass the information that they are able to gather from different subjects in order to learn about how the human mind operates in a general sense. The information can be used also to notice the similarities and differences that exist between the individual mind and assessment of life. While Criminology is also the study of an individual’s behavior and thought process, there is a specific outcome that is being sought by the criminologist. The individual’s actions and thoughts are being investigated in order to learn how that individual is able to either overcome or succumb to the different elements of crime that exist within an environment. There are many different thoughts surrounding how a criminal comes to be. Some believe a criminal is born with the natural instinct to be deviant while others believe that the criminal element is nurtured within an individual by specific environmental aspects. Criminologists are often in the pursuit of why and how a person is able to act out in a way that is either hurtful to themselves or others. They use their knowledge in order to provide a safe and comforting environment for the general public. Psychological criminology is a specific branch of criminology that combines these two perspectives. By using psychology as the only basis for the invention of the individual, criminologists are able to generate a profile of the perpetrator. In looking at an individual’s actions or behavior patterns, psychological criminologists are able to see into the personality of the individual that is being tracked or studied. This can help criminologists to analyze the pattern in order to cut the perpetrator off before they are able to perform their next criminal act, if the individual is still on the loose, or it can help the criminologist to understand how the crime came to be, in effect determining the motive for the crime. However, psychological criminologists are typically not the ones who will help criminals to move beyond their behavioral or mental deviants. Instead, they generally use their knowledge in order to help others understand what the criminal did and why, effectively helping to get answers out of the criminal that may be useful or necessary. By analyzing the mind, both criminologists and psychologists are attempting to gain insight into the individual. While in some instances this is being done for the benefit of the individual, in other instances this is being done in order to keep the public at large safe from the individual.