Bluetooth operation 427

Bluetooth Operation The networking standards of Bluetooth will transmit data via low power radio frequency. Bluetooth communicates on a 2.45 GHz frequency. This very band of frequency has been set aside by international agreement for the use of industrial and medical devices. Many devices that you already known and use take advantage of this frequency band. Garage door openers, baby monitors, and the next generation of mobile phones all use this frequency within the ISM band. Ensuring that Bluetooth and the other devices don't interfere with each other is a crucial part of the design process. One of the ways Bluetooth will avoid interfering with other electronic devices is by sending out weak signals of around 1 mw. In comparison, even the most powerful of cell phones can transmit a signal of 3 watts. The low power signals will limit the range of a Bluetooth device to around 32 feet, which cut the chances of interference between your computer and other electronic devices. Even though it has low power, Bluetooth doesn't require a line of sight between the communicating devices. The walls in your home won't stop the signal, making it great for rooms throughout the house. Bluetooth can connect 8 devices at the same time. With each of those devices on the same radius, you may think they would interfere with each other, although it's very unlikely. Bluetooth utilizes a technique known as low frequency hopping, which makes it harder for more than one device to transmit on the same frequency at the same time. With this technique, a device will use 79 individual, randomly chosen frequencies within a designated range, which change from one another on a regular basis. In the case of Bluetooth, the transmitters will change frequency 1,600 times or more every second, meaning that more devices can make full use of the radio spectrum. Since every transmitter of Bluetooth will use spread spectrum automatically, it's very unlikely that two transmitters will be on the same frequency at the exact same time. When the Bluetooth devices come within close range of each other, an electronic conversation will occur to determine whether or not they have data to share or whether one needs to take total control. The user doesn't have any buttons to press or commands to give - as the conversation will occur automatically. Once the conversation has occured, the devices will form a network. Bluetooth devices will create a PAN (Personal Area Network) or piconet that may fill a room. Once the piconet has been established, the devices will randomly hop in frequencies. (word count 427)

Choosing a bluetooth headset 407

Choosing A Bluetooth Headset Creating a good wireless headset for Bluetooth is actually difficult to do. The regular wired headsets are easy to design - with ranging styles. Bluetooth headsets can never be as small or as light as wired headsets, simply because it needs to include the battery and extra functions. This extra size will impact how the headset mounts on or around your ears. Comfort There seems to be two main styles of headsets for Bluetooth. Some are held into place with a loop around the ear. These styles are normally more comfortable, although they may be less secure. The others are held in place by being jammed into your ear - and usually prove to be less comfortable. Factors to consider Cost The cost is an obvious issue, something that you really need to think about. Ergonomics 1. Check to see if the device is easy to quickly and conveniently put on your ear then take it off again. 2. Are the control buttons on the headset easy to use? 3. The headset should be comfortable to wear for long phone calls. 4. Can you use it with a pair of glasses? 5. Check to see if you can wear it with either ear. 6. When you aren't wearing it, you'll need to se how you would carry it with you. 7. The weight is important as well, as you don't want something that has the risk of falling off. Ease of use. 1. The commands and controls should be easy to remember. 2. The volume level should be easy to adjust. 3. The unit should turn on quickly. 4. The manual should be very well written and easy for you to understand. 5. There should be a support number for you to call if you should experience any types of problems. Features 1. You'll need to know about the battery, the talk time, type, and how to tell when it is going dead or fully charged. 2. How many devices can the unit be paired with? 3. Compatability is also important, as well as the warranty period. 4. Check the sound quality for both sending and receiving audio. 5. What type of range does the headset offer you? Other important capabilities include voice tags, last number redial, tranfer calls, 3 way calling, link to other phones, call reject, and mute. You'll also want to note if it looks attractive, and if it's too big or too small. (word count 407)

Bluetooth wireless networking 282

Bluetooth Wireless Networking Bluetooth technology offers three different types of defined ranges, based on output ranges. Class 1 devices are the most powerful, as they can have up to 100 mW of power, with a regular antenna giving them a range of around 130 - 330 feet. The class 2 devices are lower power, offering up to 2.5 mW of power. A regular antenna will give them a range of around 50 - 100 feet. Class 3 devices use even less power, up to 1 mW of power to be exact. With a regular antenna, they will have a range of around 16 - 33 feet. Even though you may not realize it, Bluetooth wireless technology has never been intended for anything other than short distance types of communication. With Bluetooth wireless, the short range is actually a benefit. For one, the short range will reduce the change of interference between your devices and those that belong to others who are nearby. Overall, this is a basic type of security, designed to protect you and your devices. Secondly, the lower power used for short range means a longer battery life. Most Bluetooth devices will get their power from a battery, meaning that anything you can do to lengthen the battery life is very important. The wireless networking offered by Bluetooth is actually among the best, even though it uses short range communication. Bluetooth is used with wireless controllers, the internet, and even wireless headsets. For the best in short range technology, Bluetooth is extremely hard to beat. If you've never tried Bluetooth before, now is the time. It's the best with wireless networking, especially for those who enjoy hands free talking on their cell phone. (word count 282)

Introduction to bluetooth 408

Introduction To Bluetooth Bluetooth was designed to allow low bandwidth wireless connections to become easy to use so even those who are new to wireless can use them. Version 1.1 of Bluetooth describes a low power, short range wireless networking technology that uses radio waves to send data at rates up to 720 kilobits a second. The specification for Bluetooth provides for different classes of radio that allow transmission ranges of up to 100 meters by boosting the radio power. The technology of Bluetooth isn't limited to line of sight transmission since it uses directional waves that are capable of transmitting through many obstructions. Bluetooth is an industry standard communication of wireless, meaning that it enables the connection of other devices as well, such as cell phones, computers, digital cameras, and other types of electronic devices. The specification of Bluetooth defines a radio system and a "stack" of protocol layers and profiles. The highest layer is the application layer, while the lowest layer is the radio. The wireless technology of Bluetooth is positioned to revolutionize the personal connectivity market by providing freedom from inconvenient fixed type lines. The specification for Bluetooth eliminates the need for cables by providing a small form factor, low cost wireless solution that will link computers, cell phones, and other electronics. Bluetooth also allows users to connect many ranges of devices quickly and easily and expands communications capabilities as well. The size of the Bluetooth radio is amazing, as a Bluetooth radio can be built into one or two very small microchips then integrated into any electronic device where wireless operations would be an advantage. Bluetooth also offers a robust link, which ensures that normal operating circumstances are not interrupted by interference from other signals that are operating in the same frequency band. Also known for its worldwide operation, Bluetooth radio operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency band, which is license free and available to any type of radio system in the world. No matter where you are in the world, you count on Bluetooth to work. Security is also important. Offering advanced security mechanisms, Bluetooth ensures a high level of security. Therefore, authentification will prevent unauthorized acess to important data and make it very difficult to listen in. Bluetooth also boasts power optimization. The radio is power friendly and the software for Bluetooth is very configurable, limiting the power consumption of equipment. The radio itself only consumes a small amount of power from a cellular phone. (word count 408)

Bluetooth definition 294

Bluetooth Definition Bluetooth is a specification for the use of low power radio communications to wireless phones, computers, and other network wireless devices over short distances. The name Bluetooth is actually borrowed from Harald Bluetooth, a Denmark king more than 1,000 years ago. The technology of Bluetooth was primarily designed to support simple wireless networking of devices and peripherals, which includes cell phones, PDAs, and wireless headsets. The wireless signals that are transmitted by Bluetooth cover short distances of up to 30 feet, generally communicating less than 1 MPps (Mega Byte per second). The networks of Bluetooth feature dynamic topology called PAN or a piconet. The piconets contain a minumum of two and a maximum of eight peer devices. The devices will communicate using protocols that are part of the specification. Even though the Bluetooth standard will utilize the same 2.4 GHz range as 802.11b and 802.11g, the technology isn't suitable for a Wi-Fi replacement. When compared to Wi-Fi, Bluetooth is much slower, limited in range, and actually supports less devices. For short range devices, Bluetooth is rapidly becoming the best. The technology is more popular with cell phones, as Bluetooth headsets are the way to go these days. To use Bluetooth, your cell phone will need to have it enabled, or an infared device somewhere on the phone. Upcoming devices are utilizing Bluetooth as well, such as PS3 and the Nintendo Revolution. The wireless controllers will be Bluetooth enabled, which will give players the cutting edge. If you own a cell phone or other wireless device, you should look into Bluetooth. The technology is nothing short of spectacular, making it something that will be around for years and years to come. As technology gets bigger and bigger, you can expect Bluetooth to advance as well. (word count 294)

10 benefits of bluetooth 419

10 Benefits Of Bluetooth Below, are 10 benefits and reasons to use Bluetooth technology. 1. Wireless As you probably already know, there are many benefits and advantages to using wireless devices. Along with improving safety as a result of eliminating wires you don't need, wireless also offers you plenty of other advantages. When traveling with your laptop or other wireless devices, you'll no longer have to worry about bringing connection cables. 2. Bluetooth is actually inexpensive The technology of Bluetooth is cheap for companies to implement, which results in lower costs for the company. These savings are then passed from the company on to you. 3. Bluetooth is automatic Bluetooth doesn't have you set up a connection or push any buttons. When two or more devices enter a range of up to 30 feet of each other, they will automatically begin to communicate without you having to do anything. 4. Standardized protocol Bluetooth is standardized wireless, meaning that a high level of compatibility among devices is guaranteed. Bluetooth will connect devices to each other, even if they aren't the same model. 5. Low interference Bluetooth devices almost always avoid interference from other wireless devices. Bluetooth uses a technique known as frequency hopping, and also low power wireless signals. 6. Low energy consumption As a result of Bluetooth using low power signals, the technology requires very little energy and will use less battery or electrical power as a result. This is an excellent benefit for mobile devices, as Bluetooth won't drain the battery. 7. Sharing voice and data The standard for Bluetooth will allow compatible devices to share data and voice communications. This is great for mobile phones and headsets, as Bluetooth simplifies driving and talking on your cell phone. 8. Instant PAN (Personal Area Network) You can connect up to seven Bluetooth devices to each other within a range of up to 30 feet, forming a piconet or PAN. For a single room, you can also set up multiple piconets. 9. Upgradeable Upgradeable is the standard for Bluetooth. There are newer versions of Bluetooth in the works, which offer many new advantages and backward compatible with older versions. 10. The technology stays Bluetooth technology is a world wide, universal wireless standard. With it being as popular as it is, you can count on it being around for years to come. As more and more devices start to use Bluetooth technology, more manufacturers will be eager to make their products compatible. A chain reaction will occur, making Bluetooth the standard for cutting edge wireless. (word count 419)

Bluetooth security 411

Bluetooth Security These days, all communication technology faces the issue of privacy and identity theft, with Bluetooth being no exception. Almost everyone knows that email services and networks require security. What users of Bluetooth need to realize is that Bluetooth also requires security measures as well. The good news for Bluetooth users is that the security scares, like most scares, are normally over dramatized and blown entirely out of proportion. The truth being told, these issues are easy to manage, with various measures already in place to provide security for Bluetooth technology. It's true that there has been some Bluetooth phones that have been hacked into. Most devices that are hacked into are normally those that don't have any type of security at all. According to Bluetooth specialists, in order to hack into a Bluetooth device, the hacker must: 1. Force two paired devices to break their connection. 2. Steal the packets that are used to resend the pin. 3. Decode the pin. Of course, the hacker must also be within range of the device, and using very expensive developer type equipment. Most specialists recommend that you have a longer pin, with 8 digits being recommended. Fundamentals of security The "pairing process" is one of the most basic levels of security for Bluetooth devices. Pairing, is two or more Bluetooth devices that recognize each other by the profiles they share - in most cases they both must enter the same pin. The core specifications for Bluetooth use an encryption algorithm, which is completely and entirely secure. Once the devices pair with each other, they too become entirely secure. Until they have successfully paired, the Bluetooth devices won't communicate with each other. Due to this pairing process and the fact that it is short range - Bluetooth technology is considered to be secure. As the news has indicated, experienced hackers have developed ways to get around this level of basic security. There are ways to get around this threat, as you can install software to prevent hackers from getting in. With Bluetooth becoming more and more popular, it's really no wonder that security is always in question. As Bluetooth gets bigger and better, security will always be something that no one really takes lightly. If you've been concerned about Bluetooth security in the past, rest assured that newer devices will offer bigger and better security. Preventing hackers from getting in is something every owner is concerned about - and the manufacturer's are very aware. (word count 411)

The bluetooth solution 280

The Bluetooth Solution The technology of Bluetooth will take small area networking to the next level by removing the need for user intervention and help keep transmission power very low to preserve battery power. Each transmission signal to and from your cellular phone will use just 1 mw of power, giving you plenty of space on your battery to talk. Bluetooth is a networking standard that will work on two levels: 1. It will provide agreement at the physical level, as Bluetooth is a radio frequency standard. 2. It will provide agreement at the level of protocol, where products will have to agree on when bits are sent, how many are sent, and how the parties in conversation can be sure the message recieved is the same one that was sent. The major draws to Bluetooth is the fact that it's wireless, inexpensive, and automatic. There are other ways to get around wires, including infrared. Infrared uses light waves of a lower frequency than the human eye can, and is normally used in television remote controls. The technology of Bluetooth is intended to get around the problems that normally come with infrared systems. The 1.0 older standard of Bluetooth has a max transfer speed of 1 MB a second, while the 2.0 Bluetooth standard can manage up to 3.0 MB a second. To make things better, 2.0 is compatible with 1.0 devices. As a solution to wireless, Bluetooth will eliminate the need for messy cords, keeping everything nice and neat. It's perfect for those who like to talk on cell phones, as you no longer need to hold the phone next to your ear - which is great for those who travel a lot. (word count 280)

Bluetooth in action 435

Bluetooth In Action In the United States, Bluetooth gets absolutely no respect. It is however, becoming more and more common in notebooks, PDAs, and especially cell phones. Bluetooth will provide wireless users a way to transmit small amounts of data over short distances. Now, Bluetooth is facing stiff competition from new wireless technology. Referred to as UWB or Ultra Wideband, it promises data transfer of up to 480 MB a second - while most current Bluetooth devices transfer data up to 721 KB a second. For the time being, Bluetooth devices are surely cropping up. Below, we will look at some of the accessories offered with Bluetooth technology. Talking to the dashboard When pairing it with a cell phone, the CCM Blue Warrior car kit becomes a great speaker phone that plugs into the power adapter of your vehicle. The noise cancelling microphone will reduce background noise efficiently, with the large buttons making adjusting the speaker volume a snap. Although the Blue Warrior is far from sexy or sleek, it's very practical. Tiny tuning box Part MP3 player and part hands free phone, the compact and lightweight Sony HBM-30 is an attractive gadget that lets you accept calls with minimal interruption of your tunes. When you get an incoming call it will automatically pause your music, then you speak into the built in microphone that you can wear around your neck or clip to your clothes. The pen With Nokia's SU-1B digital pen, you can doodle and make hand written notes in ink on a special pad then transmit them from the pad to your Bluetooth phone. Being an alternative to typing on a cell phone keypad, the pen is very handy, although a pricey tool from MMS fans. Snapshots If you want to make slide shows with your camera photos, the Nokia SU-2 image viewer will let you disply your pictures on a TV or projector. Simply hook this square gray device to your TV's input with the built in cable, then beam the pictures to the SU-2 from your Bluetooth enabled phone and the photo fest will begin. This device is a snap to set up and use, although it displays resolutions of up to 640 by 480. If you have a newer phone that takes high resolution photos, you won't be able to use the Nokia SU-2 image viewer. Keep in mind, the 640 by 480 pixel photos will appear blocky on TV screens, no matter what you do. If your phone can send batches of photos, you can create a slide show - although Nokia claims you can use sequentially beamed shots as well. (word count 435)

Advantages and disadvantages 295

Advantages And Disadvantages Bluetooth has a lot to offer with an increasingly difficult market place. Bluetooth helps to bring with it the promise of freedom from the cables and simplicity in networking that has yet to be matched by LAN (Local Area Network). In the key marketplace, of wireless and handheld devices, the closest competitor to Bluetooth is infrared. Infrared holds many key features, although the line of sight it provides doesn't go through walls or through obstacles like that of the Bluetooth technology. Unlike infrared, Bluetooth isn't a line of sight and it provides ranges of up to 100 meters. Bluetooth is also low power and low processing with an overhead protocol. What this means, is that it's ideal for integration into small battery powered devices. To put it short, the applications with Bluetooth are virtually endless. Disadvantages Bluetooth has several positive features and one would be extremely hard pressed to find downsides when given the current competition. The only real downsides are the data rate and security. Infrared can have data rates of up to 4 MBps, which provides very fast rates for data transfer, while Bluetooth only offers 1 MBps. For this very reason, infrared has yet to be dispensed with completely and is considered by many to be the complimentary technology to that of Bluetooth. Infrared has inherent security due to its line of sight. The greater range and radio frequency (RF) of Bluetooth make it much more open to interception and attack. For this reason, security is a very key aspect to the Bluetooth specification. Although there are very few disadvantages, Bluetooth still remains the best for short range wireless technology. Those who have tried it love it, and they know for a fact that Bluetooth will be around for years to come. (word count 295)

The future of bluetooth 411

The Future Of Bluetooth Because it meets the basic needs of connectivity in close range, Bluetooth has a very bright future ahead of it. Bluetooth is actually the result of initiatives from nine leading communications and computer industry giants, including 3-COM, Sony, Lucent, IBM, Nokia, Microsoft, etc. Since the forming of the original group, more than 1,800 manufacturers around the world have joined the initiative. According to reports, the Bluetooth technology is expected to be built into more than 100 million devices, with over 670 million enabled Bluetooth devices. Resulting from the amazing success of WAP (Wireless Application Protocol), the adoption of smart phones and hand held devices, Bluetooth can easily have an amazing impact on your day to day life. Bluetooth is one of the key technologies that can help to make the mobile information society happen, by blurring the possibilities between home, the office, and the outside world. The seamless integration and connectivity that Bluetooth promises will make it possible to explore a wide range of interactive and highly transparent personalized services which were actually quite difficult to dream of simply because of the complexity involved with making such devices communicate with each other. Many Bluetooth pilot products have already been rolled into the market and backed by big vendors, which is a healthy sign for the overall acceptance of the technology. The support for Bluetooth isn't limited to companies that develop only Bluetooth enabled products. The applications for Bluetooth can have great impacts on other industries as well. The adoption of Bluetooth technology is expected to spread throughout the industry of computers. Unlike infrared technology, Bluetooth is used by many different wireless devices. Bluetooth offers exceptional quality for short range wireless, even going through walls and obstructions. While infrared is the biggest competitor at this time, Bluetooth far surpasses it, proving to millions that it is the wireless communication technology of the present day and age. In the beginning, Bluetooth started with version 1.0, then gradually moved from there. The current version is 2.0+EDR, with another version currently in development. The technology behind the Bluetooth specification always getting better and better, which is why it's so popular. In the future, you can expect the technology behind Bluetooth to get better. Bluetooth has proven to be the wireless standard of the future, offering you wireless connectability for hundreds of different devices. For cell phones or other forms of wireless connections, Bluetooth is the one technology that you don't want to find yourself without. (word count 411)

Key learning points of bluetooth 411

Key Learning Points Of Bluetooth Bluetooth is easily the best in wireless handheld technology. When it comes to learning, Bluetooth can get quite complicated. To help you, you'll find the key learning points of Bluetooth below: 1. Bluetooth is an energy efficient, low overhead communication protocol that's ideal for interdevice communications. 2. Unlike infrared, Bluetooth doesn't require a line of sight. 3. Depending on the implementation, Bluetooth can have a range of up to 100 meters. 4. The specification of Bluetooth consists of a Foundation Profile Document and a Foundation Core Document. 5. The protocol stack for Bluetooth consists of core protocols, cable protocols, and even adapted protocols. 6. The transmitter operates around the 2.4 GHz frequency band. 7. The data channel will change frequency, or hops, 1,600 times in a second, between the 79 allocated channels in the ISM band. 8. Bluetooth utilizes a spread spectrum frequency hopping RF characteristic to ensure that independant networking operates when the other devices are in range. 9. A piconet is formed when one or more devices open up a channel of communication. 10. A piconet can have a master and up to seven slaves. 11. Communication of the interdevice is based on the concepts of channels. 12. All Bluetooth devices are capable of transmitting voice. 13. The channel has a total capacity of 1 MB per second. 14. There are two types of channels with Bluetooth - SCO (Synchronous Connection Oriented) and ACL (Asynchronous Connectionless). 15. The SCO channels are time oriented, and are therefore primarily used for transferring time critical data such as voice. 16. ACL channels are normally used for communicating data. 17. Data contained in a packet can be up to 2,745 bits in length. 18. In a single piconet, there can be up to three SCO links containing 64,000 bits a second each. 19. To avoid collision and timing problems, SCO links are reserved slots that are set up by the master. 20. The masters can support up to three SCO links with either one, two, or three slaves. 21. The slots that aren't reserved for SCO links can be used as ACL links. 22. The LMP (Link Management Protocol) will handle link level security, error corrections, and the establishment of communications links. 23. The LMP packets will have priority over user packets that originate and form the L2CAP layer. 24. The L2CAP layer will ensure an acceptable quality of service. 25. No more than one ACL link can exist at the L2CAP layer. (word count 411)

Bluetooth and apple 400

Bluetooth And Apple The new Apple powerbook G4 are among the first computers to offer Bluetooth technology 2.0+EDR. The 2.0+EDR technology, which still backwards compatible with 1.0, is up to three times faster than previous versions, offering maximum data rate transfers of up to 3 MBps. Being the first company to certify a system with 2.0+EDR, Apple continues to make great use of the Bluetooth technology. Full support In addition to the powerbook G4 portables, there are other Bluetooth enabled computers available from Apple, including the iBook, iMac G5, eMac, and the Power Mac G5. Making life easier When you turn the Bluetooth feature on, your Mac can easily perform a file transfer or even a synchronization. From the Bluetooth selection menu, you can choose to either send a file or browse devices, quickly and easily. Or, you can click the sync button in iSync to update your cell phone or Palm OS handheld. The Mac and GSM/GPRS mobile phone with Bluetooth work to make each other more useful. By using iSync, you can keep your phone updated without having to type any info, as you can keep the information in the more manageable address book on your Mac instead. You can also use your Bluetooth enabled Mac to print documents and digital images to select a printer that also supports the technology of Bluetooth. Or, you can also use a headset to talk to your friends during an iChat session. Your Mac also has the ability to use Bluetooth technology to communicate with your Palm OS handheld. This way, you can perform a HotSync operation without using any cables. You can also send your business card or calendar events directly to someone else's handheld usingthe technology of Bluetooth. The implementation of Bluetooth by Apple is the latest in a series of moves that have caused great shift in the computer industry. Apple established USB as the standard interface with the launching of the first Mac back in 1998. Since then, Apple established the 802.11 wireless standard of networking with the launch of the iBook and AirPort in 1999. During 2003, Apple launched AirPort Extreme, which was based on the new 802.11g high speed technology of wireless. Now, Bluetooth helps to further strengthen the dominant position of the Mac in wireless communications, helping to preserve Apple's reputation for being the first to market with innovative technology that integrates right into the operating system. (word count 400)

Using bluetooth 290

Using Bluetooth The amazing technology of Bluetooth presents a great way of exchanging data between two wireless devices. Unlike telephones, there are no wires or messy leads to worry about. You can enjoy wireless communications with short distances of up to thirty feet. Bluetooth also offers interoperability, meaning that you can use your portable Bluetooth device to connect with existing Bluetooth points. This way, you won't have to carry a data lead or CDs of drivers around with you everywhere you go. You can enjoy the best of wireless without having to worry about installing your software. With today's Bluetooth, you can use your PDA and cell phone to surf the net or check emails as you travel. If you are in the business field, this can be very beneficial, especially if you like to check your email throughout the day. Bluetooth will enable you to check your email no matter where you are - which is great news for those who like to travel. Bluetooth will also enable to you to transfer files as well, such as MP3 and photo to and from your mobile device. Bluetooth dominates the world of short range wireless, enabling you to do more than you may have thought possible. One of the best things to Bluetooth and something everyone loves is the wireless headset. Bluetooth offers wire free headsets for your cell phone or computer, which is great for those who like to walk around or talk on the phone in the car, without having to worry about your hands getting in the way. To make things even better, you can use a Bluetooth GPS device for satellite navigation on your PDA, laptop, or mobile. If you travel - this can be really great to have. (word count 290)

Bluetooth specifications 281

Bluetooth Specifications Below, you'll find several specifications for the well known Bluetooth: 1. Throughout the United States and even Europe, the range of frequency is 2,400 - 2,483.5 MHZ, with 79 1-MHz RF (radio frequency) channels. The frequency range in Japan is 2,472 to 2,497 MHz with 23 1-MHz RF channels. 2. A data channel of Bluetooth randomly hops 1,600 times per second between the 79 RF channels. 3. Each Bluetooth channel is divided into time slots, with each one being 625 microseconds long. 4. A Bluetooth piconet has one master and up to seven slaves. The master will transmit in even time slots, while the slaves will transmit in odd time slots. 5. The data in a single packet can be up to 2,745 bits in length. 6. Currently, there are two types of data transfer between devices - SCO (synchronous connection oriented) and ACL (asynchronous connectionless). 7. In a Bluetooth piconet, there can be up to three SCO links containing 64,000 bits per second with each one. To help avoid collision and timing problems, the links of the SCO will use reserved slots set up by the master. 8. A master can support up to three SCO links with either one, two, or even three slaves. 9. The slots not reserved for the SCO links can be used for ACL links. 10. A single master and slave can have one ACL link. 11. ACL is either master to one slave (point to point) or it broadcasts to all of the slaves. 12. The ACL slaves will only transmit when it has been requested by the master. If the master doesn't make the request, the ACL slaves won't transmit anything at all. (word count 281)

Blueooth technical operations 415

Bluetooth Technical Operations Bluetooth is a high speed, low powered wireless link technology that's designed to connect phones or other portable equipment together with little to no work required by the user. Unlike infrared, Bluetooth doesn't require line of site positioning to work. Current prototype circuits are contained on a board that is 0.9 cm square, with a much smaller circuit board being developed. When one Bluetooth device comes in contact with another, they will automatically exchange addresses and details of capability. Then, they can establish a 1 MB link with security that they will use as required. The protocols involved with handle both data and voice, with a very flexible topography. The technology achieves its goal by embedding tiny, non expensive short range tranceivers into the devices available today. The radio operates on the 2.45 GHz frequency band, and supports up to 721 KBps, along with three voice channels. Each devices offers a unique 48 bit address from the IEEE 802 standard, with the connections being point to point or multipoint. The max range is 10 meters, although it can be extended to 100 meters by increasing the power. The devices are also protected from radio interference by changing their frequencies, also known as frequency hopping. What's important, is the fact that Bluetooth devices won't drain battery life. The specification targets power consumption of the device, limiting the drain on the battery. The radio chip will consume only 0.3mA in stand by mode, which is less than 5% of the power that standard phones use. Bluetooth will also guarantee security at the bit level. The authentification is controlled by the user via a 128 bit key. The radio signals can be coded with anything up to 128 bit. With the frequency hopping, Bluetooth is already very hard to listen into. The baseband protocol is a combination of both circuit and packet switches. Slots can be reserved for synchronous packets as well. Each packet will be transmitted in a different hop frequency. Normally, a packet covers a single slot although it can be extended to cover up to five slots. Bluetooth can also support data channels of up to three simultaneous voice channels. Therefore, it's possible to transfer the data while you talk at the same time. Each individual voice channel will support 64 KB. From a technical standpoint, Bluetooth is very different indeed. It's the best wireless method in the world, surpassing even infrared. For communication on the go, Bluetooth is indeed very hard to compete with. (word count 415)

Bluetooth versions 298

Bluetooth Versions Version 1.1 and earlier Since the technology of Bluetooth was introduced in 1998, several specification versions have been released. Versions 1.0 and 1.0B had too many issues and problems for manufacturers to develop devices for Bluetooth. The main issue was the lack of communication among the devices. The core specification version 1.1 is the first successful operating version of Bluetooth. Version 1.1 corrected a majority of the bugs and problems found in earlier versions. Version 1.2 Many of the newer Bluetooth devices, such as the newer cell phones are being sold with the newer Bluetooth version 1.2. This version offers backward compatability with Bluetooth 1.1, faster transmission speeds, received signal strength, and a host controller interface (HCI) support for 3 wire UART. Bluetooth version 2.0 It's true that there may be multiple communication technologies, although they all share one common trait - faster is better. Bluetooth specialists realized this, and therefore worked on improving the speeds of version 1.2. The newest version, version 2.0 + EDR (Enhanced Data Rate) was accounced in 2004 and became available in late 2005. Version 2.0 delivers data transfer rates of up to three times that of the original version of Bluetooth. Version 2.0 also provides enhanced connectivity. With Bluetooth 2.0 + EDR, you'll be able to run more devices at the same time - with more efficiency. Computers and even computer related devices are expected to be some of the first devices to encorporate Bluetooth 2.0 + EDR, followed of course by audio and imaging devices. Version 2.0 is backward compatible with previous versions, three times faster, and offers an enhanced data rate of 2.1 MB a second. It also offers broadcast and multicast support, along with a further enhanced bit error rate performance, making it the best Bluetooth has ever seen. (word count 298)

Bluetooth and infrared 303

Bluetooth And Infared With new electrical devices being produced every day, the problem of connecting things is becoming more and more complex in nature. The system that comprises computers and other electronics makes use of varieties of wires, cables, etc. These parts will communicate through light beams, lasers, radio signals, and infrared. The problem however, is the devices and technology is often the connection between each component. Therefore, most electronic systems aren't used to their full extent due to the problems and imperfections. To help simplify things, a solution was created - the solution of Bluetooth. Bluetooth is wireless and automatic, offering users a variety of features that have simplified the art of connection. Bluetooth has revolutionized the standard methods of connecting things to enabling almost anything to be connected to a single system. Aside from Bluetooth, there are other ways of connecting wireless devices. One example of such is the IR or infrared. Infrared allows low frequency light waves to transmit signals to another component. This technology is easy to create and the cost of putting the IR device into a system is rather low. Infrared technology is a one to one process. Due to the limitation, you may only send signals from one device to another, similar to a television set and remote control. You can only transmit signals between the two although not with a seperate system. Aside from the fact that these two natures of infrared are obstacles to acquiring results, these same qualities have worked in advantage to the connection. Infrared devices need to be lined up directly, meaning too little interference can occur between the transmitters and receivers. The technology behind Bluetooth works by transmitting signals through low frequency radio signals. The path of communication is working on 2.45 GHz, which is the same frequency band used in ISM devices. (word count 303)

Bluetooth basics 291

Bluetooth Basics The technology of Bluetooth wireless is a short range communications method intended to replace the cables that connect portable or fixed devices while maintaining the highest levels of security. The key features offered by Bluetooth include low power and low cost. The specification in Bluetooth defines a uniform structure for a wide range of devices to communicate and connect with one another. The technology behind Bluetooth has achieved global satisfaction such as enabled devices, almost everywhere in the world. Bluetooth devices will connect and communicate without wires through short range and networks known as piconets. Each device will simultaneously communicate with up to seven other devices within a single piconet, meaning that each device can also belong to several piconets simultaneously. The piconets are dynamically established as Bluetooth enabled devices enter and leave the proximity of radio. A fundamental to Bluetooth strength is the ability to handle both data and voice transmissions simultaneously. This will enable users to enjoy varieties of innovative solutions such as hands free talking, printing and fax capabilities, and other applications. Specifications Unlike other standards of wireless, the Bluetooth specification gives product developers both a link layer and application layer definitions, which will help support data and voice applications. Spectrum The Bluetooth technology operates in the industrial and scientific band at 2.4 to 2.485 GHz, using a spread spectrum, frequency hopping signal. Interference The adaptive frequency hopping of Bluetooth technology was designed to reduce interference between wireless technologies that share the 2.4 GHz spectrum. Adaptive frequency hopping (AFH) works well within the spectrum to take full advantage of the frequency available. AFH hopping allows for more efficient transmission within the spectrum, which provides users with greater performance even if they are using other technologies along with Bluetooth. (word count 291)

Bluetooth technology intro 301

Bluetooth Technology Intro The technology of Bluetooth is nothing new, but in many respects it can still seem like more of a buzz word rather than an accepted technology. You may see the ads for Bluetooth enabled devices, although you still may be wondering what it is. Capabilities The Bluetooth definition is a wireless technology that is a worldwide specification for a small form factor, low cost solution that will provide link between mobile devices and other electronic devices. Similiar to 802.11 b/g wireless and many cordless telephone systems, Bluetooth operates on 2.4 GHz radio signals. The 2.4 GHz band seems to be a bit crowded, with interferences between the devices a bit hard to avoid. Telephones are now being offered at the 5.8 GHz frequency band, which will help to remedy this. The technical specifications of Bluetooth will indicate a maximum transfer rate of 723 kbps with a range of 65 - 328 feet, all depending on the class of that particular device. The speed is a fraction of what is offered by wireless standards, so it's obvious that Bluetooth doesn't really pose a threat to replacing your wireless network. Applications There are numerous products that will take advantage of Bluetooth capabilities, such as laptops, PDAs, headphones, and even wireless printer adapters. A lot of laptops out there will include an onboard Bluetooth adapter which allows the system to connect to any Bluetooth device right out of the box. For computers that don't have an adaptor built right in, there are several USB adaptors available for Bluetooth. For an awesome technology, Bluetooth is actually hard to compete with. For short range wireless, Bluetooth is easily one of the best. The standard for Bluetooth keeps getting better and better, making it a wireless technology that will be around for years and years to come. (word count 301)

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