Ccna mcse ccnp certification making failure work for you

Whether you're on the road to the CCNA, CCNP, MCSE, or you're on any other computer certification track, the odds are that sooner or later, you're going to fail an exam. It's happened to almost all of us, yours truly included. What you have to keep in mind in these times is that success is not a straight line. You've probably seen charts showing the growth of an industry or a business -- you know, the ones that go from left to right, and look kind of jagged. The line goes up for a while, then down a bit, then up some more, then down a little. The key? While every business has its setbacks, the net result is that the line goes up and progress is made. That's how you want your certification pursuit and your career to go as well - upward! I'm not asking you to be happy about failing an exam. You're allowed to get mad for a few minutes, vow to never take another exam again, and be disappointed.

What you're not allowed to do is stay that way. If you put your books away in a fit of anger, get them out. If you took some time off, it's time to get back to work. Again, there's nothing wrong with being unhappy about failing an exam. It's how you handle that failure that counts. No inventor, executive, or entrepreneur has ever been right 100% of the time. Learn something from your failure. Was your study time quality study time? Did you get some hands-on practice with the technology you're studying? Asking yourself these questions can be tough, but it can be highly valuable in making sure you don't fail the next time. And there must be a next time - because the one thing you cannot do is quit. Besides, take it from someone who's been there - your temporary failure makes your eventual success that much sweeter.

Cisco ccna certification exam tutorial isdn details you must know

: CCNA exam success depends partially on knowing the details of ISDN, and there are plenty of them! To help you review for your CCNA exam, here are a few ISDN details that you must know on exam day. (They help in the real world, too – and there are still plenty of ISDN networks out there! The Cisco-proprietary version of HDLC is the default encapsulation type for serial and ISDN interfaces. R2#show interface serial0 Serial0 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is HD64570 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1544 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255 Encapsulation HDLC, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec) While there’s only one D-channel in BRI, PRI (US) and PRI (EU), the bandwidth of that D-channel does vary from BRI to PRI. It’s 16 kbps in BRI and 64 kbps in both PRI versions. The global command isdn switch-type must be configured before you can even begin to have ISDN work.

show isdn status will tell you whether or not you’ve done this correctly. R2#show isdn status **** No Global ISDN Switchtype currently defined **** ISDN BRI0 interface dsl 0, interface ISDN Switchtype = none Layer 1 Status: DEACTIVATED Layer 2 Status: Layer 2 NOT Activated Layer 3 Status: 0 Active Layer 3 Call(s) PAP allows passwords to be different; CHAP requires that they be the same. PAP requires the “ppp pap sent-username” interface-level command. CHAP has no equivalent command. Define interesting traffic with dialer-list and link that list to the interface with dialer-group. R2#conf t R2(config)#dialer-list 1 proto ip permit R2(config)#int bri0 R2(config-if)#dialer-group 1 The dialer idle-timeout value is expressed in seconds, not minutes. (Even IOS Help isn’t totally clear on this.

) R2(config)#int bri0 R2(config-if)#dialer-group 1 R2(config-if)#dialer idle-timeout ? <1-2147483> Idle timeout before disconnecting a call R2(config-if)#dialer idle-timeout 120 Dialer map maps a remote IP address to a remote phone number. You never dial the local router’s phone number. dialer load-threshold requires the ppp multilink command to be configured, and the value of dialer load-threshold is expressed as a ratio of 255, NOT 100. For example, if you want the second b-channel to come up when the first reaches 50% of capacity, the value to express with dialer load-threshold would be 50% of 255 – which equals 127. R2(config)#int bri0 R2(config-if)#encap ppp R2(config-if)#ppp multilink R2(config-if)#dialer load-threshold ? <1-255> Load threshold to place another call Success on the CCNA exam depends on knowing the details. Keep studying, keep practicing on real Cisco routers and switches, keep a positive attitude, and you're on your way to CCNA exam success!

Cisco certification don t overreact to exam version changes

Whenever a Cisco exam version changes, there's always a lot of chatter about it on the web. The CCNA exams are no exception. One comment I see often goes like this: " I hear Cisco is going to change Intro / ICND / CCNA exam versions soon, so I'm not going to start studying yet. I'll wait until the new exam comes out." Do not let this happen to you. While some large publishers would have you think these exams change tremendously from one version to another ("updated for the latest exams!"), the simple fact is that the Intro, ICND, and CCNA Composite exams simply don't change much from version to version. Sure, the questions change. The only people who should be nervous about that are those who are trying to braindump their way to a technical certification. The topics covered on the CCNA exams don't change much at all. You know you're going to have to demonstrate knowledge of LAN switching, ISDN, Frame Relay, routing protocol behavior, RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, and OSPF. Perhaps some of the more advanced topics will change, but these will be minor changes at best. Cisco announces these changes on their website well in advance , so you won't be left with no time to study. The only Cisco exams that might change quite a bit are the CCIE Written Qualification exams. Even there, you know what the core topics will be. Cisco's hardly going to take BGP off the written Routing & Switching exam. Whatever you do, don't fall into the "version change" trap. Don't spend $100 - $300 to hurry up and take an exam before you're ready because of an upcoming version change. When you're ready, you're ready. Time spent learning is never wasted. Get started NOW.

Certification q a types of certifications to consider for computer related careers

* What kinds of certifications should I consider for a PC Specialist career? As a PC Specialist, people will rely on your specialized computer training and skills to keep the office running smoothly. You must have the following certifications: • PC Specialist Certificate • Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer • Microsoft Certified Professional * What kinds of certifications should I consider for a Software Engineer career? The software engineer designs and develops systems to control and automate manufacturing, business, or management processes. To obtain a position as a Software Engineer, you must have: • A four-year degree in a computer-related discipline is required for most software engineering positions. • Certification in various software applications is suggested. • Training programs are available at community colleges, vocational schools, technical institutes and in the Armed Forces. Earning and maintaining computer certification is a good way for software engineers to keep their skills up to date. In addition to Microsoft, Novell, Cisco and other high-tech companies, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Computer Society offers relevant computer certifications. * What kinds of certifications should I consider for a Systems Analyst career? These workers figure out how to use computers to get things done. They tell businesses and other organizations which computers and software to buy, and they decide how to get those tools to work together. To qualify on this position, you must have: • A four-year college degree in computer science, information science, or management information systems. • Microsoft Certification and Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP) * What kinds of certifications should I consider for a Systems Engineer career? Systems engineering is like putting together a puzzle, matching varied pieces together to make one cohesive whole. Here are some certifications you need to comply: • BS in systems engineering or other related engineering discipline or an equivalent combination of education and work related experience. • Novell certifications Earning computer certification at a prestigious educational institution is impressive. But, if you don't have that kind of money, you may take computer certification training courses anywhere and anyway you wish and then pay to take the exams. Passing the exams is what earns computer certification. * What kinds of certifications should I consider for a Technical Instructor career? As a technical instructor, you need to be mature and very oriented towards people. To be considered, you must have the following certifications: • A four-year degree in a computer-related discipline is required for most software engineering positions. • CompTIA’s Certified Technical Trainer (CTT+) certification. * What kinds of certifications should I consider for a Wireless Specialist career? Career certification programs are critical for aspiring Wireless Specialists. Many are looking for programs that have a complete engineering curriculum that concentrates entirely on wireless application. Some of these are the following: • Certified Wireless Professional includes application for wireless development, its networking elements and security, and embedded systems. Number of hours needed to complete the certification depends on the institution offering the program, but in most cases these certifications requires minimum of 200 hours lecture in class room and an average of 200 hours in laboratory practice. • Cisco Security Professional Design Certifications merely concentrates on the perimeter security of the data in the web site, largely to avoid being hacked. Different versions of Web security courses such as DVS 1.0 and DPS 1.0 are available for reference.

Cisco ccnp bcsi exam tutorial broadcasts and the ip helper address command

: While routers accept and generate broadcasts, they do not forward them. This can be quite a problem when a broadcast needs to get to a device such as a DHCP or TFTP server that's on one side of a router with other subnets on the other side. If a PC attempts to locate a DNS server with a broadcast, the broadcast will be stopped by the router and will never get to the DNS server. By configuring the ip helper-address command on the router, UDP broadcasts such as this will be translated into a unicast by the router, making the communication possible. The command should be configured on the interface that will be receiving the broadcasts. R1(config)#int e0 R1(config-if)#ip helper-address ? A. B.C. D IP destination address R1(config-if)#ip helper-address Now, you may be wondering if this command covers all UDP services. Sorry, you're not getting off that easy! The command does forward eight common UDP service broadcasts, though. TIME, port 37 TACACS, port 49 DNS, port 53 BOOTP/DHCP Server, port 67 BOOTP/DHCP Client, port 68 TFTP, port 69 NetBIOS name service, port 137 NetBIOS datagram service, port 138 That's going to cover most scenarios where the ip helper-address command will be useful, but what about those situations where the broadcast you need forwarded is not on this list?

You can use the ip forward-protocol command to add any UDP port number to the list. Additionally, to remove protocols from the default list, use the no ip forward-protocol command. In the following example, we'll add the Network Time Protocol port to the forwarding list while removing the NetBIOS ports. Remember, you can use IOS Help to get a list of commonly filtered ports! R1(config)#ip forward-protocol udp ? <0-65535> Port number biff Biff (mail notification, comsat, 512) bootpc Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) client (68) bootps Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) server (67) discard Discard (9) dnsix DNSIX security protocol auditing (195) domain Domain Name Service (DNS, 53) echo Echo (7) isakmp Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (500) mobile-ip Mobile IP registration (434) nameserver IEN116 name service (obsolete, 42) netbios-dgm NetBios datagram service (138) netbios-ns NetBios name service (137) netbios-ss NetBios session service (139) ntp Network Time Protocol (123) pim-auto-rp PIM Auto-RP (496) rip Routing Information Protocol (router, in. routed, 520) snmp Simple Network Management Protocol (161) snmptrap SNMP Traps (162) sunrpc Sun Remote Procedure Call (111) syslog System Logger (514) tacacs TAC Access Control System (49) talk Talk (517) tftp Trivial File Transfer Protocol (69) time Time (37) who Who service (rwho, 513) xdmcp X Display Manager Control Protocol (177) R1(config)#ip forward-protocol udp 123 R1(config)#no ip forward-protocol udp 137 R1(config)#no ip forward-protocol udp 138 As you can see, the ip helper-address command helps work around the fact that broadcasts aren't forwarded by routers by default, and if you just need to send one or two broadcast types, the other types can be turned off easily.

Cisco ccna certification broadcasts unicasts and multicasts

When you begin your CCNA studies, you get hit with a lot of different networking terms right away that you might not be familiar with. What makes it a little more confusing is that a lot of these terms sound a lot alike. Here, we're going to discuss the differences between broadcasts, multicasts, and unicasts at both the Data Link (Layer 2) and Network (Layer 3) layers of the OSI model. A broadcast is simply a unit of information that every other device on the segment will receive. A broadcast is indicated by having every bit of the address set to its highest possible value. Since a hexadecimal bit's highest value is "f", a hexadecimal broadcast is ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff (or FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF, as the upper case does not affect hex value). The CCNA exam will demand you be very familiar with hex conversions, so if you're not comfortable with these conversions, get comfortable with them before taking the exam!

At layer 3, a broadcast is indicated by setting every bit in the 32-bit binary string to "1", making the dotted decimal value Every host on a segment will receive such a broadcast. (Keep in mind that switches will forward a broadcast, but routers do not.) In contrast to a broadcast, a unicast is a packet or frame with only one destination. There is a middle ground between broadcasts and unicasts, and that is a multicast. Where a broadcast will be received by all, and a unicast is received by only one host, a multicast will be received by multiple hosts, all belonging to a "multicast group". As you climb the Cisco certification pyramid, you'll be introduced to creating multicast groups and controlling multicast traffic, but for your CCNA studies you need only keep certain multicast groups in mind. Class D addresses are reserved for multicasting this range is - The addresses - are reserved for use by network protocols on a local network segment, and like broadcasts, routers will not forward these multicast packets. (Packets with these addresses are sent with a Time To Live of 1.) As a CCNA candidate, you should know that OSPF routers use the address to send hellos, EIGRP routers use to send updates, and RIP version 2 uses to send routing updates. RIP version 1 and IGRP both broadcast their updates. Multicasting gets a bit more complicated as you go from your CCNA to the CCNP and CCIE, but by simply understanding what multicasting is, you go a long way toward securing the CCNA.

Cisco ccnp bsci exam tutorial bgp adjacency states

To pass the BSCI exam, earn your CCNP certification, and become an outstanding networker, you've got to master the many details of BGP - and trust me, there are a lot of details to master! Before you get into the more advanced features of BGP, you should have the fundamentals down cold, and one of those fundamentals is knowing the BGP adjacency states. This will allow you to successfully analyze and troubleshoot BGP peer relationships. In the following example, a BGP peering is being created between R1 and R3. R1(config-router)#neighbor remote-as 200 BGP speakers do not have to be in the same AS to become peers. To verify that the remote BGP speaker has become a peer, run show ip bgp neighbor. R1#show ip bgp neighbor BGP neighbor is, remote AS 200, external link BGP version 4, remote router ID BGP state = Active Last read 00:01:39, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds Received 0 messages, 0 notifications, 0 in queue Sent 0 messages, 0 notifications, 0 in queue Route refresh request: received 0, sent 0 Default minimum time between advertisement runs is 30 seconds The output here can be a little misleading the first time you read it. The first highlighted line shows is a BGP neighbor, is located in AS 200, and is an external link, indicating that the neighbor is in another AS entirely. The second highlighted line shows the BGP state as Active. This sounds great, but it actually means that a BGP peer connection does not yet exist with the prospective neighbor. Before we continue with this example, let’s look at the different BGP states: Idle is the initial state of a BGP connection. The BGP speaker is waiting for a start event, generally either the establishment of a TCP connection or the re-establishment of a previous connection. Once the connection is established, BGP moves to the next state. Connect is the next state. If the TCP connection completes, BGP will move to the OpenSent stage if the connection does not complete, BGP goes to Active. Active indicates that the BGP speaker is continuing to create a peer relationship with the remote router. If this is successful, the BGP state goes to OpenSent. You’ll occasionally see a BGP connection flap between Active and Connect. This indicates an issue with the physical cable itself, or with the configuration. OpenSent indicates that the BGP speaker has received an Open message from the peer. BGP will determine whether the peer is in the same AS (iBGP) or a different AS (eBGP) in this state. In OpenConfirm state, the BGP speaker is waiting for a keepalive message. If one is received, the state moves to Established, and the neighbor relationship is complete. It is in the Established state that update packets are actually exchanged. So even though the show ip bgp neighbor output indicated that this is an Active neighbor relationship, that’s not as good as it sounds. Of course, the reason the peer relationship hasn’t been established is that we haven’t configured R3 yet! R3(config)#router bgp 200 R3(config-router)#neighbor remote-as 100 Verify the peer establishment with show ip bgp neighbor: R3#show ip bgp neighbor BGP neighbor is, remote AS 100, external link BGP version 4, remote router ID BGP state = Established, up for 00:01:18 Last read 00:00:17, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds Neighbor capabilities: Route refresh: advertised and received(old & new) Address family IPv4 Unicast: advertised and received Received 5 messages, 0 notifications, 0 in queue Sent 5 messages, 0 notifications, 0 in queue Route refresh request: received 0, sent 0 Default minimum time between advertisement runs is 30 seconds Local host:, Local port: 179 (BGP uses TCP Port 179) Foreign host:, Foreign port: 11007 The peer relationship between R1 and R3 has been established!

Cisco certification the importance of building your own home lab

CCNAs and CCNA candidates hear it all the time: “Get some hands-on experience”. From my personal experience climbing the Cisco certification ladder, I can tell you firsthand that there is no learning like hands-on learning. No simulator in the world is going to give you the experience you will get cabling and configuring your own routers. Whenever I mention this to one of my students, they always say it costs too much. The truth is, it is cheaper now to build your own CCNA and CCNP lab than it has ever been.

The secret? Used routers. The word “used” turns off a lot of people not many of us buy used computers or used servers. Cisco routers, though, are robust I personally own a Cisco 4000 router that I use as a Frame Relay switch in my lab that I’ve had for about four years, and I’ve never had a problem with it. The good news for current CCNA and CCNP candidates interested in building their own labs is that used Cisco equipment has never been more plentiful or cheaper. eBay is a good way to get an idea of what’s out there and what the prices are, but you don’t have to assemble your lab one piece at a time. Many eBay vendors who sell used Cisco equipment sell ready-made CCNA and CCNP labs for one price, including cables. I personally recommend ciscokits. com for your lab needs, and there are many other vendors as well. And should you desire to sell your lab after you complete your certification, you can either negotiate a price with the vendor who sold it to you, or you can sell it yourself on ebay. It’s my experience that 95% of candidates who earn their CCNA go on to pursue their CCNP within one year, though, so don’t sell it too quickly. In the end, you spend only a few hundred dollars, and you gain invaluable experience and knowledge that will help you both in your certification quest and your job performance. Having been there, I can tell you that you will learn much more from actually configuring and cabling your own equipment than you ever will from any simulation of the real thing. Chris Bryant CCIE #12933

Cisco certification introduction to isdn

From the CCNA to the CCIE, ISDN is one of the most important technolgies you'll work with. It's also very common in the field ISDN is frequently used as a backup connection in case an organization's Frame Relay connections go down. Therefore, it's important to know ISDN basics not only for your particular exam, but for job success. ISDN is used between two Cisco routers that have BRI or PRI interfaces. Basically, with ISDN one of the routers places a phone call to the other router. It is vital to understand not only what causes one router to dial another, but what makes the link go down. Why? Since ISDN is basically a phone call from one router to another, you're getting billed for that phone call -- by the minute. If one of your routers dials another, and never hangs up, the connection can theoretically last for days or weeks. The network manager then receives an astronomical phone bill, which leads to bad things for everyone involved!

Cisco routers use the concept of interesting traffic to decide when one router should call another. By default, there is no interesting traffic, so if you don't define any, the routers will never call each other. Interesting traffic is defined with the dialer-list command. This command offers many options, so you can tie interesting traffic down not only to what protocols can bring the link up, but what the source, destination, or even port number must be for the line to come up. One common misconception occurs once that link is up. Interesting traffic is required to bring the link up, but by default, any traffic can then cross the ISDN link. What makes the link come down? Again, the concept of interesting traffic is used. Cisco routers have an idle-timeout setting for their dialup interfaces. If interesting traffic does not cross the link for the amount of time specified by the idle-timeout, the link comes down. To summarize: Interesting traffic brings the link up by default, any traffic can cross the link once it's up a lack of interesting traffic is what brings the link down. Just as important is knowing what keeps the link up once it is dialed. Why? Because ISDN acts as a phone call between two routers, and it’s billed that way to your client. The two routers that are connected by this phone call may be located in different area codes, so now we’re talking about a long distance phone call. If your ISDN link does not have a reason to disconnect, the connection could theoretically last for days or weeks before someone realizes what’s going on. This is particularly true when the ISDN link is used as a backup for another connection type, as is commonly the case with Frame Relay. When the Frame Relay goes down, the backup ISDN link comes up when the Frame Relay link comes back not billed for all that time. To understand why an ISDN link stays up when it’s not needed, we have to understand why it stays up period. Cisco’s ISDN interfaces use the idle-timeout to determine when an ISDN link should be torn down. By default, this value is two minutes, and it also uses the concept of interesting traffic. Once interesting traffic brings the link up, by default all traffic can cross the link. However, only interesting traffic resets the idle-timeout. If no interesting traffic crosses the link for two minutes, the idle-timer hits zero and the link comes down. If the protocol running over the ISDN link is RIP version 2 or EIGRP, the most efficient way to prevent the routing updates from keeping the line up is expressly prohibiting their multicast routing update address in the access-list that is defining interesting traffic. Do not prevent them from crossing the link entirely, or the protocol obviously won’t work correctly. With OSPF, Cisco offers the ip ospf demand-circuit interface-level command. The OSPF adjacency will form over the ISDN link, but once formed, the Hello packets will be suppressed. However, the adjacency will not be lost. A check of the adjacency table with show ip ospf adjacency will show the adjacency remains at Full, even though Hellos are no longer being sent across the link. The ISDN link can drop without the adjacency being lost. When the link is needed, the adjacency is still in place and data can be sent without waiting for OSPF to go through the usual steps of forming an adjacency. This OSPF command is vital for Cisco certification candidates at every level, but is particularly important for CCNA candidates. Learn this command now, get used to the fact that the adjacency stays up even though Hellos are suppressed, and add this valuable command to your Cisco toolkit. One myth about ISDN is that Cisco Discovery Packets keep an ISDN link up. CDP is a Cisco-proprietary protocol that runs between directly connected Cisco devices. There is a school of thought that CDP packets have to be disabled on a BRI interface in order to prevent the link from staying up or dialing when it's not really needed. I've worked with ISDN for years in the field and in the lab, and I've never seen CDP bring up an ISDN link. Try it yourself the next time you're working on a practice rack! Chris Bryant CCIE #12933

Cisco ccnp certification the bgp weight attribute

When you're studying for the CCNP certification, especially the BSCI exam, you must gain a solid understanding of BGP. BGP isn't just one of the biggest topics on the BSCI exam, it's one of the largest. BGP has a great many details that must be mastered for BSCI success, and those of you with one eye on the CCIE must learn the fundamentals of BGP now in order to build on those fundamentals at a later time. Path attributes are a unique feature of BGP. With interior gateway protocols such as OSPF and EIGRP, administrative distance is used as a tiebreaker when two routes to the same destination had different next-hop IP addresses but the same prefix length. BGP uses path attributes to make this choice. The first attribute considered by BGP is weight. Weight is a Cisco-proprietary BGP attribute, so if you're working in a multivendor environment you should work with another attribute to influence path selection. The weight attribute is significant only to the router on which it is changed. If you set a higher weight for a particular route in order to give it preference (a higher weight is preferred over a lower one), that weight is not advertised to other routers. BGP uses categories such as "transitive", "non-transitive", "mandatory", and "optional" to classify attributes. Since weight is a locally significant Cisco-proprietary attribute, it does not all into any of these categories.

The weight can be changed on a single route via a route-map, or it can be set for a different weight for all routes received from a given neighbor. To change the weight for all incoming routes, use the "weight" option with the neighbor command after forming the BGP peer relationships. R2(config)#router bgp 100 R2(config-router)#neighbor remote-as 10 R2(config-router)#neighbor weight 200 Learning all of the BGP attributes, as well as when to use them, can seem an overwhelming task when you first start studying for your BSCI and CCNP exams. Break this task down into small parts, learn one attribute at a time, and soon you'll have the BGP attributes mastered.

Cisco ccnp bcmsn exam tutorial static vlans

BCMSN exam success and earning your CCNP certification requires you to add to your knowledge of VLAN configuration. When you studied for your CCNA exam, you learned how to place ports into a VLAN and what the purpose of VLANs was, but you may not be aware that there are two types of VLAN membership. To pass the BCMSN exam, you must know the details of both types. In this tutorial, we'll take a look at the VLAN type you are most familiar with, the "static VLAN". As you know, VLANs are a great way to create smaller broadcast domains in your network. Host devices connected to a port belonging to one VLAN will receive broadcasts and multicasts only if they were originated by another host in that same VLAN. The drawback is that without the help of a Layer 3 switch or a router, inter-VLAN communication cannot occur.

The actual configuration of a static VLAN is simple enough. In this example, by placing switch ports 0/1 and 0/2 into VLAN 12, the only broadcasts and multicasts hosts connected to those ports will receive are the ones transmitted by ports in VLAN 12. SW1(config)#int fast 0/1 SW1(config-if)#switchport mode access SW1(config-if)#switchport access vlan 12 % Access VLAN does not exist. Creating vlan 12 SW1(config-if)#int fast 0/2 SW1(config-if)#switchport mode access SW1(config-if)#switchport access vlan 12 One of the many things I love about Cisco switches and routers is that if you have forgotten to do something, the Cisco device is generally going to remind you or in this case actually do it for you. I placed port 0/1 into a VLAN that did not yet exist, so the switch created it for me! There are two commands needed to place a port into a VLAN. By default, these ports are running in dynamic desirable trunking mode, meaning that the port is actively attempting to form a trunk with a remote switch in order to send traffic between the two switches. The problem is that a trunk port belongs to all VLANs by default, and we want to put this port into a single VLAN only. To do so, we run the switchport mode access command to make the port an access port, and access ports belong to one and only one VLAN. After doing that, we placed the port into VLAN 12 with the switchport access vlan 12 command. Running the switchport mode access command effectively turns trunking off on that port. The hosts are unaware of VLANs; they simply assume the VLAN membership of the port they're connected to. But that's not quite the case with dynamic VLANs, which we'll examine in the next part of this BCMSN tutorial.

Mcse ccna choosing the right computer certification for your career

When you’re choosing which computer certification to pursue next, you should also be formulating a plan for your career. Your time is precious, and you should never choose to pursue a certification because it’s “hot”. There are some hard questions you should ask yourself before deciding to pursue the CCNA, CCNP, CCVP, CCSP, CCIE, MSCE, or any of the many other vendor certifications that are out there. Why do I want this certification? This is the biggest and most important question you should answer before you spend a dime on books or classes. If your primary goal in earning a certification is the money you feel companies will throw at you after you get it, make sure to do your research first. Basing your certification pursuits on a salary survey can lead to some serious frustration on your part.

Don’t get me wrong, I like money. J But those surveys can be very misleading. There’s really no such thing as an “average” salary in IT. Job responsibilities and requirements vary greatly from company to company, to the point where a “network admin” may make $25K at one job and $75K at another. You can see where such variations in pay can lead to some misleading statistics. (And if you’re thinking of attending a tech school whose main pitch is “look at all the money this cert can get you”, ask a lot of questions about how they arrived at this amount.) A positive answer to this question works wonders. If you have a plan for your career, you’ll know how this certification can fit into your plans. If you don’t know what you’re going to do with it when you get it, or worse, don’t have a plan for your future, you may be wasting your time. Ask yourself the hard questions now – you won’t regret it. How does the vendor protect my investment of time and money? Let’s face it: earning your certification costs time and money. You’ve got to set time aside to study, you’ll need books, perhaps a class, etc. If you’re spending that money and time, it should be to make yourself more valuable in the workplace. The vendor should also have a vested interest in keeping your certification valuable. Take Cisco, for instance. I was at a bit of a career crossroads a few years ago. Should I pursue my masters degree, or pursue the CCIE? I took a strong look at both choices, and I knew that Cisco works endlessly and tirelessly to protect the value of their certifications. While other major vendors have made strides to do so, I felt Cisco did the best job of protecting the value of their certifications. That’s why I felt secure in the investment of my finances and time into a major Cisco certification, and I’ve never made a better decision. Before making a major investment into a computer certification, consider the steps that a vendor does or does not make to protect your investment. Computer certifications have helped me tremendously in building my IT career. By asking the right questions, and taking a hard look at your motives and plans before pursuing a given certification, they can do the same for you. Chris Bryant CCIE #12933

Microsoft certification farewell to the mcse

Microsoft is in the middle of a major push to overhaul its certification program. Last year, they announced the new Microsoft Certified Architect (MCA) certification, which is not a written exam but rather a practical exam that will be graded by a board of examiners. Just applying for the certification will require 10 years' experience in IT as well as three years of practical experience as a network architect. For those of us not quite ready for that, Microsoft has announced that it's also going to revise other certifications. The MCSE that we've all come to know and love is going to be a thing of the past. In its place will be a series of specialization exams and IP Professional certification tracks. If you're currently an MCSE or working it, don't worry, you have plenty of time to adapt to the new tracks.

Microsoft's official word is that the new certification structure will be implemented when the next Windows server/client version is released. For those holding MCDBAs, your current certification will remain valid and you'll have a chance to upgrade to the new certification with SQL Server 2005. Those of us who have been on the certification track for a while remember the outcry when Microsoft planned to phase out the much-maligned NT 4.0 certification in the move to Windows 2000. There was quite an outcry from many certified individuals who felt MS was being unreasonable in their timetable and planned lack of support for the 4.0 certification. Whether you agree with Microsoft's planned changes, I urge you to visit Microsoft's certification site regularly to keep up with these changes.

Whether you choose to pursue any of these new tracks is your decision, but you owe it to yourself and your career to know about the new tracks. Change is inevitable in IT and the IT certification world, and you must be aware of these changes!

Cisco ccna exam tutorial password recovery procedures

: It might happen on your CCNA exam, it might happen on your production network - but sooner or later, you're going to have to perform password recovery on a Cisco router or switch. This involves manipulating the router's configuration register, and that is enough to make some CCNA candidates and network administrators really nervous! It's true that setting the configuration register to the wrong value can damage the router, but if you do the proper research before starting the password recovery process, you'll be fine. Despite what some books say, there is no "one size fits all" approach to Cisco password recovery. What works on a 2500 router may not work on other routers and switches. There is a great master Cisco document out on the Web that you should bookmark today. Just put "cisco password recovery" in your favorite search engine and you should find it quickly.

The following procedure describes the process in recovering from a lost password on a Cisco 2500 router. As always, don't practice this at home. It is a good idea to get some practice with this technique in your CCNA / CCNP home lab, though! The password recovery method examined here is for 2500 routers. An engineer who finds themselves locked out of a router can view and change the password by changing the configuration register. The router must first be rebooted and a “break” performed within the first 60 seconds of the boot process. This break sequence can also vary depending on what program is used to access the router, but is the usual key combination. The router will now be in ROM Monitor mode. From the rom monitor prompt, change the default configuration register of 0x2102 to 0x2142 with the o/r 0x2142 command. Reload the router with the letter i. (As you can see, ROM Monitor mode is a lot different than working with the IOS!) This particular config register setting will cause the router to ignore the contents of NVRAM. Your startup configuration is still there, but it will be ignored on reload. When the router reloads, you’ll be prompted to enter Setup mode. Answer “N”, and type enable at the router> prompt. Be careful here. Type configure memory or copy start run. Do NOT type write memory or copy run start! Enter the command show running-config. You’ll see the passwords in either their encrypted or unencrypted format. Type config t, then use the appropriate command to set a new enable secret or enable password. Don’t forget to change the configuration register setting back to the original value! The command config-register 0x2102 will do the job. Save this change with write memory or copy run start, and then run reload one more time to restart the router. This process sounds hard, but it's really not. You just have to be careful, particularly when you're copying the startup config over the running config. You don't want to get that backwards! So take your time, check the online Cisco documentation before starting, get some practice with this procedure with lab equipment, and you'll be ready for success on the CCNA exam and in your production network!

Security is the number one concern for internet shoppers today

The e-commerce business is all about making money and then finding ways to make more money. Of course, it's hard to make (more) money, when consumers don't feel safe executing a transaction on your Web site. That's where SSL (Secure Socket Layer) comes into play. Understanding how SSL affects e-commerce business can also potentially help you to unlock (more) money from your customers. You need SSL if... - Your business partners log in to confidential information on an extranet. - You have offices that share confidential information over an intranet. - You process sensitive data such as address, birth date, license, or ID numbers. - you have an online store or accept online orders and credit cards - You need to comply with privacy and security requirements. - You value privacy and expect others to trust you. If you are doing online business where sensitive information such as credit cards, Personal data will be transferred, you surely need to secure your website. Gaining your customers trust is of the utmost importance. Your customers will only purchase the product if they feel safe and confidant about you. Before the introduction of SSL it was difficult to ensure privacy over the web in online transactions. There was a general distrust of the ability to conduct online transactions and a fear that an individual’s credit card information could be picked up by a third party and used for unauthorized purchases. SSL should be enacted on pages requiring a password or might contain personal data most clients would like to keep private. Some sites will place SSL on some pages and forget other pages that are equally as sensitive. For the sake of your personal experience with ecommerce, you should implement SSL protocol. Any website that conducts business over the Internet and has e-commerce transactions should use SSL (Secure Socket Layer). It is the standard way to secure transactions by encrypting data and providing authentication over the web. SSL prevents hackers from accessing personal information, impede misuse of information. A certificate authority (CA) is an authorized company or individual for that matter that has the ability to issue and verify digital certificates. There are several of websites that offer a digital certificate. One of the popular Global Certification authorities is MindGenies ( sslgenie. com).

Passing cisco ccna and ccnp exams ping and extended ping

: I often tell CCNA and CCNP candidates that you do your best learning when you screw something up. I often get a funny look right after I say that, but the only way to develop your Cisco troubleshooting skills - the skills you'll need to pass your Intro, ICND, and CCNP exams - is by actually fixing configurations. Since your employer will take a dim view of you practicing these skills on his or her network, you better do so on your home lab! Three essential tools for networking and CCNA/CCNP exam success are ping, extended ping, and traceroute. Today we're going to take a look at the ping that we're used to using for LAN issues, and the extended ping. We're all familiar with "basic" ping, where you use the ping command followed by the IP address you want to confirm IP connectivity with. When you've got connectivity, you will see five exclamation points, as seen here: R1#ping Type escape sequence to abort.

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 68/68/72 ms The default source IP address for ping is the IP address closest to the destination IP address. Other defaults - five ICMP packets will be sent (that's why you see five exclamation points), and they're sent two seconds apart. That's fine for many basic situations, but as you progress through your networking career and most advanced scenarios in your CCNA / CCNP studies, you will want to change some of these defaults. What could you do if you wanted to send 10,000 pings? What if you needed your router's loopback address to be the source IP address for the pings?

What if you wanted to send them five seconds apart, instead of two? That's where extended ping comes in. To use extended ping, just type "ping" and hit enter. (Note that you cannot use extended ping in user exec mode - you must be in enable mode to do so.) R1>ping % Incomplete command. "incomplete command" indicates that the router is waiting for an IP address; you can't use extended ping in user exec mode. R1>enable R1#ping Protocol [ip]: Target IP address: Repeat count [5]: 1000 Datagram size [100]: Timeout in seconds [2]: Extended commands [n]: y Source address or interface: loopback0 Type of service [0]: Set DF bit in IP header? [no]: Validate reply data?

[no]: Data pattern [0xABCD]: Loose, Strict, Record, Timestamp, Verbose[none]: Sweep range of sizes [n]: Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 1000, 100-byte ICMP Echos to, timeout is 2 seconds: Packet sent with a source address of ....................................... In this example, I sent 1000 ICMP packets to an address that doesn't exist, so I am getting periods instead of exclamation points. This illustration shows you the many options you have with extended ping. Now that I've sent those 1000 pings, let's say that I want to stop that process. At the beginning of the basic ping output, you see this phrase: Type escape sequence to abort.

This escape sequence works for ping, extended ping, and traceroute. Funny thing, though - Cisco doesn't tell you what the escape sequence is! One day, this will really come in handy. The escape sequence is , TWICE in rapid succession. After I used it in this example, the pings stopped and I got this message: Success rate is 0 percent (0/192) The ping stopped after 192 ICMP packets were sent. This keystroke takes a little practice, so practice it in your home lab. Knowing how to use extended ping will really come in handy on your CCNA and CCNP exams as well as your real-life networking job, and knowing how to stop an extended ping will as well!

Cisco ccnp certification bsci exam tutorial floating static routes

: Passing the BSCI exam and earning your CCNP certification demands that you add greatly to the networking skills foundation you created when you studied for your CCNA certification. You learned quite a bit about static routing and default static routing when you passed the CCNA test, and it does seem like that should be all you need to know about static routing, right? One thing you'll learn as you continue to earn Cisco certifications is that there's always something else to learn! You may have heard the term "floating static route", which does suggest some interesting mental pictures. "Floating"? Floating on what?

In a way, a floating static route is "floating" in your routing table. A floating static route is a route that will be used only if routes for the same destination but with a lower administrative distance are removed from the table. For example, you could be using an OSPF-discovered route as your primary route to a given destination, and the floating static route would serve as a backup route that would be used only if the OSPF route leaves the routing table. Now, how can that happen? After all, OSPF has an administrative distance of 110 and static routes have ADs of one or zero, depending on whether it's configured with a next-hop IP address or a local exit interface. One way or the other, 1 and 0 are still less than 110! When you want to configure a floating static route, you must assign the route an AD higher than that of the primary route. In this case, we've got to create a static route with an AD higher than 110. We do this by using the "distance" option at the end of the "ip route" command.

R1(config)#ip route ? <1-255> Distance metric for this route name Specify name of the next hop permanent permanent route tag Set tag for this route R1(config)#ip route 111 The number entered at the very end of the "ip route" command is the AD of that route. If there is an OSPF route for /24, that will be the primary route, and the floating static route will not be used unless the OSPF route is taken out of the routing table. Floating static routes aren't just a good thing to know for the BSCI exam and your CCNP certification pursuit - they're very practical in the real world as well.

What to expect when taking your first cisco certification exam

Cisco Certification: Taking Your First Certification Exam You’ve studied hard you’ve practiced your configurations you’ve used your flash cards over and over again and finally, the big day is here. Your first certification exam! For many Cisco certification candidates, their first exam is the CCNA Composite exam or one of the two exams that make up the CCNA, the Introduction To Networking exam or the ICND (Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices) exam. Walking into a testing center for the first time can be a nerve-wracking experience. You’ve got enough on your mind just keeping all that new information straight without worrying about what the testing experience will be like. You’re not there to take the exam. You’re there to pass the exam. With this aggressive attitude in mind, let’s take a look at what you should expect (and not expect) when taking your first Cisco certification exam. Be Early and Bring Your ID. If the testing center is not in a part of town that you drive to in the morning, and you’ve got a 9 AM exam, you may find the traffic is much heavier that time of morning than you expected. Driving up to the testing center 10 minutes late is not a good way to get started. If you’ve never been to the center before, check their website for directions, or call them for directions. If at all possible, drive to the center the night before your exam. Make sure to bring your wallet or purse. You cannot take the exam without proper identification. You’ll probably be asked for two forms of ID, one of which must be a picture ID. Test Your Marker & Dry Erase Board The testing center will give you a dry erase board and a marker. Make sure that the marker has a fine point when you’re answering subnetting questions or performing a hexadecimal-to-binary conversion, that will come in handy. Cisco policy states that you are no longer allowed to use paper during the exams. The Testing Room Despite the best efforts of VUE and Prometric, some testing center rooms are afterthoughts. I strongly advise that if you’re taking your exam at a technical school, ask to see the testing room BEFORE you sign up for the exam. If it looks like a converted broom closet, it probably is. Those rooms also tend to be right next to classrooms, which can result in distracting noise during your exam. If your testing center specializes in giving computer-based exams rather than classes, you’re probably in good shape. Again, feel free to drop by the testing center before your exam to take a peek at the testing room. Most testing rooms have a window that employees use to keep an eye on testers, and you should be able to take a peek through the window. When you go in, you’ll be asked to enter your social security number as your testing ID. Once you do that, the exam engine starts running. However, this doesn’t mean the test starts. The Survey When you take a Cisco exam, you’ll first be presented with a survey. The survey consists of 10 – 20 questions asking about your background, preparation methods, and comfort level with different technologies. This is a good time to catch your breath before starting the exam. The survey will only take about five minutes, and this time does not count against your exam time. Pay Attention To The Exam Tutorials You’ll then be presented with an exam tutorial, showing you how to answer the different types of questions Cisco may ask. While most of these questions types are common sense (multiple choice, single answer, fill-in-the-blank), I strongly urge you to pay special attention to the router simulator question tutorial. The simulator questions carry more weight than the other questions indeed, it’s almost impossible to pass the CCNA exams if you totally miss the simulator questions. While the interface for these exams is intuitive, sometimes students who fail their exam complain that they were not given enough information to answer the question. The real problem is that they didn’t look in the right place for that information. It’s not hidden, but spend a few minutes with the tutorial and do not go forward until you’re comfortable with the simulator interface. The Exam Itself Finally, the exam starts! Remember, you’re not being asked anything you don’t know. If you have prepared correctly with the right tools, you’ll have a passing grade on your screen before you know it. Speaking of that grade, you’ll be presented with it about five seconds after you answer the final question. Cisco exams no longer allow CCNA and CCNP candidates to go back once a question is answered, so be prepared for that. Knowing what to expect when you go into the testing room for the first time will magnify your chances of success. Work hard (and smart!) while studying, achieve a combination of theoretical knowledge and hands-on work with real Cisco routers, and you are on your way to exam success! Chris Bryant CCIE #12933

Cisco ccna certification the importance of hands on practice

CCNA and CCNP candidates hear it all the time: “you have to get some hands-on experience to pass the exams”. Candidates tend to think that’s just so they can solve the simulator problems, but that’s only the more obvious reason. First, I want to make it clear that I’m not bashing learning from books you have to learn theory before you can really know what’s going on in the first place. The key is that to truly understand routing and switching processes, you’ve got to have that hands-on experience. So if the simulator questions are the more obvious reason to get hands-on experience, what are the less obvious reasons? Glad you asked! You see what happens when things don’t go according to the script. One of the biggest problems with learning your skills on software programs such as “router simulators” is that with simulators, things go pretty much as planned.

I have news for you: that doesn’t always happen in the real world. While Cisco routers and switches are highly reliable devices, every once in a while you’re going to get an unexpected result from a command. Maybe it didn’t work after you typed it in maybe it has an effect on your prior configuration that you didn’t expect. Maybe you don’t know what happened – you just typed in that command and the router went nuts! Sooner or later, that’s going to happen to you in the real world. And as I tell my students, it’s actually a good thing to have happen to you in a lab. You don’t learn to troubleshoot or fine-tune a configuration when everything works perfectly. You don’t learn much at all when things go perfectly. And you’re practicing to learn! I often say that great chefs don’t learn to cook on cooking simulators they learn in the kitchen, and they burn a lot of meals on the way to greatness. You need to screw up some configs on the way to greatness, and you can’t do that on a computer program. You have to be on the real thing. You build confidence by working with real Cisco routers and switches. Would you want the Super Bowl to be the first football game you ever really played in? Of course not. Then why would you take router configuration exams and be nervous about having to create a VLAN, or troubleshoot an OSPF configuration? You cannot walk into the testing room a nervous wreck. You must have the attitude that you are already a CCNA or CCNP, and you’re just there to make it official. I can tell you from firsthand experience with many students that the way you develop than confidence is to work with the real deal. You can’t buy that confidence, and you can’t simulate your way to it. You’ve got to work with real Cisco routers and switches. By working with the real equipment, you develop the real skills and real confidence you need to pass the CCNA and CCNP exams.

Cisco ccna certification exam tutorial keep your most important appointment

Imagine this. You have an appointment with a client to work on a server or router install. A few minutes before you're scheduled to be there, you decide there's something really good on TV you'd like to watch. Or you decide to go to the gym, or play a game, or do anything else except go see the client. Even if you weren't going to get fired for not showing up, it's certainly unfair to the client. You've got a professional obligation, and you should be there on time. Now, what's this got to do with you becoming a CCNA or CCNP? Plenty. Because when it comes to your study time, you're the client. You owe it to yourself to show up. You would never blow off an appointment to meet a client to get some important work done.

First, though, you have to make that appointment with yourself! Schedule your CCNA / CCNP study time, and keep that appointment as you would with a client. Turn off the TV, your cell, your iPod, and everything else electronic that you carry around. Believe it or not, the world can survive with being in contact with you for an hour or so! You might even like it! Getting certified isn't about how many hours, days, or weeks you spend studying. It's about how much quality time you put in. Be honest with yourself and realize that you're better off with 45 minutes of uninterrupted study as you would be with three hours of constantly interrupted study. Don't blow off an appointment to yourself, either. Schedule the time, be there on time, get your study done, and you're one step closer to your CCNA and CCNP!

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